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Weekly Notes 10-26-15

by: Alexis Harman

Weekly Notes 10-26-15 SRST 200

Alexis Harman
GPA 3.67

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Includes five factors with details into the rise of sports in America, as well as formalized physical education in schools, and the history of football as know it today.
History of Sports and Leisure in America
Mark Shriver
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Harman on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SRST 200 at George Mason University taught by Mark Shriver in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History of Sports and Leisure in America in Physical Education at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
10/26/15 – SRST 200 - 1820’s – near 1900’s 5 factors to the rise of sports: 1.Industrialization vs urbanization 2. Cities important places to live 3. Immigrants 4. Ethnic and status subcommunities 5. Muscular christians 1820-1920 – America sees rise in Immigration like never before  Half of all Caucasians to England, Scotland, or Ireland  95% protestant  By 1920, more of an influx of people from Germany, Southern and Eastern Europe, & Mexico  By 1920, 20% of population was Catholic Ben Rader – believes popularity of sports was due to Ethnic and Status Subcommunities  Promote sport, recreation, and leisure activities o Because they are from the same background and customs o Stay in those groups to maintain cultural identity but also want to fit in  Irish exceled in boxing  Scottish exceled in golf and track&field  Germans exceled in gymnastics - Jahn  Swedish exceled in gymnastics – Ling  English exceled in cricket  Many immigrants were excluded Status Subcommunities  White, wealthy, upper-class men  Wanted to distinguish from lower ethnic subcommunities o Created clubs and organizations for discrimination  1 category – Men’s Intercollegiate Athletics o Strict control over students  Mandatory chapel service  Mandatory study halls  Restrictions on leaving campus  No drinking, no gambling o Students rebelled  Fought faculty and professors  Inter-class struggles  Freshman/sophomore, sophomore/junior  Vandalized  Creation of fraternities  Compete against local prep schools or colleges  1852 – Harvard vs. Yale  First competition between two schools  Rowing o Administration takes a laissez-faire approach to competitions  People attend these events, bigger events  more money o Sports could distinguish a school o People who played sports were more disciplined so they had better attendance, better grades o Led to school spirit o 1870, schools see positives to student-led events o By 1900, every university and college have overseen control of these programs o Physical education teachers at these schools were the ones who controlled women’s athletics  De-emphasized competitions  Recreation purposes  Due to medical reasoning – competition would damage them physically and psychologically because of stress and pressure  Mostly, could potentially affect their reproductive organs  2 category – Metropolitan Athletic Clubs o For wealth and well-to-do o White males o Very restrictive o Formal dining rooms, gymnasium, track, rowing o Field for football/rugby o Maintain notion of amateur athletics o Clubs you join which simply offer athletics (people who have free time) o Wanted to be associated with winners (like winning) o Clubs would recruit athletes who were really good at particular sports, waive fee o 1850-1870, track and field is taken over by these clubs o 1888, thirteen of these clubs have a meeting  Create the AAU (Amateur Athlete Union)  New York Athlete Club (NYAC) 1868  Bring structure to the sporting environment that was lacking organization  Grow and develop amateur sports in the united states  1876, NYAC holds the first outdoor championship in outdoor track&field  1877, NYAC holds first championship in swimming  1878, NYAC holds first championship in wrestling and boxing o Downtown Athletic Club 1926  Lower Manhattan  Private social and athletic club  Presenting the Hiesman trophy, up until 2004 o Named hiesman trophy was the club’s first athletic director  1935, first trophy given out to college football team  1936, hiesman passes away, name trophy after him  Went under after 9/11 rd  3 category – Suburban Country Clubs o Tennis o Golf o Could have country club based on ethnicity o Some country clubs based on ethnicity  Parallel Institutions o Negro baseball o White baseball Muscular Christians  Christian activism and masculinity  Man’s body given to him to be trained  Used to protect the weak, and advance righteous causes  Preaches for the spiritual values of sports *especially team sports  Thought sports could make a positive contribution to culture o Physical development o Character development  Link between spirit, mind, and body  YMCA – Young Men’s Christian Association o 1885, known as the international training school  In Springfield, MA o Train individuals to become directors of YMCA’s o Pick up ideals and values and lessons they learned, and take to hometown o 1887-1903, Luther Gulick, becomes headmaster at International training school  1903, leaves training school, becomes first director of physical education in the public schools in new York city  Becomes president of the American physical education association  Member of the organizing committee for boy scout’s of America  Also thought that women should have same opportunities as men  Creates campfire girls in 1911  Creates ymca triangle – upside down / body – spirit – mind  Creates a training program for physical directors at training school  Combined with Christian beliefs  Goals for physical education program were wide ranging:  Endurance in athletes in student body  Agility and grace in students  Courage and muscular strength  Physical education would make men better fathers  Creates public school athletic leagues in athletic leagues in New York cities (strictly for boys)  Father of US physical education & recreation o 1891, at training center, hires James Naismith to create a new game 1892  During winter  Boys were getting rowdy  2 weeks to create it  Simple, indoors, interesting, and easy to learn  BASKETBALL  Rules:  Only passing and running  No dribbling  Backboards so students wouldn’t influence o William Morgan – Naismith’s student  1895, basketball taking off  But morgan’s population was slower and older so he created  Mintonette  Game that middle-aged men could play indoors during colder months  Goal is to hit the ball over the net – called volleying  Led to volleyball 1896 first game played at international training center o *** Basketball and Volleyball are only sports we have created *** Formal and Organized Physical Education in Schools 3 levels:  College UVA – 1850’s o 2 year health and PE program  Vasser College – 1861  Brown University – 1827 o Turnplatz  *Most renowned Amherst College – 1861 o William Augustus Sterns – president of college  Responsible for the health reform movement in US o American’s have physically degenerated due to the IR  Sedentary jobs made America fat and lazy  Lack of strong laborers – problems arose  Conditions in factories were bad – disease spread  Lack of space  Many died because they couldn’t resist the disease  Against alcohol, tobacco, drugs, sexuality  Were in favor of other ideas:  Exercise  Vegetarian diets  Alternative healthcare  Decided to hire somebody at his school to help with this  Edward Hitchcock Jr., MD. o Considered the father of American College Physical Education  Three responsibilities: o Instructor of health o Instructor of physical culture o Medical officer of university  Core curriculum of physical culture – gymnastics program o Every student was required to take his courses  Give lectures to freshman on evils of drinking, smoking tobacco, masturbation  Creates Anthropometric Measurements o Becomes a manual Harvard and Yale use it o Non-evasive measurements for testing body fat o Charts body measurements as a freshman  Creates preventative healthcare  Public Schools o Very few organized physical education programs in public schools o 1850’s city of Boston, requires health and pe for all children o 1850’s San Francisco, Rincon School –John Swett  Sets up physical education program  Offered daily exercise, calisthenics, gymnastics, ball games, hikes o ***1866, California becomes first state to pass legislation on health and PE  Required health and pe programs in public schools o Next state to pass legislation was Ohio, 1892  Private Schools o Could implement health and pe easily o Didn’t have bureaucracy o Boston Normal School/Institute  Established by Dio Lewis, 1861  First school to train people to teach health and PE  NOT a degree-granting program  First of what will become hundreds of school across US  New system of gymnastics  Light-weight apparatus to enhance physical activity  Bean bags, dumbells, rings, balls  Came up with a list of 225 movements to improve health of citizens  Invented the bean bag  Trained under Jahn for german gymnastics, philosophies  Targeting groups that really needed it elderly, girls and women o Roundhill School  Established in 1823 by Carl Beck  Appointed as a Latin teacher  Establishes the first gym and gymnastics program in the US  Originally an outdoor facility  Closed due to financial difficulty  Students participated in PE every single day  Beck is considered the first Phys Ed teacher o Hartford Female Seminary  Established by Catherine Beecher  One of the most important advocates for women in the 19 century  Writes about health and physical fitness for American women  Develops an American style of calisthenics Catherine Beecher needed to make sure women were healthy enough to carry out their responsibilities as mid-19 century women  3 responsibilities: 1. Have children 2. Women were the upholders of morality in modern society Take care of kids, house, and husband 3. Uphold private sphere while husband upholds public sphere.  One of the first educational institutions for women in the US. History of Football  1820’s football starts to evolve  Largely unorganized until middle of 19 century  Intermural games played on college campuses  Each school has its own variety of football  In 1820 Princeton plays a type called ball own  In 1827 Harvard plays a type called bloody Monday. Freshman vs Sophmore  Dartmouth plays a game called Old Division.  Large mob games attempting to put the ball in the goal by any means possible  1855 football evolves to 2 styles of a game: o Kicking o carrying  3 type of game which was a hybrid of the games: Boston game  Oneida football club-considered 1 football club in the US o Formed in 1862. Plays this Boston style game.  In 1863, the game catches the attention of the press, and spreads throughout the northeast  Yale, Rutgers, Brown, Princeton play a soccer form of football against eachother  In 1869, you have the first intercollegiate football game. Rutgers vs Princeton o At Rutgers, under Rutgers rules. 25 people on each side. Score by kicking only. o 1 team to 6 points won. o Rutgers won 6-4  Next time was at Princeton under Princeton’s rules. o If someone was to catch the ball, they had a free kick from that spot. o Princeton wins 8-0  By 1872, Columbia and Yale joins the series  In 1873, Rutgers, Princeton, Columbia, and Yale get together and set up rules for intercollegiate football. Resembles soccer more.  Harvard still playing Boston game, so Harvard has to find other schools to play. o Challenged by Mcgill University in Montreal. o 2 game series st o Harvard wins 1 under Harvard rules  The following day, game was played McGill style o it was a scoreless tie o Mcgill style was more of a rugby style  June of 1875, Harvard plays Tufts University o 1 two American schools that play mcgill style  Nov of 1875, Harvard Plays Yale o Concessionary rules game. o Modify rugby set of rules o Yale loses, but they enjoy the game more o Students from Princeton are watching  In 1876 of November, you have Harvard, Princeton, Yale, and Columbia. o Meet at Massasoit House at Springfield Training Center to standardize new set of rules of football. Includes rugby style, and mcgill rules. o 3 of 4 schools create IFA-Intercollegiate Football Association  Yale does not participate because they disagree about number of players on the field. Rules were codified at this time  Walter Camp - considered father of American football o Was a Yale student for 4 years. o Plays for another 2 years as a med student o Coaches the team after graduation  Rule changes by camp: 1. Replaces scrum with a line of scrimmage 2. Reduces number of people from 15 to 11 3. Changes dimensions of the field 4. Creates a system of downs 5. New scoring system 6. Field goal 5 pts, touchdown 4 points, conversion kick, 2 points back 7. Creates first all American team  Amos Alonzo Stagg o Plays football under Camp o In 1890 heads to YMCA Springfield training center and coaches there o Creates a dynasty at Chicago University  In 1895, 1 pro football game played. In Latrobe PA o Latrobe YMCA vs Jeanette athletic club o Every player was payed.


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