week 10 notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 324 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Brain and Behavior Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
1 Windows on the Outside World portal of information exchange a Hearing and Language Ch 9 b Vision Ch 10 c Body senses and motor control Ch 11 d Purpose acquiring information on the outside world through the sensesprocessing sensory informationallows you to act upon the word communication movementthis causes change in the world and cycles back to the beginning 11 Basic Concepts a Sensory system set of components of the PNS and CNS involved in acquiring and processing of specific sensory info e g auditory info i Sensation acquisition of sensory info ii Perception interpretation of sensory info b Receptor a cell that is suited by its structure and function to respond to a specific form of energy e g sound i Often it is a specialized neuron ii Transducer device that converts energy from one form to another e g photoelectric cell c Stimulus specific energy form for which the receptor is specialized e g vibration for hair cells in inner ear i Xray wavelengths are not a stimulus because we cant see it 111 Hearing a Stimulus vibration in a conducting medium normally air i Sound sourcealternating pressure changes compressiondecompression a wave b Types of sounds i Pure tones single frequency ii Frequency number of waves of compression and decompression cycles that occur per unit time iii Complex sounds combination of 2frequencies c Pitch experience of the frequency of a sound i Frequency pitch ii Loudness experience of the intensity ie physical energy of a sound IV Picture of ear a Outer ear i Pinna bouncing of wavelengths in there helps you locate sound ii Auditory canal helps amplify the sound b Middle ear i Tympanic membrane vibration of sound is transmitted to the three bones ii Ossicles transferamplify vibrations from eardrum to oval window on cochlea c Inner ear other picture i Stirrup sends pressure waves inside the uid in the cochlea by poking through he oval window ii Round window without the stirrup wouldn t be able to change pressure in membrane Fluid is extremely incompressible So round window allows for compression to be released iii Basilar membrane within is the Organ of Corti 1 Organ of Corti a 4 rows of hair cells transducers i Inner hair cells 1 row 1 True transducers for hearing ii Outer hair cells 3 rows 1 Work more as muscles rather than send signal to brain they mostly receive signal from brain which causes them to shorten themselves which increases tension between basilar membrane and tectorial membrane in order to mute parts of basilar membrane Ability to mute particular noises out so that we can hear others Cocktail Party Effect 2 When vibration ows through the basilar membrane and the Tectorial membrane will shake the organ of corti causes bending of cilia 3 Cilia has potassium channels Has filament acting like a wire and door across the potassium channel When the cila bends the wire pulls on door opening the channel a Turns vibration into electrochemical signal transduction V Auditory Pathways and cortex a Auditory nervefirst brain station cochlear nucleus left receives from left and right receives from rightSuperior olive can locate sound both left and right SO receives from both CNEIInferior Colliculus can also locate sound regulating re exes to soundMedial geniculate nucleus of the thalamuslprimary auditory cortex b Location in brain i Hindbrain medulla 1 Cochlear nucleus and superior olive ii Forebrain 1 Primary auditory cortex a Temporal lobe 2 Medial geniculate nucleus VI Temporal lobe auditory cortex picture a Auditory cortex is topographically organized looks like a map of something else i Adjacent neurons in the cortex receive info from adjacent receptor locations in the basilar membrane 1 Primary auditory cortex is like a map of the basilar membrane VII Pitch Perception a Experience of the frequency of a sound b Theories i Frequency theory basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a soundauditory nerve axons fire at the same frequency 1 Whole of basil membrane vibrates in frequency of the soundgets translated into the frequency of firing 2 Problem individual neurons can fire at no more than about 1000 Hz but we can hear up to 16000 Hz 3 Volley Theory groups of neurons can follow the frequency of a sound where a single neuron cannot a Neurons firing at the same rate but out of synchrony b Problem we don t have enough neurons to do that ii Place Theory sounds with different frequencies induce peaks of maximal vibration in different places on the basilar membrane picture 1 High frequency sound caused peaks of maximum vibration at the base where it is narrow and stiff 2 Low frequency sound caused peaks of maximum vibration at the apex where it is wide and oppy 3 Frequency producing maximal vibration Tonotopic organization of basilar membrane a Base 16 kHz high b Apex 200 Hz low iii Below 200 Hz 1 Whole of basilar membrane vibrates at that frequency of sound 2 No peaks of maximal vibration 3 All of it vibrates in uniform iv FrequencyPlace Theory 1 Frequency synchrony of firing rate of auditory nerve axons with sound frequencyljpitch perception of sounds up to about 200 Hz 2 Place place of maximal vibration on basilar membranepitch perception of sounds gt200 Hz 3 This only explains pure tones what about complex sounds c Perception of Complex sounds i Fourier harmonic analysis 1 Any complex sound can be broken down into pure tones aka component frequencies a Fundamental frequency with a lot of Overtones 2 The basilar membrane of the cochlea acts as the Fourierharmonic analyzer 3 At the level of the basilar membrane a All of the overtones component frequencies will have peaks spread out on the basilar membrane place theory ii Cocktail party effect 1 Ability to sort out meaningful auditory signals from a complex background of noises a Attention is involved b Possible role played by outer hair cells i