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Energy and the Environment

by: Alanna Carter

Energy and the Environment EGEE 101

Alanna Carter
Penn State
GPA 3.94

Ramak Rajagopalan

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Ramak Rajagopalan
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alanna Carter on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EGEE 101 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Ramak Rajagopalan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/233027/egee-101-pennsylvania-state-university in Environmental at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
PENNSTATE In W EGEE 101 Ir Environment Energy Supply and Demand PlilNNSTATL R W e 1 Objectives The objectives are gt To understand the energy supply and demand patterns gt To understand the link between population and energy demand growth gt To understand the significance of exponential function gt To gain ability to predict energy demand PU xN J EL fj i g Trends in the Past Century 19901890 World Population Traditional Energy Use per Person Industrial Energy Use per Person Total World Ener Use Total Energy Consumption 500 450 400 350 300 United States World uadrillion BTU H N N U1 0 U1 0 O O Q H U39IO COO 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 Year PENNSTATL R World Population Growth 7000000 6000000 5000000 4000000 Serie52 3000000 2000000 1000000 54 v US Energyi listory Wand 1650 1675 1705 1725 1750 1775 155 1325 155 1575 1905 1925 1qu 1975 20m httpwwweiadoegovemeuaerehimages gure1jpg STL PENNSTATL 5151 Energy and Population Growth 7 I There are numerous quantities that behave such that the amount of change or the amount added per unit time is not constant but proportional to the quantity N at that time AN 0C N At Where ADelta indicates a change at increment of the variable and r is a growth constant Exponentiial Growth NN0em N Value of N0 at time quottquot and at a growth rate of quotrquot Doubling Time Time during which the initial quanti increases by a factor of 2 or doubles td N 2 2 NO or 2 1 xexp fd recall N NoEpl t Taking logarithms on both sides In exp tdn ln 2 139 td 1693 17 Doubling time or td 0397 T J Illustration If energy demand is growing at arate of 5 per year when does the energy demand double 5 T5 Gml105 td138years thm F v 4 7 391 Examples of Exponential Growth 7 I Rate of reactant formation in a chemical reaction 1st order Radioactive decay Population and energy growth Money if compounded continuously world s Major Energy MOW United States China Russia Saudi Arabia Canada Iran India Norway Australia Mexico I t m N E17 Wm I W World s Major Energy M0004 United Kingdom France Canada Germany India Japan 7 Russia China United States PHNNSTATL m 25 23 20 2 3 15 g 12 Source httpwwweiadoe govem euaerehfram e html E 395 as 10 3 o B Coal Natural Crude Nuclear Wood Hydro Natural GED Gas 0 Eectric and electric Gas thermal and Was E PmNer Plant Other qulds PtNNSTATL SIS g Energy ovgljview 120 LO Q 1 Consumption Production Quadrllllon Btu 039 O O O I Impons Exports Hump Illvllvllvllvllvxl ll lvllllll 1quotquotl IHY 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1930 1935 1990 1995 2000 Source Impwwweiadoegovemeuaerehframehtml 16 PtmNSW L TEE V quot 1 9 Energy weiwiew ma ath Adjustments 22 Consumption 985 Source httpwwweiadoegovemeuaereh amehtml th ATL 20 Consumption Production 39l39 Iquot l39 39quot39quot39l39 quotquotquotquot39quot39I 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 197395 1930 1985 1990 1995 2000 Source httpwwweiadoegovemeuaereh amehtml PtNNITr I Natural ga 25 Consumpiion 20 E u Producllon 2 15 a l u 5 1o E 5 IM 0 I I I I I I I I I I I 1950 1355 1960 1965 1970 1975 1930 1935 1990 1995 2000 Source httpwwweiadoegovemeuaereh amehtml PmNS TWL What about coal 1000 800 Electric Ulililies 600 Residential Commercial 400 and Transportation Million Short Tons 200 Industrial NPP1 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Source httpwwweiadoegovemeuaereh amehtml Hydroelectric Power Nuclear Natural Gas Petroleum and NonHydroelectric Other Gases Renewable Energy 20 Source httpwww eiadoeg0vemeuaereh amehtml Electricity Motor Gasoline Natural Gas Source httpwwweiadoegovemeuaereh amehtml P t 1 TAT L Nuclear 120 104 uniis in 2000 9 o 1 Peak 112 units in 1990 Number of Units l 1 1 l 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Source httpwwweiadoegovemeuaereh amehtml P t TAT L quot Renewableienergy 90 Fossil Fuels 0 O 1 Quadrillion Btu m 0 Nuclear Eledric Power Renewable Energy O l 1 1 1 1 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Source httpwwweiadoegovemeuaereh amehtml US Energy Flow Trends 2002 Net Primary Resource Consumption 97 Quads E ms mu same mamas m Muae sun quotum Enemy mummm Ann nmn an mwzmw mm um um mum munml mth and wind mum mm m mums 133nunlahu mass weatwule 1mm antheml mm mun1 unle A quadrillion or quad is 1015 One Btu is the quantity ofheat needed to raise the temperature ofl pound ofwater by 1 F thm Energy Consumption Projections Figure 12 World Marketed Energy Use by Fuel Type 19902030 I Ouadnllson Em 250 Hlslow Projections 200 39 Liquids 150 100 lt Coal Nmural Gas Ranawau ss 60 l Nuclear 1990 2000 2005 emu 2020 2030 u 29539 Hlstory Energy Intormatlun Adnnnlslratlon EDA fnremanonal Energy Annual 2005 JuneOcIonel 2007 web sum wwwma doagovnea Prolecllons 5m World Energy Projections Plus 2008 PtmNSWL m W Projecte coal consumption Figure 13 Coal Consumption in Seiected World I Regions 19802030 Ouadmlton Em 125 Hlslory PVOIBCIIDHS 100 A 75 39 5 Umted Stale 25 lt 39quot39 g 1950 1995 20sz 2015 2030 oulces Hislory Enexgy Inioxmallon Aumunslrallon EIA Internanonaf Energy Annuaf 2005 JuneOctober 2013M web sue wwweiavdoegowea Projectlons EIA Worm Energy F Ioleunons Plus 2005 PtmNSTATL H3 Projected Electricity consumpton Figure 10 World Electricity Generation by Fuel 20052030 1 TraHian Kibwalihoms k 0071 Nalural Gas 3C I enewahles Nucloar anuids 2005 2 0 2015 202 2023 203439 Smurces 2005 Enemy Infmmai mn Aclmlmslm on EIAL lnfcnmIana Energy Annual 2005 JuneOmaha 200739 we slte WW39 EEIdCIE govitea Prolectlons EIA World Energy Prolecmns F39hJs 12008 PEWSTATL Difference Between Energy and Powr Energy Power Ability to do work The rate at which work is done Energy is the capacity to do work Power is the rate at which work is done Unit 1 watt 1 JS 3412 Btuh PENNSTATL 3 if Unit of Power is watt W defined as 1Watt1 PmNSTATL 57 Horse Powgr Source Energy SourcesApplicationsAltern atives 32 Illustration1 A 100W light bulb is left accidentally on overnight 8 hours How much energy does it consume And how much money does this cost if electricity cost 10 cents per Kilowatt hour thi g nergy Use Power x Time of Power Use 100W x 8h 800Wh 08kWh Cost of the Energy Energy Used x Cost of Unit of Enerav 08kWh x 010 IkW 008 PEWSWL 593 I US produced about 70 QUADs of energy in 2004 and consumed about 100 QUADs Fossil Fuels supply about 80 of the total primary energy Renewable energy sources account for less than 10 and nuclear energy for another 10 Nearly half of the country s petroleum needs are met by imports PtMiSTATL I Most of the coal 90 is burnt to generate electricity US mines about 1 billion tons a year Most of the oil is used by the transportation sector Natural gas is used mostly by the industrial sector Energy and population grow exponentially Energy is capacity to do work and power is the rate at which work is done PENNSTATE EGEE 101 r Environmen39r 2 Uses of Energy Lesson Objectives gt Appreciate home energy usage patterns and articulate home appliance operating principles and their impact on energy use gt Understand the efficiencies of devices and ways to improve efficiency gt Identify conservation strategies Users of Energy How do we use energy at home Lightihg amp App ances 24 Refrigeration 5 39 o9 p d o 0 Hea ng 17 Home Heating and Cooling gt 44 of utility bills are spent on heating or cooling your home gt During the winter energy used to heat your home can measured by HDD heating degree days gt During the summer energy used to cool your home can be measured by CDD cooling degree days gt Which do you think has more days HDD or CDD Why gt What is the biggest factor in home heating or cooHng 5 Heat Transfer gt Conduction It is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy from one material to another due to direct contact gt Convection the transfer of heat through a fluid liquid or gas caused by molecular motion ie Boiling water gt Radiation Energy emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves in the infrared region no medium is required Making a cup of tea gt Conduction Metal of the K tluches the hot part of the stove and gets warmer gt Radiation As the stove heating element turns red it s also giving off radiating heat that warms the kettle and the surrounding gt Convection The heat from Kettle warms and excites the water inside Therefore high heat kettle travels to low heat water and heat passes to the water and it begins to boil What s the biggest way to cut home heating or cooling bills gt Insulation keeps heat in during the winter or the cool air in the summer gt Better your insulation works less energy needed to make up for the lost heating or cooling How do we measure insulation though gt We use R values to measure the insulating property of the material the resistance to heat flow The units are ft2 FhBtu or Km2NV SI units 1Km2NV 567 ft2 FhlBtu gt Rvalue depends upon type of material its thickness and its density Higher the Rvalue the greaterthe insulating effectiveness Energy star Video Home Insulation W39i Humbing IF I penelrurions a Chart above represents 393 recommend R values for homes What part of Hemit quot the house requires the 1 wigs highest RValue why 2 ms 1quotquot 5r um W i mg Source EPA 39 39 31 336 3 quot equot DOE Haw Dinas the Air Esmpe g Ceiling 5 Basement Q E E 73 E 5 s amp Em s a 395 E E E I 1 E 2 IE 3 a g a g e g a a E a 9 3 3 u g i m E u E I 4 a E E 2 t l R8 2 RB Home Heating gt Why is Natural Gas used the most for home heating gt Easy cleaning up no ashes gt Usually Pipeline to home so no storage or delivery hassles i D 49 39 7 gt How do you heat your home e i NaturalGas Electricity FuelOil P6233339 gt heating is on the rise or the Source DOE fall 10 Geothermal heating and cooling gt Geothermal Heat pumps can effectively heat and cool your house by harnessing the grounds constant temperature and exchanging energy gt In winter they move the heat Source DOE from earth Into the house With pipesneedomygodown about 8 feet before the earth is at a the Of a heat pump relatively constanttemperature pumping a fluid through the gt In summer the heat pipes allows for heat exchange from the house and discharge and hence heating and cooling It Into the ground GeothermalAnimation link here 11 Utilizing the Sun Passive Energy Tips gt Passive Energy no external or additional energy required gt Face your house towards the South mgmmer i n gt Maximizes exposures to sunlight gm Nsaiuurlon un g z quot 3 thermal energy ijntf39 39 gt Put larger windows towards the r l I l 39 U R south to allow more sunlight to pi e L g a naturally heat your home during the day gt Plant deciduous trees near the house gt Provides shade cooling for the house in the summer Absorber F 12 Refrigerators gt Refrigerators consume 5 of the total energy at home gtMove heat from inside low temperature to outside high temperature gtCalled Heat Movers 13 How a Refrigerator works There are five basic parts to any refrigerator or airconditioning system Compressor Heatexchanging pipes serpentine or coiled set of pipes outside the unit Expansion valve Heatexchanging pipes serpentine or coiled set of pipes inside the unit Refrigerant liquid that evaporates inside the refrigerator to create the cold temperatures 14 V V How a Refrigerator works Compressor The compressor compresses the refrigerant gas This raises the refrigerant39s pressure and temperature orange so the heatexchanging coils outside the refrigerator allow the refrigerant to dissipate the heat of pressurization Condensor As it cools the refrigerant condenses into liquid form purple and flows through the expansion valve Expansion valve When it flows through the expansion valve the liquid refrigerant is allowed to move from a highpressure zone to a lowpressure zone so it expands and evaporates light blue ln evaporating it absorbs heat making it cold Evaporator The coils inside the refrigerator allow the refrigerant to absorb heat making the I Inslda the mfrkaraftm inside of the refrigerator cold The cycle then 3 swim repeats maximum value J 920 How Stuff Wnrha wwvv howstuffvvorks com 15 LHQHA gtAlmost onefourth of the energy used in homes is used for lighting and apphances gt Lighting is essential to a modern society Emit Light ParUCIBS 2001 HowsturMorks VJ 4 flow Atoms 1 A collision with a moving particle emit 8 atom 2 This causes an electron to jump to a higher energy level 3 The electron falls back to it39s an ori nal energy I vs releas39ng the T extra energy in the form of a light L39ght photon Photon www howstuffworksoom 16 Various Light Bulbs used gt Incandescent light bulbs is two connections from which a tungsten coil is suspended The Flame thin metal strand the filament gets so hot it becomes white hot producing a nice white light Glass bulb Inert gas gt Halogen light bulbs 9 0quot Halogen gas within bulb make l ch it very bright and gives a lot of mi heat Main Uses Security ngh ting ts httpencartamsncommedia7461517978Incandescent7Lamphtmlhtt e pencartamsncommedia7461517978Incandescent7Lamphtml 17 Fluorescent Bulbs gt Fluorescentlight bulbs E39ectwde gm F333 rim Electrons flow thru the tube excite mercury and gives off Ultraviolet radiation visible light Mammy Compact fluorescent light bulbs All the efficiency advantages of fluorescent light bulbs but small enough to replace incandescent bulbs 18 Light Bulb Efficiency Efficiency Useful energy out energy in x 100 Incandescent light bulbs Waste a lot of energy so they are only 5 efficient Fluorescent Light Bulbs Are 20 efficient Halogen Light Bulbs Give off a lot of light AND a lot of heat gt How efficient do you think they are Halogen CFL Source LBL the difference in the heat given off by a Halogen light What s the best type of light bulb for your anda cmgompact needs fluorescent light 19 LED light bulbs the future gt 13 W LED bulb can replace 100 W incandescent bulb i gt Lifetime is rated at over is 50000 hours which is five times h p f more than compact ourescent bulbs gt They can brighten instantly and contains no mercury gt Very expensive 90 http wwwmetaef cientcomledsl 3wledbulbcan replace l 00wincandescenthtml Steps save on Water heating 6 0 gt Water heating is the other big l saw energy expense By cutting om down on hot water H 9mm consumption you ll save water g w mta Tanyamtms and also cut your energy bills i me i r 1 43le I V vi B Dutucase gt First identify what you use hot l 39 393 y mum water for 3 l I ogemmiuummg gt Second what can you do to g l L V omm conserve mum gt Use showers instead of 0 moveer baths turn down 0 33 thermostats don t run water while brushing your teeth a 2001 How Btuquot Works Inside of a water heater 21 Industrial Energy Use gt Boiler fuel to generate steam or hot water gt Process heat to raise the temperature of products in the manufacturing process gt Electricity for lighting running motors etc mtgquot 7 20 4a f39 n In 1 u a lt H H NaturalGas DllnerSuurcee EliaWici ly Coal 139i Fuel on Duke E LPG Breeze propane 22 Which Industries Use Energy 23 Commercial Sector Energy Use E U E 9 239 U m I ltJ O Q 24 Types of Energy Used By Commercial Sector gt Electricity and natural gas are the most common energy sources used in commercial buildings 55 gt District Energy ll 1W 1 5 3 i Elecmclty NaimalGas Dlstrlctlleat FuerlDI l District energy Video 25 Energy Use for Transportation 2002 gt About 28 percent of the energy we use goes to transporting people and goods from one place to another Transportation gt 222 million vehicles in the US gt Travelled a total of 28 trillion miles 26 Fuels Used for Transportation gt Gasoline is used mainly by cars motorcycles and light trucks diesel is used mainly by heavier trucks buses and trains gt Together gasoline and diesel make up 86 percent of all the energy used in transportation Source U S Dcpaltmcnt of Energy Transportation Energy Data Book Edition 242004 27 Energy Use by Buildings 3 Retail amp Service nm m Office Q Educatiun Healih Care Warehouse Food Service Assembly Food Sales All Other Buildings Due in rounding Parcemages may not add to exactly 100 percent 28 Energy and the Environment Instructor Dr Ram Rajagopalan Materials Research Institute 270 MRL Bldg Telephone 814 863 1880 Email rur12psuedu Office hours TF 300 pm 500 pm Where is MRL Bldg Course Objectives gt Provide basic understanding and appreciation of energy and environmental concepts gt Analyze energy consumption patterns interrelationships between energy use and industrial progress energy use and environmental consequences gt Discuss various energy resources that power the modern society gt Examine the energy conversion processes gt Discuss future energy alternatives and conservation methods 4 SyHabus Dates Topics August 23 September 20 Unit 1 Energy Fundamentals Forms Uses Supply and Demand Efficiency Electricity Basics September 21 October 25 Unit 2 Renewable energy sources Wind Solar Hydro Geothermal Biomass October 25 December 1 Unit 3 Nonrenewable energy sources Nuclear energy Coal Petroleum Natural gas December 1 December 10 Unit 4 Environmental impact Global climate change acid rain ozone and smog ozone layer depletion and radiation There is no text book for the class Class notes will be posted in ANGEL Assign mentGrading Homework Assignments 20 6 only ve are required MidTerm Exam 1 15 Best two exams will be considered MidTerm Exam 2 l5 MidTerm Exam 3 15 Final Exam 25 Mandatory Quizzes 20 There will be 6 online quizzes given Only best four will be considered for grade Class participation 5 Attendance and problem solving in class will be taken into account Energy fundamentals Sources Energy Efficiency Aquot A 7 I L v V Demand ltTgt Uses Energy Needs N Affluence Good Life Basic Needs Basic Needs of a Human Being gtAir gtFood gtWater gtShelter Good Life gt Variety in food z milk meat poultry fish grains ve getables etc gt Material conveniences 391 stoves refrigerators heating in winter cooling in summer transportation communi cation etc gt Protection from diseases 1 medicines gt Relaxation and enjoyment 139 radio TV History of Energy consumption in United States What would have happened if we did not discover fossil fuel 4 3 4 3 11 C H dmeledrlo Y Power 21 E a E e no 10 8 Power Uquot39lquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotIquotquotIquotquotquotquotlquotquotlquotquotlquotquot 1650 1BT5 100 1T25 1750 15 1800 1825 1350 185 1000 1925 1950 1075 2300 Years 1 Quadrillion 1015 httpWWW eia doe go vemeuaerehframe htm 11 GDP Percapita Energy Use per Capita vs GDP 50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 00 Switzerland 39Japan 0 0 Norway Ger39 W d H m g Iceland France 0 Singapore 0 JK Canada hIna UAE v 39 o S Korea Bahra39 Netherlands 36 Kuwait 39Trinidad 8 39Russia 2000 4000 6000 8000 Energy Percapita Data Source USDOE 2002 10000 ENERGY USAGE IN THE UNITED STATES 200 Buildings petroleum 3 Euildings natural gas 12 Industry unclear 2 Industry remalila 3 Industry canal 8 Industry natural gas 1 INDUSTRY Industry BUILDINGS 15 petroleum MM Tramportation Zmabm nuclear 409k Trampartatian renmabler mt quotMeal Transportation 5 transpo atian coal natural gas transportation petroleum WM 1 27 Energy pie Most energy in the United States is used for tune of three purposes transportation heating tooling and lighting buildings or industrial pmduction Source Science magazine August 14 2009 Why do we use so much energy in United States What is energy Energy Energy is a property of matter that can be converted into work heat or radiation What is Work Work is energy transferred between substances by the application of force over a distance work force x displacement F Body at rest Body In motion Work or mechanical energy is measured in joules J SI base units Base quantity Unit Symbol Length meter m Mass kilogram Kg Time seconds 5 Electric current Ampere A Temperature Kelvin K Amount of moles mol substance Some SI derived units Measurement Formula Unit Speed or Distancetime ms Velocity v Acceleration a dvdt ms2 Force F ma N Work Fd J Sir Isaac Newton gt English physicist mathematician astronomer 1642 1726 gt Described Gravitational force came up with the three laws of motion and laid the foundation of classical mechanics gt Developed theory of calculus in M h e m httpwww physuu nlvgentastrologynewtonhtm gt Theory of color and built the first practical reflecting telescope James Prescott Joule gt English physicist with no formal education 1818 4889 gt Came up with law of conservation of energy gt Studied the nature of heat and its relationship to mechanical work Thermodynamics gt Joules law Relationship between current through a resistor a n d h e d S S p d httpwwwallposterscomIspPortraitofJamesPrescottJouIePostersi174029htm William Thompson Lord Kelvin gt Baron Kelvin of Largs gtEstablished thermodynamics as a scientific discipline at the beginning of second half of nineteenth century gtCame up with the absolute scale of temperature based on the principle that heat is equivalent to work 21 Andre Marie Ampere gt French physicist 1775 1836 gt Science of electromagnetism Relationship between Electricity and magnetism gt Showed parallel wires carrying current attract or repel depending upon the direction of current gtSl unit of current is named after him 22 Law of conservation of energy gtThe total energy in the universe is constant gt Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form to another gt Energy conversion is the only means for effective energy utilization 23 Forms of energy gtMechanica gtPotentia energy gtKinetic energy gtEectrica gtChemica gtHeat gtNuclear gtRadiant 24 Potential Energy gt Energy that a body possesses by virtue of its physical position gtPE mgH Gravitational Potential Energy gtmmass gtg acceleration due to gravity gtHheight 25 Examples of Potential energy gtWater stored in a dam gtWrecking ball gtElastic band gtAppe in a tree gtMore examples 26 Kinetic Energy gt Kinetic energy is the 1 2 energy that is KE mv possessed by a body 2 due to its motion m mass v velocity or speed Motion of a pendulum Position 1 Position 3 Height h position 2 Position 1 PE mgh KE O 1 Position 2 PE O KE Emv2 Position 3 PE mgh KE O 28 Problem If the mass of the pendulum is 1 kg and the length of the string is 1 m what is the speed of the pendulum at position 2 Let us assume that there is no loss of energy due to friction between pendulum and surrounding air PE at position 1 1kg x 98 mls2 x 1m 98 J At position 2 all the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy 1 2 2KE PE 98J KE mv So v2T 05 V 443 ms 1kg Chemical Energy gt Energy that is stored in the chemical bonds that hold molecules together gtA special kind of potential energy gtWhen certain chemicals combine or react energy is released usually in the form of heat gt Examples 30 Heat Energy gt Kinetic energy of random motion of molecules of a substance The temperature is a measure of this motion gt Easy to obtain than to produce work gt Flows from a body at higher temperature higher thermal energy to a body at lower temperature lower thermal energy Units of Heat Energy gtCalorie gt BTU British Thermal Unit is the amount of energy that is Calorie is defined as that amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature FGQUH ed t0 F8186 the of 1 gramg ogwater temperature of 1 1b of by 1 C 1SIUS C water by one degree Fahrenheit 1 heai 2mm eat 1 feed wild re Cali 1 call 3 4323 and 11 BTU E 252 Clad 778 1le Electrical Energy gt Special form of kinetic energy gt Energy of electrons in motion gt Intermediate form in which energy is transported and distributed gt Produced most commonly when a magnetic field passing through a closed electrical circuit is caused to change Faraday s law gt Easily converted to other forms of energy kWh is the amount of energy used in 1 hour at the rate r 33 Nuclear Energy Energy that is locked in the nucleus of an atom and is released by destruction of mass also called mass energy E energy m mass reduced c speed of light 3 X 108 ms Energy is measured in terms of electron Volt eV Nuclear Fission Inter mediate Size Nucleus Inter mediate Size Nucleus Fission is a process of breaking apart a large nucleus into two intermediate size nuclei Uses or Application Nuclear power plants and bombs Nuclear Fusion Intermediate size nucleus Small Nuclei Intermediate Size Nucleus Fusion is a process of combining two small nuclei into one intermediate one 36 Radiant Energy Wave Characteristics b Speed of light C Wavelength X x Frequency 1 Ehv Electromagnetic Spectrum THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM w m mqu m m M Wm munq t t t t t t t t t wavunu I ede w m w m m m m m m H mm m mquot 7 5 NW W a m m mK w WWW W M w W mt W w W my H quot2 m Hm m gm7McmWoddsAmTodEMSPEcEMSpecZ m x5 Visible Spectrum The lVisaihle Spectrum ultra violet Ilghlt I I I I TO SIDED 53900 401 Wavelength Inm 1995 CHIP Eho h Planck s constant 6626 x 1034 J3 39 Units of energy gtJoues gtCalories gtKWh gtBTUs gtEectronvolt 1 calorie 42 J 1 Btu 1055 J 1KWh 36x 106J 1eV 16x 103919J 4O Classification of energy sources I 1 Renewable energy Nonrenewable energy gtWind gt Fossil fuels gtSolar gt Nuclear fission gtHydro gtGeothermal gtTidal gtBiomass gtNuclear fusion 41 Energy Transformations Sound and Light hemical J to Electricity I a nu v Kinetic Energy Chemical energy to Work 42


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