Geography 20, Week 9 Notes
Geography 20, Week 9 Notes GEG 20CD
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEG 20CD at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Robert Ziegenfus in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Elements of Culture Geography in Geography at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
Geography 20—Week 9 Notes (21/3-25/3) Monday, March 21 Religion I. Religion A. Universalizing—trying to increase the number of people. These religions almost always have missionaries 1. Christianity 2. Catholicism 3. Islam i. Iraq and Iran often fight because of religious differencesShiite and Sunni (both branches of Islam 4. Buddhism B. Ethnic Religions—Specific to a certain people group and don’t have missionaries 1. Hinduism 2. The number of traditional religions in Africa have diminished during the last century C. Christianity—Began in Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan area and migrated west and eventually made it to the Americas (due to colonists in North America and Spanish conquistadors in South America) 1. The Apostle Paul was a famous missionary who spread Christianity around the Mediterranean Sea over three different journeys. Cities that he visited like Ephesus and Corinth are the basis of names of some of the New Testament books of the Bible based on the letters Paul wrote to those cities. 2. The Roman Emperor Constantine became a Christian in 313 AD and converted the rest of the Roman Empire 3. Conflict in Ireland arose because of the northern Protestant part of the country and the almost entirely Catholic southern portion of the country. The Catholics persecuted the Protestants and many were killed. Protestants would often wear orange on St. Patrick’s Day to defy the Catholics D. Buddhism—Began in India and moved east to China and surrounding countries 1. Very common in in the countries that it spread to 2. The swastika (Nazi symbol) originated from Buddhism and had an entirely different meaning 3. Buddha was originally an Indian prince named Sadartha and left an easy life to look for enlightenment (Buddha means “enlightened one”) 4. Japan has multiple religions including Buddhism and Shinto. People often pick the parts of each religion that they want to use 5. Remnants of Buddhismrdn India i. Sarnath is the 3 holiest site in India where Buddha supposedly met his five friends ii. Buddha was originally Hindu and brought some of those beliefs to Buddhism iii. Twenty-four moral laws are represented by a wheel with 24 spokes E. Islam—Began in Saudi Arabia and spread into Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. It is the only religion that is dominant in its hearth (area of origin) 1. Military campaigns were used to spread Islam—either people converted or they were killed 2. Muslims travel to Mecca (the birthplace of Muhammed) at least once in their lifetime 3. It is required that Muslims pray five times a day and face Mecca when they pray 4. Pilgrims going to Mecca always wear white to signify that they are all equal, regardless of class, race, etc. 5. Ramadan is a month-long period of fasting from sunrise to sunset 6. Polio has been spread through pilgrimages 7. In Algeria, it is illegal to try to convert Muslims to another religion 8. Islamic architecture in India—Taj Mahal: it was built by a wealthy man for th his wife who died having his 14 child F. Jerusalem—Divided into Christian, Muslim, Jewish, and Armenian quarters Wednesday, March 23 G. Hinduism—Oldest known religion with no specific founder or holy book, but have a holy language: Sanskrit 1. Three main gods: Shiva the Destroyer (also brings good luck), Vishnu the preserver of life, and Brahma the creator of life 2. Follows the caste systemIf you are born into one caste, you stay there your whole life and hope you are good enough to move up in the next life i. Rules: 1. Follow the path of duty, 2. Do what is appropriate for your caste, 3. Be devoted to the gods, 4. Pursue knowledge 3. The ultimate goal of the caste system is to be released from it and to become “one with the universe” or moksha 4. Highest caste are the Brahmins and the lowest caste (who don’t really count for anything) are the untouchables i. Chefs must be Brahmins so that other Brahmins don’t have to worry about someone who is below them making their food H. Hindu Culture 1. Arranged marriages are common, even in the US. Parents often put ads in the newspaper to find a spouse for their child 2. Acculturation in America has given the children veto power on their parents’ choice in a partner 3. Cultural Landscape in India i. Varanasi is the “holy city” of Hinduism which is located along the Ganges (which is the holy river). This river is believed to come directly from Shiva and the water is holy. Many people ask to have their bodies brought to this city and their ashes thrown into the river. It is the job of the eldest son to prepare parents’ bodies for cremation ii. Many people come to the Ganges to bathe, even though the water is extremely polluted iii. Some Brahmins sit in the river all day, constantly facing the sun and end up going blind. It seems they could care less because they are planning on being reincarnated in the next life iv. Hindu temples are rather magnificent and have the whole story of the religion carved into the outsides of their temples I. Religion in the US 1. Pennsylvania is mainly PA German, meaning the most common denomination is Lutheran, with the United Church of Christ (UCC) coming in second. Mennonite churches are also relatively common in this area. In the states surrounding PA, Methodism is very common 2. Religions Landscapes i. Megachurch—at least a couple thousand members in the congregation ii. Storefront Church—more common in the cities and has a pretty small membership iii. Local Landscape—Mennonites, Jewish synagogues, Muslim mosques, Hindu temples (oftentimes shared with Buddhists, due to small populations in both religions in this area) iv. Neighborhood Turnover—churches changing as the surrounding population changes v. Berks County—Primarily Lutheran and UCC 3. Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints) i. Joseph Smith (founder, from Rochester, NY) supposedly had a dream in which the angel Maroni told him to translate a bunch of metal plates (he never actually translated all of them) ii. Holy books are the Book of Mormon (primary) and the Bible (secondary) iii. Mormonism was officially founded on April 6, 1830 iv. Joseph Smith and the other Mormons moved to Illinois because polygamy was looked down upon in NY v. Both Joseph and his brother Hiram were killed for their faith. Even after Joseph died, his wife stayed in their home in IL.