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Introductory Psychology

by: Ms. Olin Runte

Introductory Psychology PSYCH 100

Ms. Olin Runte
Penn State
GPA 3.73

Greg Edward Loviscky

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Greg Edward Loviscky
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Olin Runte on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Greg Edward Loviscky in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/233083/psych-100-pennsylvania-state-university in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
I Psychological Research Methods A What are the 3 M am Categories of Research Methods 1 Descriptive a Allows for description of behavior and mental processes as they occur b Purpose systematically collect and record data c descriptive goal of psychology d Case studies indepth study of onefew research participants 1 Phineas Gage and rod through head and lived e Observation observing and recording behavior in natural statehabitat f Surveys ask questions of large sample of people to assist behavior and g Disadvantages information missing memories selective or inaccurate individual maybe be typical 2 Correlational a Statistical analysis of relationships among naturallyoccurring variables b Purpose identify relationships and how well one variable predicts another c predictive goal of psychology d Predictor variable thought to forecast outcome variable e Outcome variable variable that researchers want to predict f Scatterplots Correlation coefficient range from 1 to l 2 Strength absolute value 0 to l 3 Direction or 4 Best Fit Line mean of slope gives most accurate answer 5 Relationships None scatter negative downward packed positive upward tightly packed g Directionality cannot come to a cause that cause the experiment 1 Violent causes aggression or aggression causes violence h Third Variable Problem another variable impacts both predictor i Disadvantages little to no control biased observation no rm conclusions 3 Experimental a Manipulation control and measurement of variables b Purpose identify cause and effect c explanation goal of psychology d Independent variable potential cause that is chosen and manipulated by experimenter e Withinsubj ects experiments tested under each condition f Betweensubjects experiments tested under one condition g Dependent variable measure behavior thought feeling of participants h Random assignment exposure participants to one thing or another 1 Experimental group receive treatment 2 Control group receive no treatment i Disadvantages potential manipulation ethnical concern about deceptions confounds uncontrolled variables II Biopsychology and Neuroscience A What Do the Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Do 1 Motor Cortex voluntary muscle movement 2 Somatosensory Cortexsensory info 3 Broca s Area left frontal lobe that deals with speech production 4 Frontal Lobes voluntary muscle control speech production and personality thinking memory V39 0 8 2 959 6 III 1 Development H ow D 2 E 4 Occipital Lobesvisual info Wemicke s Area left temporal lobe that deals with speech comprehension Temporal Lobes hearing language comprehension memory and some emotion control Parietal Lobes pressure pain touch and temperature What Do the Left and Right H emisghere D0 1 Corpus Callosum enables hemispheres to communicate Left Hemisphere a Controls right side of body b Processes Right visual eld c Language speaking reading writing comprehension d Analytical math Right Hemisphere a Controls left side of body b Processes left visual field c Nonverbal art amp music spatial skills emotion recognizing face and patterns Split Brain Patients a Corpus callosum does not exist or function properly causing two brains to not communicate correctly 1 raising left hand right eye knows but left eye cannot because brain does not transfer information to both sides How Do the Cells in the Nervous System C Neurotransmitters chemicals released into synapse that may affect other neurons Dendrites receive info from other neurons Soma cell body that receives information from dendrites and pass on to axon Axon carry messages away from cell body Myelin sheath insulates axon and speeds neural impulses Terminal buttons release neurotransmitters into synapse 1 1 o P s Describe H ow Children Think Jean Piaget developed intelligence ability tests a Mistakes are greater than correct responses Schemas mental categories a Bird something that ies 9butter y is a bird Assimilation tting new information into mental categories Accommodation changing mental categories to fit new information Piaget s Stages a Sensorimotor Stage ages 02 1 Coordinates sensory with body movement 2 Object Permanence understanding of something exists that you cannot see or touch Preoperational Stage ages 27 a Use of symbol and language increase b Beginning of child s ability to use schemas c Animism nonliving objects become living d Egocentrism inability to take another s perspective e Conservation physical properties are constant whether form changes Concrete Operations Stage age 712 a Patterns order causeeffect basic math b Seriation put objects in order c Errors about abstract ideas or inanimate objects 8 Formal Operations Stage age l2adulthood a Comparison and classi cation of ideas which society is more democratic b reason about abstract ideas what is love c reason about hypothetical situations What if B How do we develop socially and 39 quot during our lives 1 James Marcia s Search for Identity a Exploration time of upheaval when values are reconsidered b Commitment taking on a role c Identity Diffusion no exploration no commitment no concern d Identity Foreclosure no exploration commitment e Identity Moratorium exploration in progress no commitment f Identity Achievement exploration completed commitment C What do we face during 1 Trial Marriage living together before marriage a Higher risk of divorce based on correlational research 2 Empty Nest Syndrome parent s pain when child leaves home a Higher marital satisfaction stressful when child returns 3 Midlife Crisis struggle and regret in 40 s a No increase but women are more emotionally instable than men 4 Social Contacts a Social relationships high to low midlife adolescence childbearing age IV Perception A How do we perceive depthdistance and movement l Binocular cues a Binocular disparity each eye seeing different image oating finger b Convergence strain on eye muscles from turning eyes inward 2 Monocular cues a Linear perspective parallel lines converging in distance b Interposition close object covers far object c Relative size close objects larger retinal image than distant objects d Texture gradient change in texture as background recedes e Aerial perspective farther objects look fuzzy near looks clearer f Light and shadow white appears closer black darker g Height in horizontal plane distant objects appear higher 3 Movement a Motion parallax l Fixation point moves in same direction 2 Farther object faster they move forward 3 Near object faster they move backwards V Learning A How do we learn 39 1 y responses 1 Ivan Pavlov experiment of dog salivating before getting meat by auditory stimulus 2 Classical conditioning type of learning in which stimulus evoke response that was evoked by another stimulus 3 Unconditioned Association a Unconditioned stimulus UCS stimulus evoked by unconditioned response 1 Food obtained by dogs 6 7 b Unconditioned response UCR unleamed reaction to unconditioned stimulus l Drool from dog Conditioned Association a Conditioned stimulus CS previous neutral stimulus 1 Sound producedassociated b Conditioned response CR learned reaction to conditioned stimulus l Drooling of dog Acquisition a Stimulus contiguity stimuli occurring together in time and space Extinction consistent presentation of CS alone Spontaneous Recovery reoccurrence of extinguished response How do we learn voluntary responses 1 3095 Operant Conditioning type in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by consequences a People tend to repeat behaviors that follow favorable consequences Reinforcement Contingencies rules that determine whether responses lead to reinforcement Cumulative Recorder monitors animal s rat of response and reinforcement Acquisition formation of new response tendency Shaping closer approximations to desire response Extinction no weakening and eventual disappearance reinforcement Reinforcement consequences strengthen responses a Food water warmth primary reinforcers b Money good grades material things secondary reinforcers Schedules of reinforcements a Continuous reinforcement occurs every time designed response reinforced b Intermittent reinforcement designated response reinforced sometimes 1 Ratio Schedules based on behavior occurrence a FixedRatio schedule reinforcer is given after fixed number i selling 50 to get reward b VariableRatio schedule reinforcer given after variable number i slotmachine9knowing not going to be reward 2 Interval schedules after certain number of times you are rewarded a Fixed interval schedule reinforcer given after fixed number of times i studying for an exam in class 3 Variable interval schedule reinforcer given after variable time interval c Ratio produce rapid responses than interval schedule d Variable schedule generates steadier responses and greater resistance to extinction than fixed Punishment vs Reinforcement a Reinforcement response strengthened by rewarding stimulus 1 Positive Reinforcement encourage something by giving something good a attending class to get good grades 2 Negative Reinforcement encourage behavior by taking something thing VI VII bad away a Caffeine for hangovers b Punishment 1 Positive Punishment give something bad to stop a behavior a spanking to stop misbehavior 2 Negative Punishment take away something good to stop a behavior a taking TV watching to stop misbehaving c Negative reinforcement strengthened while negative punishment weakened after stimulus responses Intelligence A How has 39 quot39 t quot 39 been de ned and measure by 39 7 1 Great sorting occurs anytime election decision need to be made 2 Alfred Binet devise a test to identify mentally de cient students IQ 3 IQ calculation MNCA X 100 a Chronological age actual age of test task b Mental age average age ea1ned on particular score 4 Normal Frequency Distribution Standard Deviation Graphs 5 Reliability measure consistently one score matches another measure s score a quotTestretestreliability b correlation of 70 or above 6 Validity measure what is supposed to measure one measure correlated with another a Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS and Wonderlic Personnel Test WPT b correlation of WAIS and WPT is 90 B Is 39 quot39 determined by nature or nuture 1 Reaction Range a Genetically determine limit for intelligence b IQ range determined by environment c Support both nurture and nature argument 2 Stereotype Threat a Pressure that person feel when he could confirm a negative stereotype about his group b Knowledge hurt performances l Africans have lower SAT score because stereotype of being less intelligen Emotion A How do we express emotion 1 Paul Ekman psychologist that worked with face expressions 2 Six universal crossculture emotions a Anger b Disgust c Fear d Happiness e Sadness Surprise B What does stcholo v research suggest about 39 7 1 Percentage of happiness to in uences a Genetics 50 b Life Circumstances 10 c Intentional Activities what we thinlddo 40 C Three Good Things exercise 1 2 VIII Personality A How do 1 B What is the 1 2 4 Purpose used to redirect attention towards positive things and away from negative End of day write down 3 good things that happened and why it occurred measure personality Big Five factors of personality a Openness to Experience curious exible imaginative unconventional b Conscientiousness diligent disciplined organized dependable c Extraversion outgoing sociable upbeat energetic assertive d Agreeableness sympathetic trusting cooperative modest e Neuroticism anxious hostile selfconscious insecure 39 approach to personality Sigmund Freud started talking medicinetherapy and develop psychoanalysis a Wanted to nd cause for sexual abuse by parent hysteria b OedipusElectra complex desire for opposite sex parent and their hostility c Dreams were royal road to unconscious d Focus on unconscious and defense mechanisms 1 Reaction Formation unpleasant turned into opposite Structure of personality anxiety due to con ict for parts of personality a Id primitive instinctive 1 unconscious 2 Pleasure principle immediate grati cation based on urges 3 I see it Iwant it Itry to get it Devil b Ego decisionmaking instinctive 1 conscious 2 Reality principle delayed grati cation until appropriate 3 I can wait I don t really want it Brain referee c Superego moral partconscience 1 Mostly unconscious 2 Moralistic Principle sense of what to do and what not to do 3 Should should not do Angel d Overly impulsive big id e Overly controlled big superego f Healthy big ego Criticism of Freud a Unconscious cannot be studied b Based of subjective small group of studies c Explains behavior not predict d Too much sexuality and masculinity Alfred Adler a Superiority Principle humans strive to over limitations b Inferior Complex unhealthy need to be better c Birth Order affects personality 1 Oldest feels dethroned 2 Middle welladjusted 3 Youngest spoiled 4 Only socially mature feels more important than others Frank Sulloway parent s view of kids affects birth order a Oldest are more conscientious less agreeable extroverted and open to experience IX Psychological Disorders A How do de ne disorders l Deviance person breaks societal rules for acceptability 2 Meladaptive Behavior way of thinking gets in way of function with daily routines school work 3 Personal Distress great pain and suffering 4 DSMIV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder fourth edition a provides common language and pattern of disorders 5 PSU resources CAPS Student Health Services What are anxiety disorders 1 Panic Disorders unexpected panic attack with intense fear or discomfort in absence ofreal danger that is recognized a Symptoms increased heart rate sweating shaking choking chest pain 1 going crazy inability to function daily 2 Phobic Disorder constant excessive or unreasonable fear a Examples Animal spiders natural environments heights blood injection 1 shots situations ying 3 0CD ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder a Obsessions constant thoughts impulses or images that causes worry 1 Person recognizes and tries to suppress b Compulsions repetitive behaviors that drives person to respond 1 Behaviors aims to prevention stress or something bad but person has no connection What are mood disorders 1 Depression lack of interest or pleasure in activities or depressed mood a Symptoms weight and sleep problems fatigue feeling worthlessness diminished thinking ability thought of death b Duration greater than 2 weeks 2 Bipolarity depression plus manic a Symptoms lack of selfesteem decreased need of sleep energetic thoughts racing excessive involvement in favoring activities with bad outcome b Durations greater than 3 weeks What are schizophrenia disorders 1 Symptoms delusions hallucinations disorganized speech has problem taking care of self 2 Brain are smaller and contains enlarged ventricles 3 Occurs before 25 in men 2545 in women What are personality disorders Antisocial personality disorder a Symptoms failure to conform to social norms deceitful constantly irresponsible aggressive lack of remorse What are disorders first quot in 39 l ADHD Attention DeficitHyper Activity a Need to show greater than 5 inattention and hyperactivity symptoms causing impairment in school b Inattention Symptoms careless failure to details does not listen forgetful c Hyperactivity Symptoms restless not patient talkative d Occurs due to smaller cortex and before age of 7 Therapy Drug Therapies 1 Psychopharmacology study of drugs effect on mind and behavior 2 Antipsychotic drugs help decreased mental patients 3 Doubleblind procedures experiment testing out effectiveness of drugs by randomly assigning drug or get harmless pill placebo 4 Antianxiety GABA 5 Antidepressant norepinephrine and serotonin a SSR blocks absorption of neurotransmitters 6 Moodstabilizing norepinephrine and glutamate 7 Antipsychotic block receptors for dopamine a Classical eliminate positive symptoms of schizophrenia delusions may cause twitches b Atypical eliminate negative symptoms of schizophrenia dispassion may cause obesity toxic on white blood cells or diabetes Brain Stimulation l Electroconvulsive therapy ECT a Used to treat severe depression b Calms overactive neural center c Side effects seizures and memory loss 2 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation rTMS a Magnetic coil punctures brain surface b Energize inactive left frontal lobe c Unknown side effects d Effective and painless Pspchosurgerp 1 Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue 2 Lobotomy cuts nerves connecting frontal lobes with limbic system a Egas Moniz Portuguese physician that developed technique b Results in calming violent patients c Side effects inactive immature impulsive personalities d Used for about 200 patients Psychodynamic Therapies 1 Goal achieve insight of problem 2 Freud s Psychoanalysis Therapy focus on early childhood free associations dream interpretation 3 Brief Psychodynamic Therapy focus on current life situations insight and interpretation Humanistic Therapies 1 People can be 39 39J quot39 and r quot 39 2 Disordered behavior are caused by blocking natural growth process 3 Therapist creates environment to self explore and remove growth barriers 4 Rogers ClientCentered Therapy uses active listening such as paraphrasing and re ecting feelings a Provides honesty trust in sharing feelings attention Cognitive Therapies 1 Focus on irrational and negative automatic thought patterns not unconscious 2 Therapist identify challenge and change negative thoughts pattern to healthy 3 Four negative thought patterns amp alternations a Polarized thinking no middle ground people good or bad 1 No black and white G XI Positiv A b Catastrophizing expecting disaster 1 Probability of disaster c Overgeneralization conclusion with little evidence 1 No absolute terms d Shoulds lists of how one should act 1 Flexible and personal standards values and rules Ellis ABC model describes beliefs based on consequences a Stood up for a date 1 Irrational I am worthless and nd no one depression 2 Rational bummer deserve better no depression Is therapy e ecn ve 1 Tested 6 people in therapy 6 on waiting list 2 Han Eysenck theory no different in recovery rates a Meta Analysis study of studies that calculates differences of results 3 Smith and Glass theory people in therapy recover greater than those not e Psychology Limitation of disease model 1 Became victimologists and pathologizers 2 Forgot improving normal lives and high talent 3 Did not work on intervention to make people happier Positive Psychology psychology should be concern with strength and weaknesses improving best and xing worst and make lives normal and fulfilling Science of positive psychology vs science of mental illness 1 Science of positive psychology a Measurement b Classifications c Causative discoverable d Interventions e Benefits and effectiveness 2 Science of mental illness a Classification diagnosis b Measurement of fuzzy concepts c Discoverable causes by experimental methods d Invent treatments e People less miserable f Benefits and effective Three Happy Lives Pleasant Life Positive In uence a Have pleasures and learn skills to amplify 2 Good Life Relationships a Len had success in all lives but one but had ow so he was happy 1 Flow intense concentration b Recreate relationships and derive more ow 3 Meaning Life a Benefits an organization or charity Positive Inventions Example 1 Have a beautiful day 2 Gratitude Visit 3 Strengths Date 4 Fun vs Philanthropy F Life Satisfaction Positive Affect Meaning Pleasure almost no contribution to LS 2 Good Life very strong contribution to LS 3 Meaning strongest contribution to LS XII Social Psychology A What is social psychology 1 Social psychology study of how people are in uenced by the presence of others 2 Kurt Lewin father of social psychology a Behavior function of personality and environment 3 Experiments are used most often 4 Triplett tendency to work harder and faster of others B How do we see the in uence of other people on an individual 3 behavior and thoughts 1 Internal attribution people act the way because of something about person 2 External attribution people act the way because of situation he was in 3 Norms society rules about what is acceptable and not 4 Roles expectation in a group about how people should act 5 Zimbardo prison study participants lost identities and assigned roles that they knew were fake 6 Cognitive dissonance when someone s thoughts are con icted with his actions they reduce con ict by changing thinking to fit behavior a Festinger s classic study two groups doing boring task each paid different 7 Deindividuation individuals feel less accountable for actions 8 SelfSchemas beliefs and ideas that people have about themselves a Selfesteem selfworth of a person b BIRGing basking in re ected glory something good soak it in c CORFing cutting off re ected failures something bad protect it 9 Obedience following rules for authority a Stanley Milgram teachers shocked learned every time there was error 1 teachers did not stop even though experimenter or student told so 2 Ethnical issues deception confederate people oppression stress low selfesteem C What do 39m know about prosocial behavior and thmmht l Darley ampLatane experiment a lady killed with 30 bystanders a Ifmore bystanders people are less like to help because of lessen responsibility 2 Birds or a feather ock together a People are more attracted to similar people b Validations same views gossip about dissimilar people c Propinquity effect more people see and interact with each other the more likely they will become friends 3 Theory about desire in mates men are attracted to appearance and woman to men s resources 4 Robert Stemberg American psychologist that studies about love a Passionate love tender sexual feelings and agony of intense emotion l Increases at beginning until a certain point where it starts to decrease over time b Intimacy warmth closure and sharing in a relationship 1 Increases over time Commitment latent formation of relationship despite difficulties c X111 1 Increases greatly over time 10 Psychology A What is 1 0 Psychology 1 Work focus on human at work 2 Industrial focus on individual at work 3 Organizational focus on group at work 4 ScientistPractitioner model a Scientist focus on gaining knowledge b Practitioner focus on applying knowledge Why is 1 0 psychology imgortant l Helps organizations be pro table lower cost operate legally and finding best staffs 2 Help people with quality of life and balance in worklife health Job satisfaction and performance have a positive direct relationship 4 Employment Engagement a What feels like 1 Urgency goal directed energy 2 Intensity deep concentration 3 Enthusiasm passion and positive emotions 4 Flow in the zone b What looks like 1 Persistence effort over time 2 Proactive anticipate need to take action 3 Role expansion do more than ask 4 Adaptability innovation effectively E c Employment do more if company looks out for him What do 1 0 F 39 Know aboutHirimz People 1 Job Analysis evaluation of job to determine 2 Job Description list of characteristics 3 KSAO a Knowledge mastery of job related subject matter b Skill physical and mental can get better c Abilities unchanged physical and mental cannot get better d Other personality interests values 4 Stronger correlation with job performances low 4 medium 51 and high complexity 58 5 Task performance tasks on job description a Horizontal slope 6 Contextual performance extra work that contributes to functional organization a Positive slope 7 Agreeableness and Extraversion affects personal aspects while conscientiousness affects motivational aspects What do I O 39 v know about 1 quot WVquot jobs 1 Skill variety of skills required to do job a Ex cash register low small store owner high 2 Task identity degree which job requires completion of whole piece of work a Ex movie star high movie extra low 3 Task significance impact of job on people a Ex janitor low surgeon high 4 Autonomy freedom of employee to do job as fit a Ex telemarketer sales person low pharmaceutical sales person high 5 Feedback context in which employee performs task correctly a Ex cook low server high 6 Mechanical leads to higher performance and rewards while cognitive makes lower performances 7 3 characters of work autonomy selfdirection mastery urge to improve and purpose E What Do I O Psychologists Know About Leading People Power ability to in uence people Legitimate based on person s organization role Reward based on control over desired resources Coercive based on removal of positive events Referent based on strengthen of relationships Expert based on knowledge and experience Ohio Studies concern for people vs concern for results a Impoverished 00 country club 09 authoritycompliance 90 middle ofthe road 55 team 99 F How Should You Manage Your Career QMerN l Protean career selfdirected career model a High mobility selfdirected based on grth and satisfaction not advancement 2 Impact of beliefs on development of self and others a Praise for being smart vs working hard b Intelligence malleable can improve or fixed cannot change c Employers with malleable attitude gives people more development opportunities 1 1 XIV Readings A 39hnnoino Concepts ofP Disorder 1 Psychopathology was believed to be caused by possessive demons and spirits 2 Hippocrates Greek physician who developed four humors blood phlegm black and yellow that describes a person s mental disorder 3 Medical model mental disorders requires specific treatment and have object physical causes 4 Cognitive psychology emphasizes mental process inside a Relationship of how people perceive and think about others and themselves 5 Behaviorism emphasizes in uence of environment a Can be acquired like ordinary behavior 6 Reciprocal determination behavior cognition and socialenvironmental factors all in uence each other 7 Neurotransmitters can cause subtle alterations thoughts and behaviors B Dissociative Disorders 1 Dissociative disorders developed by Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde stating disorder of fragmentation of personality from others 2 Dissociative amnesia psychologically induced loss of memory for personal information such as identity or residence 3 Dissociative fugue similar to amnesia but patient has ight running away from identity 4 Dissociative identity disorder multiple personalities becomes form of defense by dominant self to protect itself from terrifying events a Called split personality or multiple personality disorder b Different from schizophrenia split from reality Autism 1 Development disorder marked by disability language social interactions and understanding of person s state of mind 2 Can be improved but has no cure Gender Differences in Mental Disorders 1 Woman have more mood anxiety and eating disorders 2 Men have personality and antisocial disorders T vpes ofMental Health Care 1quot 39 1 Counseling psychologist deals with common problems a Works in school clinics and other institutions master s or PhD EdD pr PsyD 2 Clinical psychologist deals with severe disorders daily disorders a Works in private practice mental agencies or hospitals MD internship and certi cation by state 3 Psychiatrists deals with prescribing medicine a Work in private practice clinics or mental hospitals MD and certi cation by board 4 Psychoanalyst guidance in Freudian therapy a Work in private practice MD and additional training 5 Psychiatric nurse practitioner nursing specialist licensed to prescribe medicine a Works in private practice clinics or hospital RN and special training 6 Clinical or psychiatric social worker provides guidance from social and environment a Master s in social work 7 Pastoral counselor provides spiritual guidance pvnluntino the In 7 39 7 Therapies 1 All forms for therapy help clients diminish problems equally not cure a Lon gterm gt short term therapy H osgi talizati on anal the Alternatives 1 Back in the day asylums were used to treat mental people now people are given private care 2 Therapeutic community Jones term for program of treating mental disorders by 3 makinginstitutional environment supportive and humane a High costs due to staff and costly facilities b Patients made decisions and had private care c Deinstitutionalization removing patients from mental hospital if possible 4 Community mental health movement therapies from outpatient clinics while patients live with families or in group homes a Adequate monitoring and resources How do the P Therapies amp 339 quot Therapies Compare 1 Combination therapy therapy involving both medicine and cognitivebehavioral therapy 2 Antidepressant drugs and cognitivebehavior therapy CBT is the most effective way to treat anxiety and depression The Asch E eet 1 Solomon Asch tested the perception of individuals in a group by placing one individual in a group with others who purposely says the wrong answer Conformity tendency for people to adopt behavior and opinions presented by other group members Conformity anal Light Up the Brain Differenth l fMRI can detect specific brain regions that are energize when carrying out tasks 2 in Asch s experiment when resistance occurred the brain lit up indicating an emotional burden 3 Social neuroscience study of brain sciences to identify social behaviors prejudice Variations on an Obedience Theme Almost everyone can be obedient and resistant depending on situation Cause of Preiualice 1 Five causes are dissimilarity and social distance economic competition scapegoating conformity to social norms and media stereotyping What is 1 0 Psychology 1 Industrial organizational focus on human behavior in workplace a Industrial focus on individuals b Organizational focus on group 2 Personnel psychology focus on attracting recruiting training best employees for companies Organizational Behavior 1 Organizational behavior attitude and behavior of people affected by workplace and social environment 2 Discrepancy hypothesis people differ in what they want in a job experience and job satisfaction 3 Compensation benefits job security worldlife balance and communication in workplace are ranked very important for job satisfaction 4 Behavior theories of leader effectiveness leader must focus on ineffective and effective responses 5 Situational theories of leaderships various situational factors in uence leader s effectiveness In Focus Servant Leadership 1 Servant leader one who makes service to others including employees leading to success F7 Settings Type of Training Earnings and F7 Outlook 1 Master s 23 year coursework and project works private or public teach at 2 year college take on counseling opportunities 2 Bachelor s 4 years undergraduate counseling jobs opportunities


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