Domestic over International
Domestic over International HIST 222
Popular in History of the United States, 1877 to Present
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Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnson Womack on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 222 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Julie Reed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see History of the United States, 1877 to Present in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
Domestic Over International: The Great Depression to WWII Indian New Deal FDR ended the Federal Indian Policy of allotment. The Dawes act had ended. 1. John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 19331945. a. This helped build relief programs and create jobs. b. Many Indians were also hired under the Civilian Conservation Corps. c. Many of these people from tribes earned money for the first time ever. d. Lakota activist Vine Deloria Jr. on the CCC: “The greatest protest ever to come along.” 2. Education reforms a. Boarding schools had high enrollment during the Great Depression because families wanted the best life for their kids. Some were built on reservations or off reservations. b. 100day schools were built in Indian communities. i. Between 19331941, Almost 100 schools were built in Indian communities. c. Greater emphasis on community for Native American students and better teachers were hired. 3. Johnson O’Malley Act (1934) a. The Secretary of the Interior was authorized to negotiate contracts with any state for financial relief in areas of Indian education, medical aid, agricultural assistance and welfare. b. This benefited both Indians and NonIndians who provided reservation communities. 4. Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) (1934) a. This was built to help protect Indians and their religious beliefs and lifestyle and openly admitted that the Dawes act had been a mistake. b. There is a mixed legacy with the IRA. 170 tribes accepted the act. 135 of the communities had tribal constitutions. c. Blackfeet of Montana voted for the IRA seeing it as one of the best options in order to make the necessary changes for the community. d. 78 Tribes that were offered the IRA rejected it. i. Seneca Alice Lee Jemison was a critic of the Indian New Deal. ii. Founded the American Indian Federation, a group that campaigned against Collier’s program. iii. The Seneca tribe saw it as a threat to their treaty rights and the government that they established in 1848. e. Tribes were able to create their own constitutions and forms of government that were independent, but many tribes had forms of government that almost reflected Americas. They were different than how to govern within the community. Tennessee Valley Authority 1. TVA launched in 1933. 2. Seven States: Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, Georgia, North Carolina Virginia 3. Dams to help flood control, Created hydroelectric power, fertilizer, agriculture, forestry, and conservation. 4. Private utility companies denounced the TVA as socialistic, but Southerners supported because of its benefits. 5. It provided electricity to homes for the first time. nd FDR’s 2 Term 1. Roosevelt was becoming popular because of his efforts to relieve people from the Great Depression. 2. Election of 1936 in where he won against Republican Alf Landon. He polled 61% of the popular votes and the electoral vote of 523 to 8, the largest amount in history. a. He appointed 5 times as many Catholics and Jews. 3. AfricanAmericans voted Democratic more this year than any other year for the first time. This new political coalition would allow this party to rule for 3 decades 4. Recession—1937 a. Added more critique to Roosevelt. 5. Overwhelming support 6. Political Realignments—midterm elections1938 a. He did have popularity but none of his candidates could be promoted. b. He lost further political leverage when the republicans gained 75 seats in the house, 7 in the Senate and 13 governorships. 7. Despite General public support, he still faced challenges due to other opponents and the nations wealth. Foreign Policy 1. There was a lot of thought of how the US acted during World War I and public opinion shifted on if it was really necessary for the US to participate in that. 2. Isolationism: a policy of refraining from the affairs or interests of other groups. 3. The Nye Committee: Set up to evaluate the policies and programs during that war and exposed some of the private interests and wealth. 4. As the depression worsened in 1933, businesses searched for new markets in the new world and key business leaders would expand trade to the Soviet Union. 5. Moscow was eager to open relations with the US. a. This was criticized because of how odd it was but also because such a thing never materialized from it. b. FDR believed that these ties served as a warning to Japan and its expansionism. 6. USSR 7. Latin America had a strained relationship with America after the Great Depression. This propelled dictators into power. 8. Fulgencio Batista, Cuban a. Overthrown by Fidel Castro in 1959. b. FDR travelled to the Caribbean to show that he cared. Rise of Fascism 1. Germany a. Hitler came into party in 1934 and promised to bring Germany back to power after the Versailles treaty. b. National Socialist workers party. Hitler established a one party dictatorship, closely aligned with corporate interests, committed to “a biological world evolution” and determined to establish a new era of the Third Reich. c. Roosevelt, who usually stayed away from interfering with European foreign policies, started to educate the American population who were still feeling bad for their participation in WWI. 2. Italy a. Benito Mussolini assumed power in 1922 and also helped Hitler by attacking Ethiopia in 1935. b. 1921Fascist Party 3. Spain a. Francisco Franco, in 1936, led an uprising in Spain and with Italy and German’s assistance, ousted the Spanish republic and loyalist supporters in 1939 to create an authoritarian government. 4. Neutrality a. Different acts established with the Neutrality Act by America in 1935, 1936, 1937. b. 1935: Americans couldn’t travel to war zones, banned loans to belligerent nations and instituted an embargo on armaments to belligerents c. 1936: Congress extended the legislation d. 1937: made neutrality permanent with the addition of a cash and carry provision, which meant they had to pay in advance for a shipment. e. Hitler was not scared of America. He saw them as “a racially mixed nation of intellectual inferiors.” War in Europe 1935: Nuremberg Laws denied civil rights to Jews. Kristallnacht, Nazi thugs beat up and murdered Jews and burned synagogues. Hitler continued to make his campaign into making those come into concentration camps. o These people were Jews, Slavs, handicapped and homosexuals. Tensions with Japan “Two ocean navy” Japan was angry at the US for trying to gain control of Southeast Asia o There were also policies in the US that prohibited and limited Japanese immigrants. o The US saw Japan as a threat to their own interests. And they also needed Japan as a trading partner in the 1930’s o September 1931: Japan seized Manchuria. o 1937: Chinese forces attacked forces in Beijing and war between China and Japan began. o In a 1937 Gallup poll, 70% of the US population thought it was a mistake to go to war in WWI. There were still those hoping not to go to war. Attack on Pearl Harbor o There were still questions if the US should go to war. o Japan believed that they were being treated unfairly after WWI despite their participation against Germany. o This was believed to be the main event that brought the US into WWII, but there was still some push to go to war from others and stuff behind the scenes that was just in case. Roots of War WWI Economics of the global community. The Great Depression was a global event. Nationalism was based often on shrinking democracy ideas, racial prejudices that would be use as scapegoat techniques. Maintaining Neutrality, preparing for War Military Readiness o National Defense Advisory Commission: May of 1940 was for strategic planning for the war. o Council of National Defense Strategic planning for the war Army was extended by 2 million men, 19 thousand planes and added 150 ships to the navy. 16.5 million men were required to register for military service on th October 16 , 1940. Election of 1940 o Wendell Wilkey was FDR’s opponent o Was FDR’s third term because of arrogance or because of continuity in times of peril? o He earned 55% of the vote. o He supported Britain and put much pressure on Japan. o 1941: Lendlease program let Britain borrow war materials for the duration of the war. Twinengine bomber became more prevalent in WWII Atlantic Charter New Deal Era political Reorganization Civil Rights Soldiers Rights Relationships with the government were changing and others saw the benefit for Federal Government programs. Soldiers Vote Bill 1942: This advocated the rights of soldiers as absentee voters while they were deployed. Sponsored by a Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver. However, some people opposed to this because of ways for African Americans who were in war to vote and not be affected by the Jim Crow laws. Guyer Pepper Bill was the first bill to launch widespread debate. This had the national abolition to get rid of the poll taxes. Wilmur Colmer “The direct object of this movement is to disenfranchise the Negro of the south.” The poll taxes don’t discriminate against poor people of race. Science Office of Scientific Research and Development Vannevar Bush Radar The Manhattan Project J. Robert Oppenheimer Los Alamos Richland, Washington Oak ridge, Tennessee Many of the scientists who are working on this are coming out of colleges and universities. Oak Ridge Entry Point Hydroelectric Power Uranium 235 was separated from 238. These sites were chosen for the proximity for hydroelectric power. 60,000 workers employed. Oakridge went from barely having anyone to a living place. The population went from 1942 to 1945 from 3,000 to 75,000 Billboard at Oakridge in 1943: What you See Here, What you do here, what you hear here, when you leave here, let it stay here. WWII required a 30fold expansion of the US armed forces. 1939: 334,000 soldiers in the Marines 1945: 8.3 men and women million army and army air force 3.4 Million Navy and Marine Corp These only rivaled the Soviet Unions soldiers. Served an average of 33 months, some 300,050 women and more than 16 million men served in the Armed forces. 292,000 died in battle 100,000 survived Prisoner of War camps 671,000 returned wounded. There were a range of jobs from repairing planes to counting coffins American Indians 25,000 served in the military o Served in segregated parts Clarence Tinker (Osage) Tinker AFB Oklahoma: highest ranking Indian as major General and killed in 1942 battle of midway in the Pacific. Ira Hayes (Pima): Was a participant of the Iwo Jima Flag raising and was part of the wartime fundraising effort. Navajo Code Talkers o 400 code talkers used in the Pacific to transmit messages. African Americans 1,000,000 Segregated Units Denied access to combat Segregated facilities on bases o Columbus, GA Racially based riots were the ones that opened up facilities. Women whose husbands went off to war were given jobs and also extra financial help. Education & the Military 1. IE Division—1944 2. Literacy 3. Army’s Induction Center 4. Post Hostility Schools 5. GI Bill 6. How do soldiers experience Maladjustment? 7. Psychologists are saying that those veterans who have better education are less at risk for maladjustment. 8. Many soldiers wanted to earn a college level education. Many more wanted to receive vocational courses. 9. Psychologists said that soldiers would go through three phases to readjustment: Celebration, let down and restoration. There was much more concern for the Prisoners of War. 10. 5.4 million made use of the $25,000 unemployment benefits. 11. Homosexuality was excluded in the military. 12. This had an effect on veterans who saw education as a right to all citizens.
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