Week 8 Notes
Week 8 Notes LARCH 1160
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyler Walker on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LARCH 1160 at Clemson University taught by Dr.Hala Nassar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see History of Landscape Architcture in Landscape Architecture at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
History of Landscape Architecture The Middle Ages in Europe Environment - The Alps and Pyrenees divided Europe into 2 climatic regions: Mediterranean and Atlantic - Mediterranean region was suitable for growth of civilizations - Atlantic one was a colder and harsher climate - Densest population in the north were in the plains of Belgium Social History - Christianity was established in AD 323 as state religion of Roman Empire - Internal disputes in the Roman Empire caused a break in two churches o East- Greek Orthodox Church o West- Roman Catholic Church - Expelling of the Romans - Shaping of Medieval Europe - Chaos in Europe due to the disintegration of the Roman Empire 1) No economy 2) Ineffective smaller government 3) Inadequate transportation and communication 4) Rivalry and wars 5) Constant attacks by raiders such as Vikings - Consequently, other institutions developed to fill the power vacuum 1) Manorialism- organization of peasants 2) Feudalism- organization of aristocracy 3) Monasticism- organization of churchman - These are decentralized organizations that rose to power after the break down of the Roman Empire to provide people with security Manorialism - A system by which the peasants of medieval Europe were rendered dependent on their land and on their land lord - Its basic unit was a Manor- a self sufficient landed estate Feudalism - A political, economic, and social system - Tenors helped feudal lords in return for protection, homage, and allegiance - Tenants payed back in military service Monasticism - Christianity introduced the idea of kindness and love for humanity - It captured peoples minds at the time when the decline of the Roman Empire meant chaos, disorder, and wars - Individuals fled from society to contemplate in remote and secluded landscapes - Single hermits then united to form groups - These groups evolved into the new institution of monasticism - Monasticism grew powerful enough to rival the Papacy in Rome Monasteries - Characteristics: o Provide structure and protection against attacks o Places for religious life and worship o Isolated and secluded o Precise timetable of activities o Self sufficient, self contained, self dependent o Relied on traditional agriculture o Depositories for classic literature where individuals labored to conserve and produce manuscripts for earlier classic sources Monastic Gardens - Cloister garden- an arcaded enclosed garden space for meditation and exercise. Its design is influenced by the Moorish gardens of Spain (Islamic Gardens) - Physic Garden- used for the cultivation of medicinal plants and herbs Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic - Church of St. Theodore at Mistra, Greece o Byzantine Architecture, c. AD 1200 - Dromo of Siena, Italy o Roman Architecture, c. AD 1229 Greek Orthodox - Byzantine Architecture - Characterized by having relatively flat mushroom domes and emphasis on horizontality - Remained traditional and did not evolve rapidly Roman Catholic Church - Roman Architecture - Characterized by having a combination of basilica, campanili, and pointed gothic archs - Developed rapidly: continuous evolution from one style to another
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