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by: Herta Weber

ChemicalPrinciplesII CHEM112

Herta Weber
Penn State
GPA 3.97


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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Herta Weber on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM112 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/233169/chem112-pennsylvania-state-university in Chemistry at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
Periodicity Sizes of atoms and ions Ionization Energy Electron affinity Electronegativity Metallic Character Sizes of Atoms Atomic radii increase with increasing electron shielding Atomic radii decrease with increasing effective nuclear charge lucmasing lnmii radius EL39I 1391 3H 41 51 M 39M M H a 5 t I 1 N E 6 0 3 b 3 it 9 OH 3 1152 112 an 91 99 1393 112 m i 0 0 0 O 0 a a 1 ms 151 143 112 129 12 99 an Q o o e n e E 11 19 135 13139 1351 14 114112 1 Q 0 o e o e o a 393 215 1153 152 159 16 133111 0 0 o o 2515 H 11 1115 I39m 164 1421111 CHEMl 12 Sizes of ions Cations have radii than their neutral atoms Anions have radii than their neutral atoms Group 1A Group 2A Group 3A Group 6A Group 7A Li 1 Li Be2 Be 133 13 O 02 F 94 9 V quot 068 134 031 090 023 082 073 140 071 133 MN I Na Mg2 Mg AP A1 5 52 C1 C1 097 154 066 130 051 118 102l 184 099l 181 K f K Ca2 I Ca G313 Ga Se Sezi Br Br 133 7196 099 174 062 126 116 I 198 114 I 196 Rb pr Sr2 3 Sr 1113 In Te Tez 1 1 C J 4 113 192 081 144 135 221 133 220 Copyright 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc CHEMIIZ Sizes of atoms and ions Even though cations have smaller radii and anions have larger radii than neutral atoms the periodic trends in size are still valid for both atoms and ions aim EBB Radius pm Radius lpm quot l m 2t 30 an El 60 Atomic number 39 quot l l l l I ll 20 310 4E 50 ED Miami umber CHEMl 12 IONIZATION ENERGY Ionization energy IE is the energy necessary to remove an electron from an atom molecule or ion N l 1gt Nag 9 Ionization energy is always endothermic What are the trends Moving down a group increased electron shielding Moving across a row from left to right increased effective nuclear charge It is easier to remove an electron from a 2p orbital than it is to remove one from a 2s orbital It is easier to remove an electron if it is unpaired than if it is paired CHEMl 12 Ionization energy kImol CHEMl 12 Ionization energy Copyright 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc ELECTRON AFFINITY Electron affinity is the energy change when a gaseous atom gains an electron to form a gaseous ion Cg e gt CIg Electron affinity can either be exothermic as the above example or endothermic Nag e39 gt Na39g Electron affinity generally increases in magnitude toward the top and the right on the periodic table spaceavail able in 35 orbital 1522522 p53 51 1 522 522 35352 CHEMl 12 Electron Affinity 4A 5A 6A Copyright 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc alkaline earths EA is close to 0 Filled s2 Halogens have the highest EA of any elements have maximum effective nuclear charge Group II vs Group III Oxygen and fluorine small atoms with high nuclear charges pull all the electrons close together Chlorine and sulfur larger atoms so less repulsion among the electrons extra electron resides in a larger orbital Cl 8 so higher EA than 0 and F CHEM112 RELATIVE ELECTRONEGATIVITIES Electronegativity describes the ability of an atom to attract additional electron density to itself TRENDS 0 moving up a group on the periodic table electronegativity Due to decreasing atomic radius moving across a period from left to right electronegativity Due to increasing nuclear charge CHER1112 Electronegativity Right electro gain electrons to become negatively charged Note More electronegative central atom attracts electrons HNO3 9 NO H Left electro lose electrons to become positively charged NaCI e Na Cl M90 9 Mg2 02 Note More electropositive central atom gives off electrons NaOH 9 Na OH Recall trends in oxvacid strenqth that are related to electronegativity HCio4 HBro4 HIO4 What is the reason for this CHEMl 1 2 Example the halogens The properties of the halogens F Cl Br I follow the trends nicely except for XX bond energy FF is anomalous Property E Q E 1 Atomic radius A 072 100 115 140 Ionic radius X 133 181 196 217 First ionization 1680 1250 1140 1010 energy kJmol Electron affinity 332 349 325 295 kJmol Electronegativity 40 32 30 27 X X bond energy 155 242 193 151 kJmol Reduction potential 287 136 107 054 X2 2e 2Xaq CHEMl 12 Metals and nonmetals TRENDS going down a group column metallic character going across a period row metallic character Increasing metallic character 8A 1 L 5 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 2 quotd 2 13 14 15 16 17 He g 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 lt L1 Be B C N O F Ne U 3 11 12 3B 4B 5B 613 7B 8B 1B 213 13 14 15 16 17 18 as Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A1 Si P 8 CI Ar 0 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 E K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 00 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 8 55 56 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 2 C5 Ba Lu Hf Ta W Re 05 Ir Pt Au Hg T1 Pb Bi Po At Rn H 87 88 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 7 Fr Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh H5 Mt M t 1 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 e a S La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb NH 11 d 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 L a 01 5 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No N onmetals Copyright 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc CHEMllZ Metals and nonmetals Metals Almost all solids Shiny or lustrous Malleable and ductile Good conductors of heat and electricity Oxides and hydroxides are basic soluble in acids Form aqueous cations lose electrons Tend to lose electrons when forming compounds Have lower ionization energies Reactivity increases downwards in group Nonmetals Gases liquids amp solids Nonlustrous often colored Brittle Poor conductors of heat and electricity Oxides and hydroxides are acids soluble in base Form aqueous anions or oxyanions gain electrons Tend to gain electrons when forming compounds Have higher ionization energies Reactivity increases upwards in group Metalloid oxides and hydroxides are amphoteric CHEMl 12 OXIDES OXIDES binary compounds of Oxygen Metal Oxides and Hydroxides are basic more soluble in acidic solutions More electropositive central atom gives off electrons NaOH gt Na OH39 NonMetal Oxides and Hydroxides are acidic more soluble in basic solutions More electronegative central atom attracts electrons HNO3 gt N0339 W Metalloid Oxides and Hydroxides are amphoteric More soluble in both acidic and basic solutions compared to pure water CHEMl 12 AMPHOTERISM Amphoterism is the ability of a molecule to act both as an acid and as a base This results in metal hydroxides which are soluble in both acids and bases Hydration Al3aq a AIHZO6quotquot AIOH3s 3H20AIOH3OH23S In acid AIOH3OH23 H AIOH2OH24aQ solubility increases In base AIOH3OH23 OH AIOH4OH223CI H20 solubility increases CHEMl 12 ALUMINUM SOLUBILITY DEMO AIltN03gt3ltsgt H20 6 AI3ltaqgt 3N03ltaqgt 1 Hydration Al3aq a AlH206quotquot Add Base AlH206quotquot 30H39 9 AIOH3H203s 2 Add acid AOH3H203 W e AOH2OH24aq Solubility increases 3 Add Base AIOH3H203 OHe AIOH4HZO2 aq H20 Solubility increases CHEMl 12 Summary V Zeff 1 Atomic Size 2 ionization energy 1 3 electron affinity both and halogens most negative 4 metallic character metals lose electrons nonmetals gain electrons A F CHEMIlgtcreasmg metallic character DIAGONAL RELATIONSHIPS In many compounds Li resembles Mg2 rather than Na Examples LiZCO3 and MgCO3 are virtually insoluble in water while NaZCO3 is very soluble lonic Radii AI Be compounds are covalent and the hydroxide is amphoteric Similar to Al example of a diagonal relationship CHEMl 12 SUMMARY Increasing ionization energy Decreasing atomic radius Increasing nonmetallic character and electronegativity Decreasing metallic character Nonmetals F Metals A b Metalloids l i Most Most nonmetallic element metallic element CHEMl 12 V Decreasing ionization energy Decreasing electronegativity Increasing metallic character Increasing atomic radius


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