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Domestic over International

by: Johnson Womack

Domestic over International HIST 222

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > History > HIST 222 > Domestic over International
Johnson Womack
GPA 3.08

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About this Document

These notes cover events from WWII, FDR's presidency and the soldiers that served.
History of the United States, 1877 to Present
Dr. Julie Reed
Class Notes
WWII, world war II, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Navajo, Codes, Domestic over International
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnson Womack on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 222 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Julie Reed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see History of the United States, 1877 to Present in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 03/26/16
Domestic Over International: The Great Depression to WWII Indian New Deal FDR ended the Federal Indian Policy of allotment. The Dawes act had ended. 1. John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1933­1945. a. This helped build relief programs and create jobs. b. Many Indians were also hired under the Civilian Conservation Corps. c. Many of these people from tribes earned money for the first time ever. d. Lakota activist Vine Deloria Jr. on the CCC: “The greatest protest ever to  come along.” 2. Education reforms a. Boarding schools had high enrollment during the Great Depression  because families wanted the best life for their kids. Some were built on  reservations or off reservations. b. 100­day schools were built in Indian communities. i. Between 1933­1941, Almost 100 schools were built in Indian  communities. c. Greater emphasis on community for Native American students and better  teachers were hired. 3. Johnson O’Malley Act (1934) a. The Secretary of the Interior was authorized to negotiate contracts with  any state for financial relief in areas of Indian education, medical aid,  agricultural assistance and welfare. b. This benefited both Indians and Non­Indians who provided reservation  communities. 4. Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) (1934) a. This was built to help protect Indians and their religious beliefs and  lifestyle and openly admitted that the Dawes act had been a mistake. b. There is a mixed legacy with the IRA. 170 tribes accepted the act. 135 of  the communities had tribal constitutions. c. Blackfeet of Montana voted for the IRA seeing it as one of the best  options in order to make the necessary changes for the community. d. 78 Tribes that were offered the IRA rejected it.  i. Seneca Alice Lee Jemison was a critic of the Indian New Deal. ii. Founded the American Indian Federation, a group that campaigned against Collier’s program. iii. The Seneca tribe saw it as a threat to their treaty rights and the  government that they established in 1848. e. Tribes were able to create their own constitutions and forms of  government that were independent, but many tribes had forms of  government that almost reflected Americas. They were different than how  to govern within the community. Tennessee Valley Authority 1. TVA launched in 1933. 2. Seven States: Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, Georgia, North  Carolina Virginia 3. Dams to help flood control, Created hydroelectric power, fertilizer, agriculture,  forestry, and conservation. 4. Private utility companies denounced the TVA as socialistic, but Southerners  supported because of its benefits. 5. It provided electricity to homes for the first time. nd  FDR’s 2    Term 1. Roosevelt was becoming popular because of his efforts to relieve people from the  Great Depression. 2. Election of 1936 in where he won against Republican Alf Landon. He polled 61% of the popular votes and the electoral vote of 523 to 8, the largest amount in  history. a. He appointed 5 times as many Catholics and Jews. 3. African­Americans voted Democratic more this year than any other year for the  first time. This new political coalition would allow this party to rule for 3 decades 4. Recession—1937 a. Added more critique to Roosevelt. 5. Overwhelming support 6. Political Realignments—midterm elections­1938 a. He did have popularity but none of his candidates could be promoted.  b. He lost further political leverage when the republicans gained 75 seats in  the house, 7 in the Senate and 13 governorships. 7. Despite General public support, he still faced challenges due to other opponents  and the nations wealth. Foreign Policy 1. There was a lot of thought of how the US acted during World War I and public  opinion shifted on if it was really necessary for the US to participate in that. 2. Isolationism: a policy of refraining from the affairs or interests of other groups. 3. The Nye Committee: Set up to evaluate the policies and programs during that war  and exposed some of the private interests and wealth.  4. As the depression worsened in 1933, businesses searched for new markets in the  new world and key business leaders would expand trade to the Soviet Union. 5. Moscow was eager to open relations with the US. a. This was criticized because of how odd it was but also because such a  thing never materialized from it. b. FDR believed that these ties served as a warning to Japan and its  expansionism. 6. USSR 7. Latin America had a strained relationship with America after the Great  Depression. This propelled dictators into power. 8. Fulgencio Batista, Cuban a. Overthrown by Fidel Castro in 1959. b. FDR travelled to the Caribbean to show that he cared.  Rise of Fascism 1. Germany a. Hitler came into party in 1934 and promised to bring Germany back to  power after the Versailles treaty. b. National Socialist workers party. Hitler established a one party  dictatorship, closely aligned with corporate interests, committed to “a  biological world evolution” and determined to establish a new era of the  Third Reich. c. Roosevelt, who usually stayed away from interfering with European  foreign policies, started to educate the American population who were still feeling bad for their participation in WWI. 2. Italy a. Benito Mussolini assumed power in 1922 and also helped Hitler by  attacking Ethiopia in 1935. b. 1921­Fascist Party 3. Spain a. Francisco Franco, in 1936, led an uprising in Spain and with Italy and  German’s assistance, ousted the Spanish republic and loyalist supporters  in 1939 to create an authoritarian government. 4. Neutrality a. Different acts established with the Neutrality Act by America in 1935,  1936, 1937. b. 1935: Americans couldn’t travel to war zones, banned loans to belligerent  nations and instituted an embargo on armaments to belligerents c. 1936: Congress extended the legislation d. 1937: made neutrality permanent with the addition of a cash and carry  provision, which meant they had to pay in advance for a shipment. e. Hitler was not scared of America. He saw them as “a racially mixed nation of intellectual inferiors.” War in Europe ­ 1935: Nuremberg Laws denied civil rights to Jews. ­ Kristallnacht, Nazi thugs beat up and murdered Jews and burned synagogues. ­ Hitler continued to make his campaign into making those come into concentration camps. o These people were Jews, Slavs, handicapped and homosexuals. Tensions with Japan ­ “Two ocean navy” ­ Japan was angry at the US for trying to gain control of Southeast Asia o There were also policies in the US that prohibited and limited Japanese  immigrants. o The US saw Japan as a threat to their own interests. And they also needed  Japan as a trading partner in the 1930’s o September 1931: Japan seized Manchuria.  o 1937: Chinese forces attacked forces in Beijing and war between China  and Japan began. o In a 1937 Gallup poll, 70% of the US population thought it was a mistake  to go to war in WWI. There were still those hoping not to go to war. ­ Attack on Pearl Harbor o There were still questions if the US should go to war. o Japan believed that they were being treated unfairly after WWI despite  their participation against Germany. o This was believed to be the main event that brought the US into WWII,  but there was still some push to go to war from others and stuff behind the  scenes that was just in case.  Roots of War ­ WWI ­ Economics of the global community. The Great Depression was a global event. ­ Nationalism was based often on shrinking democracy ideas, racial prejudices that  would be use as scapegoat techniques. Maintaining Neutrality, preparing for War ­ Military Readiness o National Defense Advisory Commission: May of 1940 was for strategic  planning for the war. o Council of National Defense  Strategic planning for the war  Army was extended by 2 million men, 19 thousand planes and  added 150 ships to the navy.  16.5 million men were required to register for military service on  th October 16 , 1940. ­ Election of 1940 o Wendell Wilkey was FDR’s opponent o Was FDR’s third term because of arrogance or because of continuity in  times of peril? o He earned 55% of the vote. o He supported Britain and put much pressure on Japan. o 1941: Lend­lease program let Britain borrow war materials for the  duration of the war. ­ Twin­engine bomber became more prevalent in WWII ­ Atlantic Charter New Deal Era political Reorganization Civil Rights Soldiers Rights Relationships with the government were changing and others saw the benefit for Federal  Government programs. Soldiers Vote Bill 1942: This advocated the rights of soldiers as absentee voters while  they were deployed. Sponsored by a Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver. However, some  people opposed to this because of ways for African Americans who were in war to vote  and not be affected by the Jim Crow laws. Guyer Pepper Bill was the first bill to launch widespread debate. This had the national  abolition to get rid of the poll taxes. Wilmur Colmer “The direct object of this movement  is to disenfranchise the Negro of the south.”  The poll taxes don’t discriminate against poor people of race. Science Office of Scientific Research and Development ­ Vannevar Bush Radar The Manhattan Project ­ J. Robert Oppenheimer ­ Los Alamos ­ Richland, Washington ­ Oak ridge, Tennessee Many of the scientists who are working on this are coming out of colleges and  universities. Oak Ridge Entry Point Hydro­electric Power Uranium 235 was separated from 238. These sites were chosen for the proximity for  hydroelectric power. 60,000 workers employed. Oakridge went from barely having anyone to a living place. The population went from 1942 to 1945 from 3,000 to 75,000 Billboard at Oakridge in 1943: What you See Here, What you do here, what you hear  here, when you leave here, let it stay here. WWII required a 30­fold expansion of the US armed forces. 1939: 334,000 soldiers in the Marines 1945: 8.3 men and women million army and army air force ­ 3.4 Million Navy and Marine Corp ­ These only rivaled the Soviet Unions soldiers. ­ Served an average of 33 months, some 300,050 women and more than 16 million  men served in the Armed forces. ­ 292,000 died in battle ­ 100,000 survived Prisoner of War camps ­ 671,000 returned wounded. ­ There were a range of jobs from repairing planes to counting coffins American Indians ­ 25,000 served in the military o Served in segregated parts ­ Clarence Tinker (Osage) Tinker AFB Oklahoma: highest ranking Indian as major  General and killed in 1942 battle of midway in the Pacific. ­ Ira Hayes (Pima): Was a participant of the Iwo Jima Flag raising and was part of  the wartime fundraising effort. ­ Navajo Code Talkers o 400 code talkers used in the Pacific to transmit messages. African Americans ­ 1,000,000 ­ Segregated Units ­ Denied access to combat ­ Segregated facilities on bases o Columbus, GA ­ Racially based riots were the ones that opened up facilities. ­ Women whose husbands went off to war were given jobs and also extra financial  help. Education & the Military 1. IE Division—1944  2. Literacy 3. Army’s Induction Center 4. Post Hostility Schools 5. GI Bill 6. How do soldiers experience Maladjustment? 7. Psychologists are saying that those veterans who have better education are less at  risk for maladjustment. 8. Many soldiers wanted to earn a college level education. Many more wanted to  receive vocational courses. 9. Psychologists said that soldiers would go through three phases to readjustment:  Celebration, let down and restoration. There was much more concern for the  Prisoners of War. 10. 5.4 million made use of the $25,000 unemployment benefits. 11. Homosexuality was excluded in the military. 12. This had an effect on veterans who saw education as a right to all citizens.


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