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Urban Geography A Global Perspective

by: Roslyn Hilpert

Urban Geography A Global Perspective GEOG 120

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Geography > GEOG 120 > Urban Geography A Global Perspective
Roslyn Hilpert
Penn State
GPA 3.75


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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Roslyn Hilpert on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 120 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/233049/geog-120-pennsylvania-state-university in Geography at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
l lll it Tra ic and Transport in Third World Cities l L l 9 9 DE JEL QM l Ugggggooooou l ggggggggggggg lunger Clrs pquot quotmusml Innnnms ms was T ra ic Problems cRapid traffic growth ePoor roads and traffic management systems 9 High costs aAccidents sGreater pollution problems Public Transit o Buses S Intermediate Public Transit e NonMotorized Transport gammy quotM 39ll i Rail Based Transit Systems OVariety of different technologies cCostly to build 0 Restricted spatial coverage a Difficult to compete with cheaper means of transport Urban Transport Strategies ICapital intensive strategies of limited use Scarcity of public resources and individual income limits options cWalking nonmotorized and motorized intermediate public transport systems likely to continue to be important M u l amp Source Summable Develnpmem lnlamhunal 3 il 39 Take home messages Traf c problems in 3 d world cities involve a complex mix ofdiverse transportation needs and oon icting urban form ITransport options involve more collective public systems than in developed nations I Public transport strategies however are constrained by limited resouroes Mm mm 1mm pm mtlun u mara emhti ur M x mm Drum an m mam x mmmmmmmm New Mnng Inhmim nunm Wurmahm am an mama um wawum vmww aW manhmm ma q nha y mm hymma m Amswna an m a A 1mm x Implications for Urban Structure uVertical integration led to company townsquot Global production and deindustrialization undermined older industrial citis but bene ted newer hightech driven cities 6 Network production information markels and value of innovative m39 39euxquot reinforcs network39 cities iwm iimuiiii hum 5i rmmmmmmm rum lanai Key points on economic transformation 0 Economy has gone throu h a major restructuring in the post 9705 period 0 Different cities experienced and continue to experience this restructuring in very different wa 5 Y a This resh39ucturin has signi cant implications for ur an form an reater volatility ornplex globalrlocal dwamlcs etwork soclety but territorial cine aracterlzed by Rm Hmmmjummuwb 1m MM New m E s 2mm in Division oflabor oDe nition Specialization of work activity which is interconnected within a broader economic system sSome key concepts Employment unemployment and underem Io ent Formal and informal work 2 Paid and unpaid wo Social reproduction and the social wage Information economy labor markets aKey trends include 3 Automation of some routine tasks 2 Some labor intensive service work remains Decline in demand for unskilled a or r Rise in demand for interactive information and knowledge work Categorizing New Division ofLabor s Robert Reich 1991 The Work oNatims 1 bolic analyse 2o N30a Gove merit xtracuve industries etc 5 Herzenberg et al 1998 New Rules for New Professional 40 and growing SemiAutonomous 30 and rii ikii ig Rouunized 5 and 5mm Laborrlntensive 25 and shrinking Outcomes for workers oStagnantdeclining wages 9 Hou rglassquot employment structure Volatile employment Growing insecurity mammana compensammmma ne39e ee xt39t x Amend31m mm 5m mum mmummvaLSwze am mmmm Imnlnlcmnnlnm n nymunlumx mmnnmvln Inlnymulnnuwmxun may WWW mman mm m ume m Takehome menge waun ur um Eml mlei m umemm umqua ms m mhmm 39Inhmahm Etmcmyieemi m be mman mm mm mmquot at um Keyqueihmi Wm H lhe nalure r m gmwngmemahlw Pu amahun 5m mamamnmv pm Mal 3an M2 du mm man 4quot Residential segregation s Bolh personal choice and economic factors I Family statusIi ester I Socioeconomic status class Federal houslng pollcy also lmportant a RaceEdwnici s Palh dependent h39ends 14 nnsnvx 17 c magnum h m mm u awn m raw nixme nt llxumxnlhuh a mmquot mm m m m w mm 7 ml 1 m mg m workers earnlng pmny leml may Wagesl u s an mm US Ethnic Communities 3 15 wave of immigration up to 1860 Western E iiM imam pimiaiians s 2 d wave 18691924 m o mem and Eastern Europe naiian Puhsh JEWiSerban mime S 339d wave 19605 n Lauri America I Asia Amvuis m erltiii1erun5miiiiun5 a Emma L 39umm 7 weiiiiiiiii m 5 Armin Emu E Lu ibhhuii mum an arid mi D 7 Win an Wm 70 iviigii ivaivo i a mum VWE Figure 42 Uniied Sruies i39inmigmii39an by regiun 0 ins residence Ethnic segregation 6 Dynamics of separatio l Defensive i l nuwi cw 9m Guru 4 Figm 13 a Rlsmnnmi mom nutcnmns in mm sevycgatlun uniimamquot w ui iiuiiiiniiii iiii iiiiui iiin iiniiiiiiiiwizii iiiiimiiiiiviaiiiiiiim Win Behawauul Simclural lawns Emiwmlm mm mm mm mm Accupmvcn m w mm m mm mm Dwainwe mm 137 Ammocmmimuamnmuss Internal migration patterns S Black migration 39om rural South to Norlh n In 1900 75 lived in rural areas 95 W 500m 001 1980 82 urban only 53 W 50 a Latino amp Asian immigration to Soulhwest and olher p0 ckels O Blacks still most segregated group in urban America mmquot mm m rm m Iimluu m m mmnm rm 01 um amW um Mmiun A n U3 H N urme 0 WW w imam Kn hurl Takehome messages a Urban poverty has speci c racial dimensions with blacks and Latinos having greater pover levels 3 Urban poverty has speci c spatial dimensions that reinforce racial segregation 39 regation is the result of both personal choice and economic factors with bo 39 S Ending poverty will require addressing racial discrimination on multiple levels Context of Third World Urbanization aContrasts between 1St and 3d World Urbanization e Far I Modernization Theory 3 Dependency Th or 9 Y 1 World Systems Theory Historical Context 9 Colonization from 16 quot centur onwards 0 Overall impact varied colony colonizer period rm 1 mass nr anumAL unnnmsulnn in as Peripheral Urbanization s Disruption of precapitalism forms of agriculture 3 Surplus extraction by nationalinternational bourgeoisie rapid growth of national capital an per 0 Manufacturing growth further concentrates urbanization Labor follows manufacturing further expanding production a State provides infrast39ucture for urbanization e Beginnings of deconcentration to other cities Takehome messages a Conditions of urbanization in the Third World are different and ngIng than faced 6 External factors particularly colonialism and continued international economic inecpality are critical for understanding conditions of peripheral urbanization39 Western Europe a Highly urbanized 75 e Old cities Slow population growth eSmall household size 4 Industrial decline in many areas European Union Annual average growth 096 in 196065 03 in 1985 90 Older population Many cities losing population Old manufacturing cities declining Note Paris London Madrid Many Europeans live in old towns and cities like this medieval town of Albarracin in the province of Aaragon Spain where buildings are densely packed Much of the existing environment throughout Europe was designed under the assumption that most traf c would consist of pedestrians or animaldrawn vehicles This means that cars are much smaller and less essential to life in Europe than in the US and other places where whole cities have been built with automobile traf c in mind Much more population are public transportation systems subways trolleys buses speci cally designed to navigate through the maze of streets Resulted in less noise and air pollution and attractive for residents and tourists who don t need a car to get around Therefore many European downtown areas have survived whereas they might no in the US where it is much easier more pleasant and less polluted to live in the suburbs rather than in the city La Sagrade Familia Church in Barcelona Spain designed by Antoni Gaudi in 1884 still being worked on today Grand Cathedrals and other primarily Christian religious structures are an important part of the landscape throughout Europe Major longterm undertakings that express something of the cities and towns in which they are located For example La Sagrada Familia embodies the bold innovative and highly creative spirit of Barcelona one of the largest and most prosperous cities in Europe Gaudi tired of what he considered the boring monotonous design of many Cathedrals fashioned La Sagrada Familia to look like an ornate sand castle Liverpool Urban Decline Duisberg Ruhr Valley Industrial Decline V r i HighTech Park in Milan Eastern Europe 3556500 urbanized Shaped by centrally planned economies Watershed in 1989 a More open economies r Economic stagnation and informalization a Environmental problems Priority to industry prior to 1989 little deindustrialization protected industries 1989 is major watershed leading to informalization of economy and government structures Finland Sr Pexelsbuvg Hussian Federailon Penn MW mom Ekaterluhurg Moscow Kalan ma Chelyabinsk om Novbslbilsk 39 Mlnsk Wamw Belarus 39Samara Poland Fraguz 39 KW Czech Rep Ukraine Kharkov Slovakia DWmMM Dana skvomngrad Kazakhstan v on a 39 Rasmwwan Alma Ala Georgia Uzbekistan billsi Kyrgylstan Armeqra Azerbarian Tashkent Yersvan Turkmenlslan n Urban Iomarauan Tauklstan pnpulgtelans 1990 ll mllhun plus I 5 999 mllllon O a hequot A39ghams an 2 5439 munon I lraq a 75 2 49 mm Figure 54 Major urban centres in Eastern and Central Europe Note no cities larger than 10 million Moscow largest with some 85 million Pollution from smokestacks of the Wawel Coke Plant in Katowice Upper Silisia Poland This plant typical in Eastern and Central Europe dates from the Soviet era and make inefficient use of energy and other resources causing much pollution In this region of Poland forests have been ruined by acid rain soils yield contaminated crops and whole cities are declared unsafe Workers at the Kuznetsky Metallurgical Kombinat KMK in Novokuznetsk Russia Built during the Stalin era the KMK was one of the largest steel mills in the Soviet Union compared to most similar facilities in the rest of the industrialized world KMK is quite outdated Industrial inefficiency and environmental pollution were significant factors in fall of the Soviet Union View of town of Novokuznetsk with KMK looking over the street Mill is city s main source of pollution but also main source of employment Istanbul Europe meets Islam Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul dates from 1550 It was built for Suleyman I ruling sultan of the Ottoman Empire at the time Its four minarets signify that he was the fourth sultan to rule in Istanbul Istanbul is perhaps the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world dating from 600 BC when it was known as Byzantium later Constaninople Asia a Less urbanized 3560 but largest share of global urban population and rapidly urbanizing 3 Great diversity within region 3 Growth of large metro areas a Massive urban poverty in places Tremendous growth and wealth in others Depends on definition is China and India changed their definition to match Europe and Latin America it would be closer to 5060 Urban Population Asian Countries 1990 Population 1000s Percent Urban Total Urban 1950 1990 Saudi Arabia 16048 12405 159 773 Japan 123537 95321 503 772 South Korea 42869 31658 214 738 Iraq 18078 12987 351 71 8 Turkey 56098 34179 213 609 North Korea 21774 13024 310 598 Kazakhstan 16670 9606 390 576 Iran 58946 33161 27 0 56 3 Syria 12348 6199 306 502 Malaysia 17891 8909 204 498 Philippines 60779 29657 271 488 Uzbekistan 20421 8285 31 4 40 6 Paklstan 121933 39029 17 5 32 0 Indonesla 182812 55923 12 4 30 6 emen 11311 3269 5 8 28 9 Chlna 1155305 302690 11 0 26 2 Indla 850638 217216 17 3 25 5 Myanmar 41813 10350 16 2 24 8 Sn Lanka 17225 3680 14 4 214 Vletnam 66689 13258 11 6 19 9 Thalland 55583 10408 10 5 18 7 Afghanistan 15045 2745 58 182 Bangladesh 108118 16942 42 157 Nepal 19253 2104 23 109 Total 311118 973005 313 Source Pacione 2001 p 102 Note Saudi Arabian Change 19501990 What is that about Note China and India Does that t with urbanization levels we know Southeast Asia has some of the most crowded cities on earth This photo looks down on a residential section of Manila a city of 102 million in a con ned urban space in the northern Philippines Manila s population density is 54000 people per square mile 20000 per square km one of the highest on earth Hundreds of families like this one make a living by picking through trash at the Smoky Mountain dump in Manila Philippines Poverty is becoming increasingly severe throughout many urban area in the region Much of this relates to declining economic opportunities for rural people many of whom have sought jobs in the cities Despite considerable growth in recent decades jobs often are hard to come by especially since the economic crisis of the late 1990s Moreover few countries have programs that effectively aid poor unemployed people Very impressive highrise buildings have been built in many areas of Hong Kong These buildings command an impressive view of the harbour Population densities in Hong Kong are some of the highest in the world One area Sham Shui Po recorded density of 196915 per sq km in 1971 Redistribution and resettlement have brought this area down to just under 150000 per sq km in 1986 Yau Ma Ter Kow oon 1n urban areas 5 ava ab e space rs used Maw burbrngs have the 00k of berng adde on to wrtnout much thoug t As new towns are bu t p aces such as these mav be demohshed and rebth 96 x26 Em mlqoz anr m mmm my Mmquot 1mm mm mm n m mm a mm a guruG s Dmgmmmahc mpnnLmannn a ma av nudes and um m Km mhnn mgmn m m Pm mm mm Samar Emhmalzu by Wm new Shenzhen near Hong Kong Jakarm Train in Rush HouriTransport issues Delhi Commuter Train Traffic in Bangkok Thailand is some of the worst in the world Car ownership is growing rapidly throughout the region but as yet only a small proportion own them Hence traffic is bound to get worse especially as the region recovers from the economic recession of the 1990s Dhaka Street Transport Streets of Dhaka Bangladesh slow to drain Antiquated sewer system with high seasonal rainfall In Bangkok bulky items have traditionally been transported using flat bottomed boats on the city s intricate system of canals Although many canals still survive some are being filled in to make way for roads and apartments Most Datong Locomotive plant workers ride bicycles to and from work like urban employees throughout the country Wherever available many also use public transport Very few drive cars to work In part this is due to China s economic policy which emphasized industrial production of items like locomotive engines at the expense of production of consumer goods like cars For the urban environment bicycle transport is a blessing with more people able to fit on the roads and less air pollution though this is largely cancelled by extremely high levels of industrial pollution which often exceed international guidelines by 10 times or more Woman and son in Harbin Heilongjiang China carrying refrigerator home on tricycle while husband keeps it steady As incomes rise in cities in China more people are able to buy appliances they have long coveted but never owned Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Note Colonial Architecture Islamic Mosque Modern Skyscrapers Singapore harbor busiest in the world and one of the most uptodate Long prospered from its location on the narrow straits between the Indian Ocean and the South China sea Originally established by the British in 1819 Singapore gained independence in 1957 Now has become one of the wealthiest countries in the region and the world Singapore Panorama Action films are advertised on billboards along a Bombay street Bombay or Bollywood as it is called in India produces some 600 films a year several times more than Hollywood Almost all are produced on budgets a fraction of the size of most US films Other South Asian cities such as Madras and Calcutta have their own smaller film industries as well These cater to the sizable populations that speak languages other than Hindi the main language of Bollywood films Abu Dhabi oil Wealth Dirt street in slum area in area of Gaza Strip known as Beach Campquot Originally intended as temporary quarters for 2 million Palestinian refugees created when Israel was established Beach camp has grown into semi permanent communities where whole generations of Palestinians have been born matured and died Years of hopelessness leading to violence 0 Africa a Low levels of urbanization 32 but fast levels of population growth it Economic stagnation and informalization a Political turmoil lt9 Deteriorating infrastructure Effect of colonialism Tums Casabmnca I a a was TumsLa mwoh Mexandna Morocco mquot Algerva Lmya Cmrn 4 Mauritania Egypt Senega Niger Htraa Adm CunaKry Nrgena was Sierra W Ethmpla Lame Dave s Repubhc o ana Liberia 39 Ghana Lagos Uganda b Ken a ogre 9mm Mir d39lvowe 39 Zn Urban Namima Muzambrqua agglomeration Z mbabwe populations 199B 10 rmlhon plus I Madagascar 175 2 49 quotWhen Figure 56 Major urban centres in Africa Nure Zaire is now the Democratic Repumi of Conng Note Johannesburg metro area Gauteng much larger than suggested by this Urban Population African Countries Urban 7 Afri an mumes 4333 Pupu4at4un 4 EIEIs Percent Urban 4333 Pupmatmn 4 EIEIs Percent Urban T3134 Urban 4353 4333 T3134 Urban 4353 4333 L4bya 4545 34744 43 3 32 4 Angma 34434 2433 7 23 3 TUms4a 3333 44433 34 2 54 3 Zane Dem Rep OfCungu 374433 43533 43 4 234 Cungu 24232 44434 333 53 5 Muzamb4que 444437 3473 24 33 A4gena 24335 424333 22 3 54 7 Gumea 54755 44434 5 5 25 3 533m Amea 37333 434243 434 43 2 Sumaha 34377 24434 42 7 24 2 Maumtama 2333 337 2 3 43 3 Madagascar 42574 24333 7 3 23 3 mm 244334 444247 232 434 Mah 34242 24433 35 233 abu 44443 523 444 45 7 we 234342 5535 5 3 23 3 gy 534342 244743 34 3 43 3 Eutsvvana 4 4273 23 3 3 234 L4ber4a 2575 44334 43 3 424 dam 24535 5544 3 3 22 5 Zamb4a 34453 34422 3 3 42 3 Tanzama 254333 5325 3 3 23 3 Maurmus 4357 423 23 3 43 5 Chad 553 44433 3 3 23 5 Cute d 4vu4re 444374 44344 43 2 43 4 Lesmn 4 4732 34 4 3 43 4 Camemun 44523 44343 3 3 43 3 Burma Fasu 34337 44335 3 3 47 3 enega4 7327 24343 33 5 33 3 Entr a 3332 437 5 3 45 3 Centra4 Amean Rep 2 327 44337 43 3 37 5 N4ger 74734 44477 4 3 45 2 N4gena 334454 334333 43 4 35 2 Ethmma 474423 54345 4 3 42 3 Gnana 454323 54437 44 5 34 3 a4aw4 3337 44433 3 5 44 3 54ena Lebne 34333 44237 3 2 32 2 a39nda 474343 2333 34 44 2 Nam4b4a 44343 433 34 34 3 33mm 5533 345 4 7 3 3 term 4333 44345 5 3 23 3 an 3333 334 4 3 5 3 Z4mbabvva 34333 24323 43 3 23 5 73gb 3534 44335 7 2 23 5 3434773 4424477 34 7 Tuta4 Suuree Pamune 2334 b 433 These are the Great Zimbabwe ruins dating to the 8d1 century AD Great Zimbabwe was the center of a powerful state that traded its mineral resources for goods from as far away as China The first British explorers to encounter Great Zimbabwe could not believe that an African people could actually create such a large and complex society and attributed it to ancient Israelites Village of Dogon people of Mali just one of thousands of unique version of the African village Over 70 percent of populations till live in village settings making Subsaharan Africa the most rural region of the worl Extended families compounds Nairobi Skyscrapers Native women near Zambezi River in Zambia Local transport equivalent of trucks and vans in US cities Women carry much more than men in kasama Zambia adult woman transports the equivalent of 357 tons a year compared to 71 tons typically trasnported by men by foot bicycle or automobile Yet development agencies have focused primarily on transport by men suggesting bicycles wheelbarrows donkey carts and pickup trucks to help transport their goods with less time given to women hauling wood water food etc Street vendor in Bamako Mali typical of workers in the informal economy Although informal trade helps relieve poverty the people who buy these goods and services face decreasing disposable incomes Many have had to shift in to the informal economy themselves as SAPs have forced governments to slash payrolls Often new entrants who tend to be male and slightly better off push existing informal traded many of them women out of positions they have held for years Zulus in native dress dance near a campfire for tourists who come to this village in Shakaland South Africa Commodify their culture for tourist recreation with many sacred traditions degraded for the sake of mere entertainment but also way for people to earn a living Kibumba Refugee camp in Zaire just one of many throughout the continent Political instability and violence in the region have created about half the entire world s refugee population three qualters of whom are women and children There are fewer male refugees because men are often drafted to serve in armies or militias Many of the political tensions that caused this dilemma are rooted in the borders of African countries drawn by Europeans without regard for ethnic and linguistic boundaries Cairo Egypt Looking southward up the Nile Largest and most economically important city in Egypt After years of stagnation inflation and unemployment Egypt s economy is turning around but unemployment still high Key Concepts in Urban I 1 Geography Overview of lecture a Scope of Urban Geography Defining Urban Place and Space a Brief History of Urban Geography e Levels of Analysis Scope of Urban Geography a quotUrban geographers are concerned to identifj and explain the distribution of towns and cities and the socospata similarities and contrasts that exist Within and between them Pacione p 20 a Spatial perspective central PHYSICAL G EOG RAPHY GEOGRAPHY HOUSING RESOURCE Urban site conditions Tenure condItIon MANAGEMENT environmental hazard aIIocat39on and GEOGRAPHY availability of AND housing PLANNING dSustainable evelopment Settlement dIstr butIon 39 39 WELFARE form and tunction the IUture my GEOGRAPHY CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY anmy of life serVIce prOVISIon Representations of others39 collective eg in terms of gender 1 consumption ethnicity sexuality 39 l Statistical analysis I I ECONOMIC 22 U RBAN simulation QUANTITATIVE labour markets G modelling E t f Conditfifons Within vo u ion 0 di ering settlement environmental and HISTORICAL patterns and form cutural settings GEOGRAPHY Ggg gg m Sociospatial t t Retail structure ssrelg elgrgtigng place promotion gentrification M rtaIIIy Electoral morbidity Moblllty SOCIAL MARKETING geography 39 quot GEOGRAPHY haecacg sggoe power acce35IbIlIty GEOGRAPHY citizenship Leisure tourism TRANSPORT MEDICAL Demographic GEOGRAPHY GEOGRAPHY StrUCtUI39e migration RECREATION POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY GEOGRAPHY POPULATION GEOGRAPHY Figure 21 The nature of urban geography What is urban a Is State College Urban What makes it urbanrural How is it different from or similar to a big city like New York or Philadelphia Why does it matter a Urban as entity Size Economic Base Administrative Criteria Functional Definition SMSA Standard MSA 0 MSA Metropolitan Statistical Area 0 PMSA Primary MSA CMSA Consolidated MSA What is urban 2 Urban as a quality Meaning of urban places and effect on people s lifestyles Subjective experience affects physical place Early notions Loss of community moral decline Jungle Now more complex notions of urbanism Place and Space a Place denotes physical location territory a Space is medium in which social economic and political processes operate a Dimensions of space include size density distance direction territory and location a Disconnection of place and space Cyberspace or Space of Flows Brief History of Urban Geography a Environmentalism early 19005 HumanEnvironment Interaction DescriptiveClassification Focus Central Place TheoryUrban Ecology a Positivism 1950519705 Scientific method Spatial analysis Quantitative deterministic a Behavioralism Cognitive mapping Brief History of Urban Geography2 a Humanism Untidiness of human activity Human agency consciousness creativity a Structuralism 1970s Underlying social economic political structures PoliticalEconomyMarxist approach 1 Managerialism Social closure not class Professional planning Brief History of Urban Geography3 a Postmodernism late 19805present Rejection of grand theory both positivism and structuralist Difference individuality multiple viewpoints subjectivity Unlimited relativism at Moral Philosophy Normative a Finding common ground Levels of analysis e Neighborhood Local economic declinerevitalization Segregation Service provision Neighborhood political organization a City Economic production and consumption Social networks Political power Levels of analysis2 a Region Megalopolis MegaCities Metropolitan area governance Citysuburb linkages a Nation National policy Urban systems a Global World system of cities Nonconsumption activities gags l 1W1 l e i r quot l ir V l l Vile l ofthepublicsector quot39cso n l8l i e cgilfliti l fmt ia Collective Consumption and Social Justice Yes a What IS collective consumption Yes 3 Services and social justice a case No organised and managed eg shops study has eWelfare needs and public goods 9 Restructuring of urban services A N0 5 Is the service N Publicly managed 439 a gz geg antga g f g7 paid for partly commercial service 39 out of taxes eg leisure pools Yes Yes Collective consumption process Figure 171 Determining whether a social process is an element of collective consumption aurce s AP USDA Forest Service Associated Hess Granhic l ge if 1339 File J f g iili l i t L W lie quot Il VJ l Case Study Fire ghting in LA Baszn Examples of urban services a Health care a Libraries e Schools 3 Social services 6 Sewage 9 Garbage a Police re a Transportation a Parks 1 Water La Anueles Times Marl Easter CI 543 l O Actively burning on Oct 27quot MlLES 739 i 3 Previously burned area Pa cOc 39 CI ean Ian I I Les engelea VI m Southern callforma cities 5 A 37 rimmed with re 339 r The dry hot Santa Ana winds that fanned the flames a began to ease Monday raising hopes that I r 39 re ghters could make progress with Ss n mega reinforcements California s deadliest outbreak of 3973 r res in more than a decade has consumed more 7 39 than 400000 acres 39 MEEFCO Date 1930 Gunner V996 Ouaber 39 Lemmy MALIBU PINESIUKMgt1930 96 10000 ACRES Arms ammo vsmo mugsSherwood 28599 Topaugix 15500 150 Woodland mus 18300 Venn 33 Sherwaudr Newian 3537 nu leexly 360 107 anll 3mm 40 Kana umE 75mm 230 Daymn any 54 we ambasas Mnhbu 18500 350 mm 6000 2 was Plus smalch hm app 2000 mm 1 nld My lugnwmum um Home imam l M Case Study Fire ghting in LA Basin nmrsuemzm ms am mmquot mm m an v rm 3 w r m m a m y ms ms mmquot a mm mum u um um I l mm mm 15 ms 35 mm in w cum1 z unz mum in m u mm y is m m y s in nu nmmm an m in u 5 m Collective Consumption s WestlakeDowntown high levels of urban fire incidence primarily human I Hillside fires high incidence of wildfires often re 0 Hillside residents defended by large army of firefighters insurance disaster relief si ies WestlakeDowntown residence fires might revented With even just minimal standards of building sa 3 m lt m u m m x public services l i UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights O everyone has the rig39tt to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and his family including food clothing ousing and medical care and the necessary social services and e rIght se urity in the e ent of unemployment beyond his control Pacione P 333 Meayaring Neea mum of name Meeting Welfare Need Mumai suwnrt of ram and Mantis c mama and vnhmtary mgamzannns IPrwate m arkeB Theories oanblie Service PWVlSllm nMsmlriurmgale mm mm m mum Dav ma mam Wlwnrn An zmsmvu mend Punk mt Wm mar m a deduwappeaiemenl mm a Imam An was mm armmm am uhmlannn a Neeuymmm 5 an E ma ma um nu mu m mum var Changing Nature af ne Welfare Ra tLavgew wt mm was ammg the 19305 cThreaten y a mum amiumem Etmumdrendi ummi rm D2mugrapmti Sorneforrn of restructuring upanai se frurnvisinmngldumesuzatmn ulntensi zaunn Ratmnahzannn Suhznntrattmqurwauzaunn seMargmahzannn of Labor usuaua ieimannn Takename rnexxage uCnHemvE miumphuniemm are a mini mum at uban Mmmenl arm was pulenhaHyhaw 3 quotmm mpa m mum mi Emily mngufierwe prwmm 522m la 2 mm immahly Housing and Housing Policy eHousing s multiple roles 9Types of Housing 6 Housing Markets 3 Housing PolicyUK Housing PolicyUS men uneman ywyye yo Ave 9 No Pay 9 e w s a gt a 4r 9 s 49 s 3ny v 5 Annuaiheame V 4 Samoa Fedemi esevwSumvaicansumev nances mp Nwwvvedemivesevw govpubslassassZscmdexmmi A Gudm r 5 mnemgmaes e s WaadmdAmaShap 7 Oxduxd CoHousing wwwcohousingorg Community Land Trusis hm wwwicecltorgclt him Hnusing Tenure and Dwelling Slack in Grezl rilzin191d1991 unuunuuuu 0 w F arms of H ousin g Assistance I Supply side a pupth bth and operated pousrn e Prwate v bu t pupth purchased or eased I Demand 539 u Housrng supsrdres Beam 5 of 1974 Housmg arrd Urban Dev Act a Tax Expendrtures orgage rrmerest property mx decucuon capnaw garrs exempum Rent CDNTO GRAPH a HUD AND TOYAL FEDERAL outLAvs1svs2ono mmrmu Auhk anlw mumquot mmanuwnnuag mm MK mom hwaw mun J an Lira Dalheare mm mm Changmg Pnonms m Farina Edgar and Housng Amman 19757217172 Washmgmn DC NanamlLWJnmmz Hausmg cmman Dalheaxe Cnshmg mm mm mp2 m FadamlEudgat and 80112715 Amman 1975217172 Washmgmn DC NatmmlLWJncamz H mlsmg cmnm GRAPH s ESIIMMED Dismmunou or HOUSING SUESIDIES BV INCOME uummz 2w sum Biliinns annnsmm 2am new Bulmm Susana mum TDD mm Income ulnule m mm mm an 3 mm inramzlimn sn 2 v rim mm m m w 454 m lbare Cushmg mu 1 Changmg Prtowmz m Federal Budget and Housmg Assstance 197572 002 Washingmn DC quotH T dicehome Points 3 Housing has multiple social and economic functions 0 Housing has particular characteristics that shape markets and access in peculiar ways a Housing assistance can take multiple forms but in US public assistance has been limited and has primarily benefited middle and upper income groups


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