Environmental Science week 5
Environmental Science week 5 10216 - BIO 105 - 04
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Yaffa on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 10216 - BIO 105 - 04 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jennifer S Cymbola in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Environmental Science Notes week 5 Chapter 8 Brooke Yaffa October 13 2015 Five Biospheric Principles 1 The biosphere is holocoenotic and selfadjusting The earth is never static 2 Energy ows through the Biosphere and is continually supplied by the sun 3 The quantity of matter in the Biosphere is finite and must be recycled for life to exist 4 Information is exchanged within the Biosphere it may expand and be limitless 5 Homo sapiens are an animal and are part of the Biosphere Ecology The study of all processes in uencing distribution and abundance of organisms and interactions between living things and the environment Hierarchy Individual A single member of a population Population A group of individuals of the same species living and interacting in the same region Community All of the populations plants animals and other species living in and interacting in an area Communities represent the living portion of an ecosystem Ecosystem A specific portion of a biome consisting of the living biotic and non living a biotic environmental components that interact Biome A portion of the biosphere characterized by a distinct climate and a particular assemblage of plants and animals adapted to it Biosphere The total area on Earth where living things are found Conservation of Matter and Energy Matter anything that has mass and takes up space Under normal circumstances matter is neither created nor destroyed it is recycled endlessly Forms of Energy Kinetic Energy Energy of motion heat light Potential Energy Energy in reference to position chemical energy Laws of Thermodynamics First Law Energy cannot be created nor destroyed only changed Second Law with each successive energy transfer or transformation in a system less energy is available to do work Can t be 100 efficient Entropy measure of chaos or disorder in a system Naturally increases Photosynthesis Photosynthesis needs visible light and chlorophyll captures that light Photosynthetic autotrophs these organisms generate their own organic matter through photosynthesis 6 C02 6 H20 9 C6H1206 carbon dioxide waterliquid glucose oxygen Cellular Respiration v Plants and animals convert energy stored in chemical bonds of food into energy that cells can use ATP Adenosine Triphosphate form of energy Aerobic requires oxygen C6H1206 9 6 C02 6 H20 ATP The Global Carbon Cycle 1 Plants use photosynthesis and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere 2 Plants then release oxygen into the atmosphere through cellular respiration 3 Plants and animals die and decay releasing carbon into the Earth that can be used as resources 4 The carbon from the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean called oceanic absorption 5 The marine organisms that took in carbon die and decay 6 The Carbon is extracted from the earth to be used as a resource 7 Combustion is the process of setting fire to these natural resources that releases carbon back into the atmosphere The four Exchange Processes of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Process Lets off Takes in 1 Photosynthesis 02 C02 2 Cellular Respiration C02 02 3 Physical Combustion C02 02 4 OceanicAbsorption 02 C02 The Phosphorus Cycle P04 It is never in the atmosphere 1 Erosion of Prich rock 2 Assimilated by plants 3 Ingestion of plant by herbivore 9 carnivore 9 ect 4 Leaching and decomposition of plant animal material fertilizer The Global Nitrogen Cycle 1 Nitrogen fixation occurs when nitrogen in the gas state gets trapped in soil 2 Nitrification occurs when the nitrogen gas turns into solid nitrogen in the soil 3 Assimilation occurs when the plants absorb the nutrients provided by solid nitrogen 4 Ammonification occurs when plant and animal matter decays and is taken into the soil 5 Denitrification occurs when nitrogen returns to the atmosphere from the soil once again Ecology Biome life Zonesquot Plants determine biome due to temperature and precipitation Organisms in an ecosystem may be identified by how they obtain food Trophic Levels 1 Producers photosynthetic plants 2 Primary Consumers herbivores 3 Secondary Consumers Carnivores and Omnivores 4 Tertiary Consumer Topquot Carnivore Consumers that eat at all levels Decomposers scavengers and parasites Food Webs Visual map of feeding relationships and energy ow Undisturbed food webs are very complex redundant and resilient Food Chain relationships of how energy is transferred up the trophic levels Keystone Species if this species were to be removed from a food web the ecosystem would collapse Habitat Place or set of environmental condition in which a particular organism lives Ecological Niche role played by species in a biological community Fundamental Niche how the organism functions without competition Realized Niche how the organism functions with competition Generalist this organism is reasonably good at exploiting different environments and sustaining in them Specialist this organism is very very good at living within a narrow set of environmental circumstances The Law of the Minimum Liebig single environmental factor in shortest supply relative to demand is a critical determinant in species distribution Shelford single environmental factor closest to tolerance limits determines where a particular organism can live