Introductory Principles of Nutrition
Introductory Principles of Nutrition NUTR 251
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reggie Rice on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 251 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Shawnee Marie Kelly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/232981/nutr-251-pennsylvania-state-university in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Pennsylvania State University.
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Nutrition 251 Hybrid 7 Study questions for the cumulative part of the nal exam SPRING 20 l 1 Final Exam 7 Wednesday May 43911 800am950am lll Wartik Bring No 2 Pencil Calculator and student ID The nal exam will include 25 multiple choice or truefalse questions based on the list of study questions and concepts below The nal exam will also have 50 questions on lessons 10 11 and 12 for atotal of 75 questions From Exam 1 1 De ne and distinguish between the RDA AI and UL o RDA the average amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people a goal for dietary intake by individuals The RDA is generous to assure that the needs of 98 percent of healthy individuals will be met 0 Al The average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a speci ed criterion a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined 0 UL Review the Nutrition Facts label What are the DV s and how are they calculated Which nutrient DV s are based on RDA s or Al s What is the DV for total fat for a person eating 2000 kcalday ie 100 DV 7 g fat 0 DV s are based on a 2000 kcalorie diet Percent DV is the percentage found in one serving DVs are based on the RDAs or Als or the Dietary Guidelines For example the DV for saturated fat is based on the Dietary Guideline eat less than 10 of kcals as saturated fat Wnile calcium is based on the highest Al for the population See the back of our text book for exact levels for each nutrient with a Dail Value Some DV39s are listed on the la N V What types of molecules get absorbed into the portal blood vessels and which types are absorbed into lymph vessels De ne a micelle de ne a chylomicron 0 Water soluble molecules are absorbed into the portal blood vessels 0 Fat soluble molecule are absorbed into lymph vessels 0 Micelle In the lumen of the small intestine bile emulsi es big clumps of fat producing very small particles called micelles The products of digestion fatty acids and monoglycerides leave micelles to be absorbed into intestinal cells were they once again reform into triglycerides and phospholipids o o Chylomicron Special particles that fat are absorbed into the lymph system Function to deliver dietary lipids to body cells 5 What is bile where is it made and what does it do What is the role of the gall bladder o Bile Made in the liver Stored in the gall bladder Emulsi es fats Describe the causes and treatment of heartburn O V o Heartburn occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter stays open or leaks Since the esophagus is not protected in the same way as the stomach the hydrochloric acid HCl inside the stomach backwashes into and irritates the esophagus The acid damages the esophagus lining and causes a burning feeling that gets mistaken for heart pain thus acid re ux is often referred to as heartburn 7 Describe molecules and foods which are classified as monosaccharides and disaccharides ie simple sugars and polysaccharides complex carbohydrates or starches o Monosaccharides 1 sugar 0 Disaccharides 2 sugars Glucose gucose maltose Glucose fructose sucrose table sugear Glucose galactose lactose milk 0 Polysaccharides 3 or more sugars 8 Compare and contrast insoluble and soluble dietary fiber in terms of composition and function Oatmeal and legumes are rich in soluble fiber What is the bene t in terms of heart disease 0 Insoluble ber is more abundant in a typical US diet than soluble fiber Insoluble fiber is comprised of cellulose hemicellulose and lignin Wheat bran found in whole wheat foods is an example of a source of insoluble fiber Chemically lignin is not a polysaccharide but shares characteristics of insoluble fibers and is indigestible o Soluble ber can be suspended in solution It absorbs water and cholesterol delays glucose absorption and slows GI transit It is found in fruit oats barley soy and legumes Pectin ie fruit pectin used to thicken jam and jelly gums and mucilage are examples 0 Heart disease amp fiber A diet high in soluble fiber has been shown in many studies to reduce the risk of heart disease because soluble fiber hangs onto cholesterol dragging it out ofthe body via fecal elimination Additionally the fermentation products in the colon which are absorbed and travel to the liver are capable of suppressing cholesterol synthesis Overall then these two actions can potentially lower blood cholesterol 9 The hormone that lowers blood glucose after a meal is insulin The hormone glucagon causes the liver to break down glycogen to raise blood glucose when you are hungry or fasting 10 Explain the similarities and differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes cause and symptoms List risk factors for type 2 diabetes 0 Type 1 Insulin dependent Auto immune Symptoms Weight loss drinking lots of water peeing frequently 0 Type 2 Insulin resistant Caused by obesity amp genetics Symptoms fatigue excessive thirst hunger dry mouth frequent urination o o o o o o c From Exam 2 11 Compare and contrast a typical vegetable oil stick margarine and butter in terms of fatty acid composition Make sure you understand the structural differences between saturated monounsaturated polyunsaturated and trans vs cis fatty acids Which product contains cholesterol Saturated fat fatty acids with only single bonds Monounsaturated fat Fatty acids with 1 double bond Polyunsaturated fat Fatty acids with two or more double bonds Trans fat Hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides Results from hydrogenation Risk factor for heart disease Trans fatty acids can also be created when fats are heated to high temperatures as in deep fat frying Cis Fat cis hydrogen atoms are on the same side 12 Discuss the function of blood LDL s and HDL s in terms of cholesterol handling What dietary modifications can be made in an attempt to lower LDL s When HDL is high it reduces or elevates risk for heart disease LDL The fragments that remain after the removal of some of the lipid material from VLDL39s are call lowdensity lipoproteins HDL least amount of fat and highest proportion of protein good To lower LDL Decrease dietary consumption of cholesterol Increase dietary fiber Maintain healthy weight High HLD reduces risk for heart disease 0 13 What are EPA and DHA fatty acids Understand their function food source and role in heart disease prevention EPA made from linolenic acid Can be made in body cells from linolenic acid but are also found preformed in fish shellfish sea algae and human breast milk Some experts hypothesize that eating preformed DHA and EPA improves eicosanoid status even though we can make them DHA made from linolenic acid Can be made in body cells from linolenic acid but are also found preformed in fish shellfish sea algae and human breast milk Some experts hypothesize that eating preformed DHA and EPA improves eicosanoid status even though we can make them 14 List the 7 dietary strategies in Lesson 4 to reduce cardiovascular disease risk reduce consumption of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol Polyunsaturated fatty acids Omega3 fatty acids linolenic EPA and DHA Monounsaturated fatty acids High complex carbohydrate and fiber intake especially soluble fiber 15 What is meant that an amino acid is a precursor molecule Tryptophan and phenylalanine are precursors to what molecules Can amino acids be converted to fatty acids Tryptophan 9 niacin B vitamin o Tryptophan 9serotonin neurotransmitter o Phenylalanine 9 tyrosine nonessential amino acid 0 16 Identify two foods of high protein quality and two of lower protein quality and indicate why they are put into these categories 0 High quality Eggs amp chicken 0 Low quality Wheat amp corn These proteins are of high digestibility 0 They contain levels of essential amino acids in the proportions which can support optimal protein synthesis in humans 17 Bob eats 80 grams of protein per day Bob is atypical college student who weighs 175 pounds 80 kg and has a BMI of 24 Compare his intake to his RDA Describe brie y what happens to the protein he eats o RDA protein 08 gkg per day 0 All extra amino acids are deaminated after achieving nitrogen balance thus amino acids are not excreted intact 18 List the three processes of energy metabolism and indicate as to which are aerobic and which anaerobic 0 Process 1 Conversion to acetyl CoA Glucose must be first converted to pyruvate and then converted to acetyl CoA Some amino acids glucogenic amino acids need to be converted to pyruvate before being converted to acetyl CoA Glycerol needs to be converted to pyruvate and then to acetyl CoA Fatty acids and some amino acids ketogenic amino acids can be converted directly to acetyl CoA 0 anaerobic 0 Process 2 Acetyl CoA s enter the TCA cycle The TCA cycle combines the two carbon acetyl CoA with a four carbon molecule known as oxaloacetate OAA As the cycle proceeds two CH bonds will be broken The carbons are combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide but the hydrogen and its electrons are energized and carried to the next process by coenzymes These coenzymes often referred to as electron carriers are called NAD and FAD anaerobic 0 Process 3 Energized H carried by NAD and FAD enters the electron transport chain ATP production by an intricate series of enzymes in the membrane folds of mitochondria Energy is released from H carried by NAD and FAD and captured in ATP The primary sources of these energized H are from the TCA cycle but small amounts are also formed from the initial breakdown of glucose and triglycerides The last step of this process is that the energized H attains a normal energy level and combines with O2 to form H20 aerobic require oxygen 19 Why can t fatty acids produce glucose when blood glucose gets very low 0 The ketogenic amino acids and fatty acids would be converted directly to acetyl CoA o o o o From Exam 3 20 List the physiological fuel values for carbohydrate protein fat and alcohol Be able to use these values to calculate the total calories of a food given its composition 0 Carbohydrates 4 kcal g 0 Fat 9 kcal g 0 Protein 4 kcal g 0 Alcohol 7 kcalg 21 What are the two other criteria listed in Lesson 7A besides BMI which are used to determine healthy body status List the BMI cutoffs for healthy weight and overweight as established by the CDC 0 Underweight body weight below some standard of acceptable weight that is usually de ned in relation to height BMI below 185 Overweight BMI 35299 Obese BMI of 30 or higher Can also use Waist circumference total body water radioactive potassium count nearinfrared spectrophotometry ultrasound computed tomography and MRI 22 List the components of behavior modi cation strategies that can be used to assist in sustained behavior change in order to lose weight or maintain a healthy body weight Chapt 9 0 Support from family and friends 0 Identify triggers to over eating 0 Keep a food record 0 Reduce stimuli 23 How many kcalories do you have to remove from you daily diet andor expend by physical activity to lose about 1 pound per week 0 500 kcalories per day 9 3500 kcalories per week 9 lose 1 lbs fbody fat 24 What is a coenzyme Which of the following vitamins act physiologically as a coenzyme or part of a coenzyme thiamin biotin vitamin B6 pantothenic acid folate 0 coenzyme is either a vitamin biotin pantothenic acid and vitamin Bnare examples or a provitamin plus an added molecular structure examples are in the table above Coenzymes assist in the catalytic actions of enzymes Some enzymes need coenzymes whereas many do not 0 Thiamin is part of a coenzyme 86 pantothenic acid is part of coenzyme A folate activates coenzymes but is not one 25 Describe in a brief sentence the role of niacin NADH and ribo avin FADHz in ATP production 0 Niacin NAD amp NADP 9 NAD picks up a H ion in glycolysis and several places in the TCA cycle and carries it to the electron transport chain where each NADH produces 3 ATP 0 Ribo avin FAD amp FMN 9 FAD picks up 2 H ion and their electrons in the TCA cycle and delivers them to the ETC to form 2 ATP 26 Compare and contrast pernicious anemia from megaloblastic anemia What foods are rich sources of the two essential nutrients involved in these anemias Elders are at risk for anemia Why 0 Megaloblastic anemia 9 folate de ciency 9 decrease in cell division 0 Pemicious anemia 9 B12 de ciency 9 folate deficiency amp decrease in myelin sheath 9 nerve problems neurological damage 0 Foods rich in folate 9 green leafy plants and legumes forti ed grains amp oranges 0 Vitamin B12 is naturally found in animal foods such as meat fish eggs milk but is now found in forti ed breakfast cereals and soy products 0 Elders at are risk for pernicious anemia because atrophic gastritis is a common condition in adults over 50 and results in impaired functioning of the tissue lining the stomach HCl and IF see diagram above tend to be reduced in older populations resulting in poor vitamin B12 absorption Compare plant and animal sources of vitamin A i 0 Beta carotene has two roles I is as a precursor to retinal and 2 is as 28 Vitamin D is described as both a vitamin and a hormone Why Why is vitamin D referred to as the sunshine vitamin To fulfill your RDA for vitamin D how much exposure to the sun is needed by Caucasians 0 We can synthesize vitamin D in our liver from cholesterol 0 vitamin D is made in the body after the skin is exposed to UV rays 0 Because vitamin D is produced in one part of the body and acts on other organs vitamin D is considered to be a hormone 0 510 mins day 7 3x per week on hand face amp arms sunlight 29 Describe the role of Vitamin E as an antioxidant List all the other antioxidants in your diet that are mentioned in Lesson 9 including the phytochemicals 0 Vitamin E defends the body s lipid by efficiently stopping the free radical chain reaction 0 Vitamin C and beta carotene are also antioxidants 0 Vitamin E has been shown to reduce oxidation of LDLcholesterol known to damage arteries and contribute to development of atherosclerosis