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Physical Geology

by: Ms. Sherman Sipes

Physical Geology GEOSC 001

Ms. Sherman Sipes
Penn State
GPA 3.73


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Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Sherman Sipes on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOSC 001 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/233170/geosc-001-pennsylvania-state-university in Geoscience at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
SUBSURFACEVVATER Groundwater makes up only 06 of the total water of the Earth Groundwater makes up 14 of all fresh water most of which is ice The rate of exchange of groundwater is 280 years the time that it takes to replace all the underground water compared to 11 days to replenish a river Freshwater of the Hydrosphere Parts of the Hydrosphere Volume of Freshwater Share of Total Freshwater Rate of Water km3 Exchange Ice sheets and glaciers 24000000 849 8000 years Groundwater 4000000 142 280 years Lakes and reservoirs 155000 055 7 years Soil moisture 83000 029 1 year Water vapor in the atmosphere 14000 005 99 days River water 1200 0004 113 days Ultimately the groundwater comes mostly from rainfall When rain falls some is absorbed into the soil and becomes groundwater while the rest runs off the surface into streams and rivers The ratio of ground to surface water depends on the intensity of the rainfall the slope of the ground the nature of surface vegetation the surface structure of the soil When water soaks into the soil some stays near the surface absorbed onto the soil particles forming soil moisture The rest soaks down further due to gravity until it reaches the zone of saturation where all of the pore space is filled with water The top of the zone of saturation is called the water table The capillary fringe is the aeration zone the zone where all the pores are full of air just above the water table gene of navalon Stria 411M Max Ground wail S Wm 39 The water table is never at horizontal due to the slow rate of motion of water through the saturated zone on average about 4cm per day so that the water table is always higher at higher elevations and near the source of the groundwater and lower near the outlet river for instance or well This slow rate of motion is due to the low permeability ability of the soilrock to transmit a uid of the soilrock J well Lo J b i obiBig dmug dr K When groundwater feeds into a stream the stream is called ef uent Porosity and Permeability The amount of water that can be stored in soilrock is given by the porosity the voids spaces pores in the soilrock The porosity is often given as the percentage of the total volume that consists of pore space For soft sediments the porosity may be as high as 50 or as low as 10 for crystalline rocks the porosity is more likely to be near 0 The porosity of soil or rock depends on the grain shape and distribution The ability of soil or rock to transmit a uid is given by the permeability Water must move along tortuous paths around grains Thin lms of water readily become chemically bonded to grain surfaces for instance in clays trapping the uid there and often swelling the grains and decreasing the permeability clays are often quite impermeable for this reason Groundwater can be divided into two types on this basis 1 the portion that drains downwards due to gravity called the speci c yield permeability 2 the portion that stays as lms on particle or rock grain surfaces called the speci c retention absorption Speci c Speci c Material Poros y Yield Retention Soil 5 5 40 15 Clay 50 2 48 Sand 25 22 3 Gravel 20 19 1 Limestone 20 18 2 Sandstone 1 1 6 5 partially consolidated Granite 01 009 001 Basalt fresh 1 1 8 3 Impermeable layers with small pores such as clays which still traps a lot of water which do not transmit water are called aquicludes Permeable rock strata or sediments such as unconsolidated sand which transmit water freely are called aquifers Movement of Groundwater Groundwater moves in general by slow percolation through rock and soil not as underground streams which are relatively rare Groundwater moves relatively slowly mostly due to gravity However groundwater can move upwards in response to a pressure gradient effectively squeezed out of the soil or rock The slope of the water table is called the hydraulic gradient The hydraulic gradient hl where h is the head and l is the distance from recharge to discharge revive Darcy39s law claims that the velocity V of uid in a medium can be given by V K 1V1 where K is a coef cient representing the permeability V is usually measured by putting a dye or radioactive tracer in the water at one well and seeing how long it takes to reach a second well down the hydraulic gradient V is typically about 15 myear 4 cmday but may vary by up to a factor of 10 Obviously V in dense crystalline rocks is essentially 0 Springs When the water table intersects the earth39s surface a natural ow of groundwater occurs which we call a spring When an impermeable layer an aquiclude exists above the water table groundwater may be localized and trapped above it creating a perched water table Springs are not con ned to places where you have a perched water table but my also occur where a fracture or fault in crystalline rock forms a natural channel for groundwater below the water table to the surface Wells Wells are openings bored into the zone of saturation The presence of wells can have signi cant effects on the local water table Heavily pumped wells will locally depress the water table called downdraw causing a cone of depression Since the cone of depression increases the hydraulic gradient near the well groundwater will ow more rapidly toward the opening This may lower the water table so that nearby wells go dry Successful wells do not always have to tap below the water table but may tap a perched water table or intersect the right zone of permeability fracture network Artesian wells occur where the groundwater is trapped within an aquifer well below the where the water table would normally be If the water table position the pressure surface is above the earth surface a well down to the aquifer will tap water under pressure resulting in an artesian well fragrantv sur ng r I l l 39rmauro P malice Mailer Fi quot Ski City water systems essentially use an arti cial artesian well system Problems with Groundwater Withdrawal The local depression in the water table due to overpumped wells and the corresponding changes in the ow of water within the saturated zone can cause many problems with the quality of groundwater beyond simple questions of dry wells Removing water form the saturated zone leaves open pore space that is filled with air a highly compressible and mobile uid Consequently slumping of the ground surface often parallels the lowering of the water table Near coastal regions where fresh groundwater abuts salt groundwater may get salty contamination of overpumped wells due to changes in the position of the freshsalt interface F9011 Srouna un l39 l Overpumping may also cause the direction of ow of the groundwater always down the hydraulic gradient to change completely so that contaminated groundwater is drawn into previously clean wells Of course it is preferable to avoid any contamination of the groundwater small am it funk 39 ecun11me mo evd39 nun con nimie wequot v l zzig on Contamination can in certain circumstances be ltered out of the groundwater Permeable sandstone may effectively lter ha1mful bacteria from sewage out of groundwater whereas limestone with large open channels will not Hot Springs and Geysers Hot springs and geysers with temperatures of lOlSOF above the mean annual air temperature occur where you have a combination of groundwater and the presence of a large heat source in the crust near the surface usually a magma intrusion a pluton Heat ows from the pluton into the surrounding rock heating the groundwater which forms hot springs at the surface Because of the high water temperatures a lot of minerals often economically important ones dissolve in this hot water These minerals will precipitate out of the water as the water cools near the surface often forming economically important mineral deposits Geysers are intermittent hot springs where water is heated in chambers below the ground until the water boils then the chambers empty upwards producing a geyser Once the chambers are empty the geyser stops and the chambers start to refill with water As the filling process takes a fixed amount of time depending only on the ow of groundwater geyser events are very regularly spaced in time


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