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Evolutionary Psychology

by: Ms. Olin Runte

Evolutionary Psychology PSYCH 269

Ms. Olin Runte
Penn State
GPA 3.73

Cathleen Hunt

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Cathleen Hunt
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Date Created: 11/01/15
PSYCHOLOGY 269 EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY Ev Psych Basic Concepts 0 We survived reproduced and gave rise to a universal human nature via natural selection Darwinian principles 0 Psychology tries to explain many human experiences 0 Motherhood Beauty Kinship Cooperation Sexuality Violence 0 Ev psych is a cohesive field and the only coherent theory that can explain this phenomena under one umbrella o Parsimony 0000 0 Basics 0 Mind has evolved via natural selection to solve problems encountered by our huntergatherer ancestors 0 Critical period for this was the upper Pleistocene Over 10000 years ago 0 Aka EEA 0 Environment of Evolutionary Adaptation o Asks the quotwhyquot questions 0 What purpose or function does the behaviortrait serve 0 Universal not cultural in uences o Proximate nowwhat how where and when vs Distal EEA why did it work at all explanations ofbehavior Examples of Proximate vs Distal 0 Sex differences in US crime stat 0 Finding Men are more physically violent than women proximate I Why Distal 0 Resource preservation environmental pressure 0 Women are limited resources I 9 months pregnancy vs the time to perform the sexual act 0 Finding Humans today are fearful of snakes and spiders proximate I In US 175 deaths a year snakesspiders I Both included in quotTop 7 Fears 0 But not cars or guns 0 42000 deathsyr proximate I Why Distal o Encountering these animals on a daily basis during EEA 0 Modern context Evocative fear and awareness 0 Vehicles and guns are not part of EEA no perceived fear Why do we prefer certain traits of attractiveness o Males vs females 0 Women like same or older 0 Men prefer younger o Attractive vs unattractive women 0 Attractive women are quotcutequot cuteyouth 0 Men prefer the quotattractive prototype the most neotonic retention of child like traits o Neoteny o quotbabylike or juvenile form of the species 0 Survival of the cutest I They are cared for survival strategy 0 Women prefer older deeper voice quotstrong forehead triangle facial structure Evolutionary Psych 4 questions 1 Why is the mind designed the way it is 2 How is the mind designed via selection 3 What are the functions of these designs a Designed to do 4 How does input from the current environment interact with designs to produce Assumptions of the SSSM Standard social science model 1 The Blank Slate Tabula Rasa a A tendency to overrely on socialization processes culture to explain behavior b EX socialization of gender gt female cook i Boys quotlearnquot to play with trucks SSSM ii Most gender traits actually determined by biosex c EX quotMZ twins are similar bc they have been treated the same by parents and society SSSM i However MZ twins are remarkably similar for 1 Personality job choice hobbies 2 Divorce susceptibility relationship stability 2 quotThe Long Leash of Genes a Only a few quotinstinctsquot exist Evolutionary Psych quotGenetic Determinism Argue that quotBiology is not destiny Cite Nature vs Nurture Debate quotB etter Analogy i Recipe is genetic code ii From conception the ingredients are set iii How dough turns out is up to nurture f Other criticisms i Ev Psych is quotIustso stories ii Refers to an untested and possibly untestable account about the exact way in which a particular trait came into existence quotThe Blind Watchmaker Better example Morning Sickness Hypothesis QEDPP 0 Morning sickness is the result of the mother s appetite adjusting to the fragile immune system of the fetus 0 Empirical Evidence quotWhy we get sick Higher levels ofmorning sickness are associated with less likelihood of miscarriage 0 Can you really know the EEA 0 Response The EEAM one in which I Pregnancy was risky result of bipedal evolution I Infant mortality rates were high I Diseases parasites were prevalent I Tribal groups were kinbased I Humans cooperated weach other I Humans competed for resources and mates Naturalistic Fallacy quotNatural is Normal Mistaken idea that an evolutionary approach excuses many of the quotevilsquot in society on the basis that they are natural 0 EX quotRapequot Thornhill o Bigger meaning to humans 0 Homicide of stepchildren Daly amp Wilson I Adopted children are more at risk to being abused I Response 0 Evolutionary Psych explains behavior it does not justify it Evolution prior to Darwin 0 Evolution refines to change over time in organic structure Lamark 17441829 Biology study oflife is a distant science 0 2 causes of species change quotsoft inheritance I Species have a natural tendency to progress towards a higher form I Inheritance of original traits o EX Giraffes neck grows to reach tree through evolution Baron Cuvier 17691832 Catastrophes o Extinction is a fact 0 Prior belief I quotGod s creations are perfect 0 Species that get extinguished periodically by sudden catastrophes meteors etc and then replaced by a different species Other Evidence in Biology 0 Biologists recording bewildering varieties of species many with structural similarities o EX humans chimps and orangutans have 5 digits on each hand and foot 0 Wings of birds are similar to appers of seals and arms of humans Evidence by other quotevolutionistsquot 0 Species posses characteristics that seem to have a purpose 0 EX quills of porcupine shell of turtle beak of bird I quotobvious functionality requires an explanation o What was missing 0 A theory to explain how change might take place over time and how adaptive structures came into existence 0 A causal mechanism or process to explain this phenomena Darwin s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Evolution by natural selection DarwinWallace 0 Alfred Wallace independently discovered natural selection 185 3 copresented at a meeting of the Lemian Society 0 Finding species like the gliding tree frog Darwin s 18311835 travels on the Beagle 0 Especially noted his info on the Galapagos finches 0 Each island had a different species of finch o quotOn the Origin of Species 1859 3 Essential Ingredients 0 Variance Inheritance and Selection 0 Heritableparentsinheritanceancestors 0 Current definition of evolution change in allele frequencies in population Variance 1 Organisms vary in all sorts of ways a Wing length bone mass social cunning etc ability to read people b Variation is the raw material for evolution Inheritance 2 Only some of these variations are inherited i Has to be able to be passed on b Parents to offspring i Germ cells inherited mutation c NOT Lamarkian i Deformation after birth Selection 3 Selection a Organisms with some heritable variants leave more offspring because those traits help with task of survival or reproduction BOTTOME LINE Differential Reproductive Success b Possession of traits that decrease or increase individual s chance of survival AND reproducing fitness Evolution by Natural Selection 4 basic principles 1 All species are capable ofproducing more offspring that there are resources to support a Rabbits in the Yukon 2 Offspring vary in traits that are genetically inherited from parents a Some rabbits are grey others white 3 Offspring traits that allow exploitation of limited resources are more quotfitquot 4 Some associated with fitness enhancing traits are more likely to spread in that species Basic Differential Reproduction Kakapo Parrot 0 Too many males in captivity 0 Limit resources evened out malefemale population illogical route but worked with laws of nature Resource Variation 0 Sex Allocation Theory 0 For resources if son born his fitness is in jeopardy not full potential 0 Plentiful resources males can grow to full potential and become strong too many to compete with females Adaptations o Trait designs that are preserved by the natural selection mechanism 0 Aid in survival and reproduction Mutations 0 Mistake or copying error in replication of DNA 0 Mistake is transmitted from parent to offspring may manifest in phenotype o Genotype can be different from phenotype dying of hair Chance and Law 0 Chance mutation for the most part occur randomly 0 Law mutation must offer some advantage if it is to propagate Preadaptation aka cooption susception cooptation MISSING DAY SEPTEMBER 11TH Imperfection of Design 0 EX Bipedal locomotion o A modification from quadrapedal and treeclimbing adaptations present in primate ancestors o Exaptation to serve need for longerrange foraging and expanded territory Bipedal Locomotion 0 Modern evidence for quotImperfectionquot 0 Current prevalence oflower back problems we tend to sit and we are not designed to do so 0 Women more apt to climbing and less clumsy on the playground adaptation from roots not as good at distance running as males are 0 Competing adaptation with female s wide hips pregnancy I Climbing behavior in young children 0 Boys vs girls I Head injuries 0 Boys vs girls Characteristics of Adaptations 1 Specialization a Evidence for a specific trait or body morph 2 Costly usually calorically a Inefficient but if it leads to better fitness species will pay the quotcostquot even ifit is at a disadvantage calorically 3 Known via quotComparative Method a Looking at function and structure of trait across andor within species b Traits associated with specific environments c EX i Eyeless vs sightless vs sighted shrimp ii Binocular vision in birds 4 Adaptations may be currently outofdate a EX Current human quotsuper market diet b Adaptations often fail in novel environments c Susceptibility i Natural selection cannot create adaptations in a proximate environment to rare or nonexistent environments 9 natural selection is slow d EX Pima Indians Tuscon i 70 obesity ii 30 diabetes SENSATION AND PERCEPTION quotNatural History of the Senses Sensation vs Perception Sensation biological o The actual physical response to concrete stimuli o The basic detection of sensory information Perception psychological o The psychological process ofinterpreting the sensory information or stimuli o A process ofintegrating and organizing sensory information o EX You have stomach quot uttersquot I Are you in love I Are you afraid MISSING DAY September 16 2009 Olfaction o Thresholds o Yessmell 0 Sometimes no 39smell but behavioral changes 0 Pheromones Two types of Pheromones 0 Primer Pheromones 0 Produce changes in the endocrine system hormonal system of receiving animal 0 EX Prepubescent female hamsters I Reach menarche earlier when placed with unrelated males 0 EX Dormitory effect I Synchronization ofmenstrual cycle among humans I Why Individually fitness enhancing 9 having babies at the same time can take care of other s if they die out o EX Stepfamilies Martin amp Daly I Girls reach puberty earlier than girls living with biological father and brothers I Why 0 Releaser Pheromones o Elicit specific behavior patterns I EX In most mammals that are social the males does more guarding behavior of female during ovulation I quotGuns Germs Steel Diamond I quotKiller Sperm I EX Tshirt study 0 Men Found tshirts worn by ovulating women the most 39attractive 0 Women Found tshirts worn by symmetrical men the most attractive 9 symmetry is a proxy for healthy I Mate Selection 0 Symmetry has been shown to be an indicator of pathogen resistance or 39good genes 0 Origins ofkissing o Mastication of Food I EiblEibesfelt I MothersOffspring o Peacemaking I De Waal o Pheromones Ackerman I Females prefer histocompatibility complexes MHC different from their own I Exchanged via pheromones I Avoiding inbreeding 0 Depth Perception amp Depth Clues o Binocular cues 2 eyes same plane 25 apart 0 Visual Cliff Studies 0 Developmentally when for humans perceive depth I When they need it 9 when they become mobile MISSING SEPTEMBER 23RD 2009 an ciml he asW f Whv do we sleep 0 Exploiting Same Teritory 0 OR 0 Different ecological Niches o Distal Explantion o Dinural Daytime vs Nocturnal nighttime 0 Human evidence I Humans sleep more during winter hours 0 Restoratative Functions beyond saving calories 0 Stages of Sleep cool vs warm cycles repair 0 EEG of Sleeping Brain 0 Purpose of REM Dreaming brain 0 Dreams 0 Structure and function 0 Visual images I Occipital lobe is activated without optic nerve I Most report that their dreams play out like quota movie 0 Logic and Emotion I Limbic center is Active I Emotional Center of brain I Prefrontal cortex INACTIVE 0 NO judgment organization logic or rational 0 Memory 0 Long term memory I Active People and events from the past common 0 Shortterm memory I Inactive Dreamer forgets what happens and accepts rapidly shifting scenes 0 Top four dreams experienced o Chased or pursued 0 Sexual experiences 0 Falling 0 School teachers and studying quotKinds of Minds Demett 0 Gender and Adult Dreams 0 Men of all cultures I Involve more physical aggression I More punching chasing breaking stealing amp kicking 0 Women mostly of all cultures I Aggression is in the form ofinsult or rejection 0 EXAMPLES I quotThat dress makes you look fat I Weddings but with something wrong I Babies especially new mothers but with something wrong 0 Children amp Nightmares Protection Model 95 of children report fear of quotmonstersquot with catlike characteristics claws fangs felids This includes children as young as preschool age Zyrs Location of fear 0 Boys Monster is I Behind door I Curtains I To the side 0 Girls Monster is I Under the bed I From underneath Even if sleep on oor Current Research Questions amp Answers 0 Why is sleep cycling universally present in mammals and birds 0 Primates and birds I prrevented from REM will have vivid dreams during nonREM sleep I Primates who have gone days without sleeping will quotdreamquot while awake o Microsleeps sleep intrusion 0 Physiological Adaptations I All mammals and birds regulate body temperature unique I REM heats up the brain and nonREM cools it off indicates repair 0 Exaptation Model Function is still unknown I EXAMPLE Breathing oxygenates blood also play instruments talk etc What is Specific FunctionZAdaptation of Dreams 0 quotEmergency Broadcast system I People rehearse how they would react in the real situation I Dreams tend to be more 39positive as night moves on I Dreams later in nightearly in morning are more likely to be recalled Memory amp Learning 0 Memory I The memory circuits of the brain are activated by selfgenerating brain waves primarily during REM I Indicates a major role in memory consolidation 0 Learning I Animls increase their REM sleep following learning sessions 0 REM only occurs in mammals higher intelligence and is absent in non mammals like reptiles REM Rebound 0 When REM is deprived primates spend more time in REM during neXt uninterrupted sleep 0 Dreaming enhances what has been learned physically and mentally I EXAMPLE I Enhanced gymnastic performances Problem Solving 0 Visual problems get help from dreaming I EXAMPLE How to fit old furniture in a new apartment 0 Dream about unfinished business I EXAMPLE Talking to a friend about a disagreement 0 Provides insight without the stress of trying to get insight no prefrontal cortex activity Theory of Mind Do you understand my mind GAZE What are you looking at Consciousness as Awareness A Theory of Mind The ability to attribute mental states to others and to use those attributions as means of explaining and predicting behavior 0 Modern Humans does not appear until 3 years of age 0 With little effort humans draw conclusions about 0 Thoughts 0 Motives o Intentions o Motivations Of other humans other animals based on behavioral and situational cues Importance of Theory of Mind and Sense of Self research in primates 0 Provides insight into the capacities of the common ancestor of the ape and homonin MISSED SEPTEMBER 30th 0 What are the Origins of Consciousness o Dennett I Once selfsufficient singlecell organisms emerged we saw the origins of 39selfy 0 Once you have to move around you have to have awareness of what s out there not necessarily consciousness seed to it quotKind of Minds quotDarwin s Dangerous Idea 0 Dawkins I It is adaptive to make ourselves the objects of our thought I What did I do to make you angry with me I Is that branch strong enough to hold me o Negotiation of trees we re heavier and less able to bounce back and forth 0 Naturalistic Observations Povinelli amp Cant 1995 o Clambering Hypothesis I quotThe demand of locomotion oflarger ancestor through tree canopy led to development in larger primates the ability to think of themselves as separate entities I Smaller ancestor of monkey did not need this ability I quotHighlevel kinesthetic selfrepresentation I quotKinestheticself allowed for planning and executing sophisticated movements among tree branches 0 Machiavellian Apes o Frans de Waal Chimpanzee Politics 1982 0 Numerous observations of I Deception I Counterdeception I Alliance formation I Reciprocity I Doublecrossing 0 Observations ofDeception I Male chimps cover external signs of sexual arousal or fear to avoid tipping off another chimp to his intentions de Waal Angry male chimps feign appeasement holding out hand only to spring an attack de Waal Young chimp convinced others to leave feeding area with a quothey what s over there then doublebacked Goodall Young baboon Paul Getting 39hard to get food from lower ranking adult female 0 39crying wolf mom came to rescue de Waal Motivation amp Emotion o Are emotions just as responsible as rational thought for our uniquely human qualities 0 Are primate human consciousness andor intellect based on emotion Consider the Following 0 The Case of Elliot Antonio Damasio 1994 0 Patient suffered from a frontal lobe brain tumor that required surgical removal Surgery had no direct negative effects on intellectual functioning I ie memory working memory intelligence 0 However intellect was disassociated from his emotions I Eg could not make 39gut decisions I Had no feelings about his decisions 0 Payoff Decks 0 Decisionmaking abilities ofpatients with similar frontallobe damage Payoff Decks Risk Assesment o Conservative Advantageous vs Risky Disadvantageous Decks 0 Risky I Decks of cards with gains and losses 0 Conservative I Other decks with small losses and gains 0 Trial amp Error figure out decks I Directions quotMaximize your money Normal Successful strategy conservative deck Frontal Lobe Damage equal chance of choosing decks Normal also had increased Galvanic Skin Response GSR sweaty palms when even 39thinking about risky deck 0 Freeing of thought from emotion is impairment Emotion towards morality 0 Normal subjects 0 High GSR and report of disturbing thoughts while viewing images of suffering and murder 0 Frontallobe Damage Subjects 0 Showed no GSR changes and remained undisturbed by images 0 quotI know I should feel something but I don t Emotions as Evolved Knowledge 0 Knowledge From EvPsych perspective 0 Any physical state of the organism that allows it to adaptively relate to it s environment 0 How do creatures come to adaptively 39know their environment Answer Emotions o Primate work Iones amp Mishkin 70s 0 Monkeys with pattern recognition part of temporal lobes disconnected from emotional center amygdala o 39Psychic Blindness o Organism cannot appreciate the a ectiveness emotional quality of what it sees EX Snakes little or no reaction Inedible objects same as sweet objects Can see but no significance to what it sees 0 Lost their 39street smarts o Emotions inform the organism about HOW to relate adaptively to the environment EvPsych Functions of Emotions 0 As evolved forms of knowledge about the environment emotions perform 4 important functions 1 Filter and amplify fitnessrelevant info from environment Serve as honest signals about an organism s internal state Regulate social interactions Act as superordinate regulatory programs for directing behavior modularity Steven Pinker Are Emotions Evolved 0 When does ability to interpret emotions begin 0 Which picture would you rather look at How do you feel SiX Universal Facial Emotions Paul Ekman 0 Happy 0 Fear 0 Anger OOO gts 0 Sad o Disgust 0 Surprise 39Facial Impressions Reading Faces by Leslie A Zebrowitz 0 Computer manipulated facial expressions neotonic quotStillFace Paradigm aka stony face 0 Mom interacts normally with baby 0 Mom is 39stillface 0 Baby attempts to reengage Mom 0 Mom reengages the baby 0 Baby shows 39relief Four Functions 1 Emotions as Filters amp Amplifiers a To functions adaptively we must be able to filter incoming information b attend to and process the most relevant and discard the rest c Emotional arousal 39narrows attention so energy is concentrated where needed 1 Physiobased mechanisms behind emotional ltering i Anderson amp Phelps 2001 Nature ii Subjects rapidly shown words in black ink and a few words in green 1 39Watch out for the green words keys people up iii Attentl39onal Blink 1 Once 39target T1 was found they relaxed momentarily and an immediate subsequent target is missed T2 2 However if the 2 101 target was emotionally charged a ie rape blood b attentional focus is reengaged ie NO attentional blink e People with damaged amygdala ALWAYS showed attentional blink f Emotional responding serves to energize and focus on relevant aspects of the environment while disregarding other aspects 0 Emotions as Amplifiers 0 Enhanceamplify the experience ofinformation I Pigs and Truf es ie excited to scent of truf es I Females can find up to 1m buried truf e o Truf es process chemical similar to that emitted by male pigs during mating o Humans Discriminative Amplifiers I When making emotionally 39neutral judgments we are accurate 0 EX estimating the length ofa line segment Visual task I When stimulus causes an emotional reaction pain our experience expands o EX pain experienced from electrical shockincreases more rapidly ie exponentially than the actual physical increases in shock o Doubling intensity from 30 to 60 volts more than doubles the perceived pain 1 Emotions as Honest Signals a It is dif cult to not express emotions b Goodall i Adolescent male found fruit so excited 39hooted lost fruit to older males ii Next time his attempt to hide his hoots caused him to gag MISSED OCTOBER 1214 16 amp 23ml How does Bounded Rationality Fail Us 0 Availability Heuristic 0 We tend to overestimate the frequency of things that come easily to our mind 0 The single example is considered as representative of the whole rather than as just a single example in a range of data Information Formats 0 Much modern information is presents to us in the form of statistics and we are poor intuitive statisticians 0 Base Rte Neglect 0 An error that occurs when weak evidence is used to make a probability judgment without talking sufficient account of known empirical statistics about the probability of that event Probability vs Frequency Data 0 We are adapted to use frequencies we are natural counters 0 We acquire this information automatically Gambler s Fallacy Monte Carlo Fallacy o More evidence about humans being poor statisticians o Gamblers Fallacy A false belief that independent events are related 0 EX Playing Craps Throws of die are independent events 0 Most players will throw the dice harder to get a high number 0 Soft for lower number Final Points 0 In the real world the gambler s fallacy is real 0 We are designed to find patterns and most of the time patterns exist 0 Is there ripe fruit among those leaves 0 Is your past behavior the best predictor of future behavior 0 Iran into danger here before is it dangerous now Chapter 8 Learning Prepardness quotAn innate tendency to more easily learn certain types ofbehaviors or learn associations between certain types of events 0 EX Monarchs distatsteful Viceroys are tasteful Viceroys mimic monarch appearance Birds avoid monarchs and viceroys Operant Conditioning Clothes on oor SD pick up Clothes R 9 Allowances SR Discriminative Stimuli Behavior 9 Reward Keller amp Marian Breland 39The Misbehavior of Organisms First published in American Psychologist 16 681684 1961 The 39IQ 200 Arkansas in the 60s Pig amp Raccoon o Trained to put coins in piggy bank I Coins SD Coin in Bank R 9 Food SR 0 What happened instead Fig I Coin NS UCS Food 9 Rooting UCR o Raccoon I Coin NS UCS Food 9 Washing UCR I Coin CS 9 Washing UCR o Anomalous Behavior during and after operant conditioning Instinct Drift O Instinctive Drift AKA instinctual Drift An instance of CC in which biogenetic predispositions or fixedactionpatterns FAPs emerge and displace the behavior that was operantly conditioned MISSED October 28th Motivation Petrinovich cont d Even motivation thirst or hunger does not help learning 0 Where do we find water 0 Where do we find food Water is found in reservoirs that tend to be plentiful Food found in varying locations 0 Mobile food prey 0 Grain patches consumed completely Spatial task differences between men and women 0 Theory base I Mating leave the group to find a mate 0 Sexual dimorphism I Tasks hunter vs gatherer The Hunter vs The Gatherer Men 0 Moving in 3D space hunting prey o ie moving through space at ground level 0 Women 0 Moving in 2d spce gathering 39aerial maps objects in relation to each other 0 Use of reference points Predispositioned Ability o Regardless of culture women know and learn more readily info about plants than men Men are better at navigation through unfamiliar terrain 0 When giving directions women use landmarks men use directions 39Getting Lost 0 Men can say what directions compass points to find way back 0 Women use landmarks to find way back 0 EX quotHow do I get to bed bath and beyond I Male I Female Adjunctive Behaviors 0 Excessive patterns ofbehavior emerging as a byproduct ofpartially reinforcing another behavior 0 Usually with Fixed Interval Schedules o ie time periods that follow when reinforcer unavailable Basically 39Forced Waiting 0 EX 0 Schedule induced polydispsia I Rats drinking excessively during postreinforcement pause for food 0 Aggression I Packtroop animals attacking one another after receiving food 0 Pleasure center stimulation I Rats eating food after receiving pleasurecenter stimulation Features of Adjunctive Behaviors Falk 0 Usually occurs during postreinforcem ent of another behavior 0 Increase in deprivation of reinforcer increase in adjunctive behaviors 0 Appears like Displacement o Irrelevant behavior when animal is confronted by con ict or kept from goal 0 I can t kick you I ll kick the door venting releasing o I can t eat I ll gnaw on my paw 0 Not use Jl in obtaining actual goal 0 Often associated withfeelings ofregaining control Common Primate Adjunctives Nail biting Fidgeting Snacking Smoking DruggingDrinking Nonprimate animals 0 Birds can t reach insects they ll peck at leaves 0 Dog can t play then dig in bed From Learning Perspective 0 Adjunctive Behaviors seen as the origin of disordered behaviors 0 Includes Eating Disorders 0 Compulsive Eating o Anorexia o Pica Eating nonnutritive substances dirt clay etc 0 Anxiety Disorders 0 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Chapter 9 Individuality quotThe Handicap Principle Why we see variation in the wild involving fitness and genes Individuality o For the most part Physical and mental expressions ofindividuality should take place when variation is adaptive 0 Different strategies towards a common end of survival and reproduction Tied to the following 0 39Sexual Selection 9 Peacock with their plume and dimorphism o Sustain variability o Produces traits that are reliable cues indicating varying fitness of individuals 0 Lack of pressure towards universality o EX Height hair color and head hair texture Why adaptive variation 0 The actual level of the trait optimum value is dependent upon the immediate environment while still maintaining a mean level of the trait o Sparrow Example 0 A balance of scanning and feeding necessary for survival 0 Too much scanning for predators starvation 0 Too much feeding less vigilance death by predation 0 Environmental input dictates which is more adaptive o Drought adaptive to feed more 0 Rainy season more predators more vigilance needed 0 If the environment social or physical can change within an individual s lifetime then variation or trait behavior is adaptive o FrequencyDependent Selection 0 Most Adaptive trait at any given time depends up on the relative frequency of the available strategies in the population 0 EX Humans Thornhill A Natural History of Rape Who Rapes crowding too many males Young males often disenfranchised or ostracized Who gets Raped 0 Women limited resource of fertile age MISSED FRIDAY 1115 Common F nlntinarvbased quot o Extraversion o In pops needing leadership 0 Lots of change 0 Suspicion low on agreeable 0 Resources are limited 0 Watching over mate 0 Conscientiousness 0 Lazy in hot weather 0 Active in cool weather Is personalitV oan A A upon environment 0 Jay Belsky says yes 0 Father absence amp presence of unrelated males prodicts 0 Sexual precociousness in females 0 More impulsive erratic behavior overall 0 Hobart Cleveland says no 0 Who is more likely to develop stable mating relationships I Behavior Genetics Approach 0 Erratic people are less likely to form stable relationships 0 These traits of impulsivity are passed on to offspring Chapter 10 Health quotWhy Zebras Don t Get Ulcers quotWhy We Get Sick Death amp Disease 0 1 cause of death is cardiovascular disease heart attackstroke 0 Most disease associated with old age and diet 0 Do westernized healers take the origin of the body into consideration Six Categories of Evolutionary Explanation of Disease and Illness o Defenses o Often confused with manifestation of disease 0 Examples I Coughing Expels foreign objects from respiratory tract I Fever Allows body to heal more quickly 0 Infection 0 Leading cause ofdeath prior to 1900sinfection o Hygieneantibiotics have significantly decreased however 0 Antibiotics allow resistant strains to ourish o EX I Iron deficiency and bacteria 0 Ifyour body is warding off bacteria that thrive on iron the body s natural defense is to ironwithhold o Wellintended doctors prescribe iron supplements 9 making patients more ill I Zulu men amp increased liver infections drink beer from iron pots I lt10 Masai tribesmen have infections drink large amounts of milk I Somali nomads provided iron supplements 40 increase in infections 0 Novel Environments 0 Our bodies are designed to live in small groups lt100 of huntersgatherers on the plains ofAfrica 0 Natural Selection as not had time to revise body to cope with I CrowdingStranger overload I And 0 Fatty Diets 0 Cars 0 Drugs 0 Artificial lightsheating 0 Genes 0 Genes that were harmless are now maladaptive o EX I Genes predisposing to heart disease were harmless until superfatty diets become common 0 Genes that cause disease are selected for bc also provide benefits I EX Gene that causes sicklecell also prevents malaria 0 Design Compromises o The costs associated with every major structural change reserved by natural selection 0 EX I Walking upright gives us ability to carry food and babies travel longer distances I 9 but predisposes us to back problems Chapter 11 Abnormal Psychology 4 Basic Standards for Categorizing a Psychological Disorder 0 Statistical Infrequency 0 Compare the frequency ofbehavior to others ie it is rare 0 I Others are out to get me 0 You vs The President I Aliens are out to get me I What about Olympians or people with IQs over 180 0 Disability or Dysfunction 0 Thoughts emotions or actions that interfere with ability to function in own life AND within society 0 EX I Primary Criteria for drug use I Thoughts ofpersecution keep you from going to work or out into open spaces 0 Personal Distress o The individual s judgment of hisher own functioning level 0 EX I Someone who drinks heavily and wishes to stop 0 Violation of Norms 0 Social norms cultural norms amp rules that guide behavior in particular situations I Bipolar disordered person 0 Taking clothes off 0 Asking for sex 0 While grocery shopping Classi in Abnormal Behaviors The DSMIV o The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4 Ed 1994 TR 2000 0 Aids in communication among mental health professionals 0 Must have a diagnosis for insurance companies 0 Specific rulesquestions clinicians use to be reliable and consistent Evolutionary Interpretation of Dysfunction o A mechanism is not performing as it was designed to perform in the conteth in which it was designed to function 3 Ways Evolved Mechanisms Can Fail 0 Activation Failure 0 Mechanism fails to become activated when relevant adaptive problem is confronted I You confront a snake that is threatening to strike but you fail to become afraid or take evasive action 0 Context Failure 0 Mechanism becomes activated in contexts in which it was not designed to become activated 0 EX I Becoming sexually attracted to inappropriate persons such as children or close relatives 0 Coordination Failure 0 Mechanism fails to coordinate as it was designed to coordinate with other mechanisms 0 EX I Failure to accurately assess one s own mating value I Mate assessment 0 Mind Blindness Narcissism I Failure to estimate strength or power in a possible altercation with foe or predator o Antipredator selfassessment Causes pf Mechanism Failure 0 Genetic Factors G o Chance variation or genetic defects 0 Mutation o EX I Rare gene couplings not as heritable 0 Some types of schizophrenia 0 Provides variation but also mechanism failure 0 Many mental disorders have heavy mutation loads large of mutations 9 tendency heritable I Autism I Bipolar disorder I Schizophrenia 0 Developmental Insults Environ or E O I Brain injury toxins pathogens 0 Combo ofinsults amp genes G X E o EX I MZ twin studies with adoption est schizophrenia to be 50 heritable Evolutionary Insights Into Dysfunction o Mismatch o Discrepancy between modern and ancestral environments 0 Eg Large number of strangers I Stress beginning of anxietystress disorders Mate Value Example David Buss quotThe evolution of desire Robert Trivers o Are you out of my league 0 Assessments of mate value were probably accurate 0 50100 people How do people assess mat value Mine yours 9 Comparison of everyone around you Each sex competing with same sex How does mismatch theory apply here 9 More people are going to be available What are modern contexts that lead us to inaccurately assess mate value 9 Going to perceive yourself as unattractive based on media Crowding issue meeting a lot of strangers makes meeting of mate more probable What we know 0 Population is substantially larger 0 Image 39overload from several sourcesinternet tv etc 9 airbrushed females physical males 0 Fashion modelsactresses are often extremely attractive I But image of them are presented in high frequency 0 Effect of O Artificially lowering women s judgments of their mate value compared to others in local pool of mates 0 Pop growth we see escalated intrasexual competition for women causing drastic measures to increase attractiveness I Image disorders eating disorders depression 0 Normal mistakes accompanying the quoton average function ofa mechanism 0 All mechanism work because quoton average benefits outweigh costs 0 They worked across a sample space of ancestral environments but not all environments 0 so these mechanisms can also produce mistakes 0 EX I Inferring sexual intent where nonexists I quotI just want to be friends I quotHe s just not that into you MISSED FRIDAY NOVEMBER 20m r vs K r or within species short lived insects many offspring limited parenting K 9 long lived humans few offspring very high parental investment Individual level r within species having kids at 15 16 Multiple partners risky strategy K delay of gratification wait until education to make family few kids more investment The content of women s preferences 0 Offering Economic Resources 0 Most ancient and pervasive basis for female choice in the animal kingdom Gray Shrike Bird of Negev Desert Israel Breeding season Males amass 39Caches of edible prey and useful objects for nest building 120 objects I Snails I Snakes I Feathers I Cloth 0 Items are impaled on thorns and twigs in their territory Two preconditions of women s preferences 0 Resource were accruable defensible and controllable by men during evolutionary history 0 Men would have to differ from each other in their holdings and share them with a woman 0 Human males invest the most resources of all mammalsprimates o Uniquely human 9 tutoring I Zebra finch males tutor sons in song 0 Male humans help provide I Food shelter defend territory protect OOO I Sports I Hunting I Fighting I Hierarchy negotiation I Friendship I Social in uence 0 Status transfer aiding offspring in forming reciprocal alliances later in lifeoffspring on territory or resources Modern Studies leg Buss 0 Personal ads 0 Women prefer o Higher status 0 Financial prospects 0 Somewhat older males Preference for Dependability 0 Highest valued traits for women 0 Love 0 Dependable character 0 Emotional stabilitymaturity 0 These traits possess value for two reasons 0 Reliable signals that resources will be provided consistently over time 0 Men who lack dependability and emotional stability provide erratically and in ict emotional cost 0 Physical preference 0 Cues of good health and physical appearance 0 Dad vs Cad 39player 0 Symmetry neoteny MISSED WEDNESDAY DEC 1 Evolved Standards of Physical Beauty 0 Two types of observabe evidence 0 1 Features ofphysical appearance I Full lips I Clear skin I Smooth skin I Clear eyes I Lustrous hair length I Muscle tone I Body fat distribution WHR o Femine face I Fuller lips I Thinner jaw I Larger eyes I Small chin Critical WaisttoHi I Small distance bw mouth and jaw I High cheekbones I linked with more estrogen o 2 Features ofBehavior I Bouncy gait I Animated facial expression I High energy level Ratio or the WHR Sin h Underweight Average weight Overweight o 50 yrs of playboy centerfolds 0 Beauty contests Why 7 Earlier onset of puberty More likely to get pregnant More likely to survive birthingsame as baby fewer caesarean Indication of overall and longterm health less diabetes and cardiovascular disease 7 correlated with higher estradiol best predictor of fertility and pregnancy success Body best possesses omega 3amp6 fats brain dev Cultural variance in fat preferences 0 Food is plentiful most attractive thinner 0 Food is scarce most attractive plumper Short Term Mating One year perioddozens of mates 0 Man dozens ofpregnancies 0 Woman 1 child Empirical evidence for sex difference in desire for shortterm mating o How many sex partners would you ideally like 0 Men 18 in their lifetime 0 Women 45 Another psychological solution to the problem of gaining sexual access to a variety ofpartners for males 0 Quick turn over time bw meeting and actual sex quotThe Wham Bam Less time elapsed more women with whom to copulate Men and women rating 0 Short Term Clarke amp Hatfield Men and women experimenters approached total strangers on a college campus and said 0 quotHi I ve been noticing you around campus and I find you very attractive Asked one of three questions 0 quotWould you go out on a date with me 0 quotWould you go back to my apartment with me 0 quotWould you have sex with me 0 Of the women approached by the male experimenters o 50 agreed to date 0 6 agreed to go to apt o 0 agreed to have sex 0 Of the men approached by the female experimenters o 50 agreed to date 0 69 agreed to go to apt o 75 agreed to have sex 0 Of the men who declined the sexual request I Apologetic prior commitment parents fianc Men Short Term 0 Lower standards for short term mate 0 Not as physically attractive as long term 0 None oflong term desires in place eg chastity 0 Ratings of attractiveness dramatically drop postsex I Women s increase postsex o Hasty postcopulation departure o Exaggerate depth of feelings to gain access Women Short Term Greiling amp Buss 0 Designed to examine 0 Receiving benefits resources I Quantity and magnitude I Iewelry over timeone time house gene benefits 0 Contexts I ie individual differences among women on proclivity to engage in short term or extra pair matings Empirical Support 0 MOSTLY Resource Acquisition 0 Women expect they will receive I Iewelry money free dinners or clothing by angagin in shortterm mating I Don t expect man to have full time job context I He is more 39compatible and likely to replace longterm partner context I Ifhe s attractive 39Good Genes more symmetrical context Chapter 13 Families and Development Kin Selection Families and Cooperation 0 Prosocial Behaviors 0 Any behavior that helps or benefits another person whatever the motive EX Saving a child from a speeding car Why might you take your motherinlaw to the grocery store 000 Altruism 0 Actions designed to help others while receiving no obvious benefit to oneself o No exception for recognition payment or acknowledgement o More so 0 Donating a kidney to a child 0 Less so 0 Volunteer work Ethological Explanations o What is love What is the purpose oflove 0 Protection and nuturance of others 0 Who gets love or altruism o What is pure altruism o Closely related individuals shared genes or potential mates with whom offspring are created 0 Why would we be protective of mates who we aren t related to 0 Genetic offspring are less likely to survive if inbred hybrid vigor Prairie Dog Example 0 Helping more likely for closer genetic relatives 0 Alarm Calling Pattern so low so that only the closer prairie dogs relatives can hear and can be alarmed to a predator Hamilton s Rule 64 0 Answers How can altruistic genes spread through a population Based on behavior that benefits an individual s genes regardless of the vessel of those genes 0 Natural selection favors mechanism for altruism o Hamilton s Rule c lt rb o ccost to the actor o rlevel of genetic relatedness o bbenefit to the recipient Selection will favor an individual to incur costs if the benefits to a o 50 kin member are more than 2x the costs 25 kin member are more than 4x the costs Grandparents Your biggest 25 fans in the universe 0 O 0 Last century increasing erosion of extended family However the grandparental relationship remains BUT the grandparental relationship also displays the greatest variance o extremely close to extremely distant removing variable of geographic distance How do we generate predictions about differences in grandparents investment 0 Paternity Uncertainty vs Maternity Certainty o Certainty Continuum Barrett FaFa Father s Father Paternal Grandpa o Grandpa quotDouble Whammy 0 Am I the Grandfather of my son s child I Least investing MoMo Mother s Mother Maternal Grandma o Undoubtedly mother of her daughter who is uncontested mother of grandchild o Grandmother Hypothesis 0 Women can further their fitness more by investing in existing kin grandkids than in trying to produce more children of their own I Honey bee quotsuper sisters 9 0 Queen 9 reproductive capable female 0 Workers 9 her sisters share 75 of genes with queen reproductive sterile females 0 Drones 9 males give sperm to queen 0 15 55 75 shared for sisters 0 Sisters share 75 of genes but only 12 with own offspring I Most investing of all grandparents Certaintv Intermediate Investment 0 FaMo Father s Mother Paternal Grandma o I am the mother of my son did my son get cuckolded 0 Interestingly Inlaw relationship with the most strife I Woman to motherinlaw o MoFa Mother s Father Maternal Grandpa o I may have been cuckolded but that is my quotdaugher squot child 0 Results Pattern Is True for o Closeness I Both emotionally and geographically 0 Amount of time spent with child 0 Invests more resources time energy amp money with child 0 Knows more about child s likesdislikes hobbies development friends etc I 439 Chapter 14 Aggression o The Case of Godi o Adolescent Kahama male usu w6 others 0 Gombe National Park Tanzania 1974 Jane Goodall s Gombe team 0 US Homicides 19651980 I 86 committed by men of these 80 victims were men I Similar statistics across cultures Aggression as a Solution to Adaptive Problems 0 Coopt the Resources of Others 0 Aside from social exchange stealing trickeryaggression I Adults muggings beatings threats the Mob 0 Defend and protect against 0 Attack 0 Harm to one s mate children extended kin 0 Loss of resources that would also de ate status and reputation in group 0 Negotiate Status and Power Hierarchies 0 Increasing one s status or power within the existing hierarchy o EX I Ache quotRitual Club Fights I As number of fights won increase so did status o Sensitive to social context professor fighting professor o Deter Rivals from Future Aggression quotHomicidequot 0 Do you want to steal money from Tony Soprano I Gangs o Deter Female from 39cheating 39Brother Protection 0 Presence of extended kin deters violence 0 Mexico Spain Cuba 0 Women with higher densities of genetic kin experienced lower levels of domestic violence Figueredo Empirical Evidence for Adaptive Patterns onggression 0 Meta Analysis of SexDifferences Ianet Hyde o Magnitude of sexdifference more male than female 0 84 aggressive fantasies o 60 Physical aggression o 49 Imitative aggression o 39 Willingness to 39shock others waggressive acts 0 02 Hostility o Samesex homicides Daly and Wilson 0 35 different countries 0 94100 of all homicide were malemale o no increase in number ofwomen committing homicide increase in crimeincrease in petty theft Samesex bull in in schools middle amp hi h school 0 54 boys 30 girls 0 Types of bullying Oysical all males 0 Hitkickedthreats of physical harm o Coopting resourcesstatus Verbal all female 0 Gossiping shunning vicious rumor spreading breaking contact and befriending someone else as revenge stealing boyfriend o Intrasexual mate competition Key for female aggression Started in high school after reaching puberty Most common rumorsgossip o 39bitch o 39howhoreskankslutslag Contexts triggering male s aggression against male 0 Marital and Employment Status 0 gt73 male perpetrators were unmarried no longterm mate 0 50 unemployed 0 Status and Reputation Patton 0 Indigenous peoples of the Ecuadorian Amazon 0 Status I As warriorship increases so does status 79 corr 0 Sexual Iealousy amp Intrasexual Rivalry 0 Love triangle I 92 were malemale homicides 0 Most portrayed scenario in women s TV soap operas and novels 2 Contexts tri erin female s a ression a ainst females Buss Dedden o Verbal aggression 0 Same amount of male aggression different content 0 2 ways of Derogating Rivals 0 Physical appearance 39fat ugly 0 Result amplifying these aws importance in men s attention field 0 Sexual promiscuity She sleeps around 0 When specific male involved female to male information I Long term mate she sleeps around quotshe s a slut most common 0 Chastity 9 potential for cuckolding I Short term mate she is ugly 0 Interestingly Women are aware of men s strategies for long term and short term mates and shift their derogation tactics accordingly Chapter 15 Culture Durkheim s Social Science 0 Emile Durkheim 18581917 0 quotFatherquot of Sociology 0 education crime religion suicide 0 quotSocial facts explain Social facts I Eg understanding suicide via religion 0 A false belief that culture and biology compete to explain 0 People in different cultures differ in their behavior 0 EX Practices rituals artifacts beliefs music etc Dawkins Selfish Gene 39Memes o quotMemequot extending evolutionary principles to explain the spread ofideas and cultural phenomena 0 Shortened from 39mimeme to imitate o A meme comprises any idea or behavior that can pass from one person to another by learning or imitation o EX Thoughts ideas catch phrases theories gestures practices fashions habits songs building technology and dance 0 Notably religious ideas 0 Memes propagate amp move through the cultural sociosphere in a manner similar to the contagious behavior ofa virus 0 Idea ofnongenetic transfer phenotypes computer viruses Evolutionary Approach 2 Types of culture 0 Evoked Culture 0 All evolved mechanisms are responsive to environmental conditions I EX Pupil of eye sexual arousal sweat glands jealousy o Phenomena are triggered in some groups more than in others because of differing environmental conditions I EX quotSun Cultures I Energy and pizzazz of equatorial peoples I Suntans of Californians vs Oregonians Differences are explained by invoking a shared evolved mechanism combined with local differences in input for the mechanism I EX Food sharing among huntergatherer groups I Ache Paraguay 0 Meat is high variance you maymay not get lucky o Gatering is reliable 0 When variance is high for any group food sharing social exchange 0 Eg Ache deposit meat with a 39distributor but not grain I San Kalahari 0 Kung San highly variable much food sharing stinge 0 worst insult o Gana San low variance hoard food sharing is only with family 0 EX Importance of physical attractiveness among mates I High prevalence ofpathogens higher preferences for physical attractiveness Transmitted Culture memes Daniel Dennett o Transmitted Culture 2 approach 0 Representations or ideas that originally exist in at least one mind and are transferred to other minds through observation or interaction 0 EX Hula hoops Christmas lights clothing fashion UGGs Iewelry Cell Phones haircuts popmusic o Often attending to 39high status members of the group 0 Similar to informational social in uence using others judgment to replace own judgment Why Art Fiction Movies and Music 0 Modern Americans will consume 1020yrs worth of time consuming art literature music sporting events dancing and internet access in their lifetime 0 Are these trivial pursuits o 2 Basic Approaches 0 Display Hypothesis Miller I Culture emerges from sexual competition pursuit of different mating strategies 0 Men in particular tend to create produce and display art and music broadcast courtship display 0 Creativity peaks during young adulthood the most intense time ofintrasexual competition Display Hypothesis Cannot Answer 0 Why do people enjoy art and music in solitude context where display is not evident o SideEffect of Big Brain Pinker 0 Artificial stimulation of existing evolved mechanisms by inventing cultural products 0 A general adaptation allowing to take pleasure in quotshapes colors sounds jokes stories and myths Darwin s Dangerous Ideas Dennett Why We are the way we are Evolutionary Psychology


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