Introductory Rural Sociology
Introductory Rural Sociology R SOC 011
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R SOC 011
verified elite notetaker
Lance Hawkins Jr.
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Sociology
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Beginning of Exam 3 Material 101910 Small and Rural Communities Prospects and Problems Criteria for Community Capable ofmeting the full range of fundamental human needs Maclver 1917 Contains the quotfull table of organization of the larger culture Arsenberg 1961 3 quotGlobalquot in sense of institutional completeness Konig 1968 Equot Community Need to differentiate between geographic and psychological referents Geographic refers to location and specific area where people are clustered Psychological refers to level of solidarity people recognize these shared characteristics community of interest Classification of definitions into major categories Hillery 1965 69 of93 occurred in these 3 areas 0 Social Area 0 Social Interaction 0 Common ties Sutton and Munson 1986 in 125 studies 0 Social system 0 Population aggregate o Territory 0 Interaction o Sociocultural gestalt 0 Social group What is a community A community is a social and territorial unit which acts to fulfill all potential needs with a high degree of social interaction Kionig the only objective reality in a social sense is the community the first social reality outside the family Socioeconomics future of communities in America is one of urban cores places of 300000 or more people What about smaller and rural places Definitio nal Issues Major difference in most definitions o Distinction between the comm unity territory and comm unity a sense of togetherness o The functional interaction of identification is a local province WARRREN Structural Functional Community the combination of social units and systems which perform the major functions having locality relevance Great Change the transfer of decision making power and locus of control from the locality to the larger urban core Those who control local power tend to be most dominant in political social and economic arenas of the community 0 Economic dominants do not always represent the opinions of the masses 0 Disagreement often eXists between leaders and citizens 0 Problems defining representative bureaucracy Active Representation vs Passive Representation Active implies that an individual is expected to press for the interest and desires he or she is presumed to represent Someone fighting for your interest and rights Passive representing the group as a whole WIKINSON A phenomenon which only occurs in a local society 3 features inherent to any local society must have all three for a community to emerge 0 Locality where the people live 0 People who live there 0 Total organization Community behavior patterns that express purposive collectivistic orientation There is a purpose of this organization and it benefits the whole the community Does community emerge within a local society Key is the interrelationships among things 0 Community is based on fundamental consensus not con ict 0 The obvious result of lack of consensus Two general outcomes to con ict 0 Con ict resolution come to an agreement to resolve the con ict 0 Con ict management con ict still eXist but it is contained In Warren s framework integration plays central role Integration degree of linkage among segments of a social system Vertical Integration between community and units external to it Horizontal Integration all within among constituent arts ofthe community Patter ofinterintra community relationships tells you much about the community 0 Solidarity is central feature 0 Independent vs Dependent Community 0 Banks have branches there is still the major headquarter bank the local branch is where vertical and horizontal linkages connect 0 Dependent you are dependent on something else 1 Local Autonomy Independent Dependent Extra community units 2 Coincidence of Service Areas Coincide Differ Coincide everyone served by institutions from a community Differ no common geographic center of community 3Psychological Identification with Common Locality I Strong Weak Strong community is important referent group Weak little sense of relationship to each other 4 Horizontal Pattern I Strong weak Structural and functional relation oflocal units to each other s 102110 7 Warren Thesis Encapsulated 1 Division oflabor Accommodating specialization 2 Differentiation ofinterests and associations How to reconcile a representation ofinterests 3 Increasing systematic Relationships to larger society 0 Principle relation is the institution 4 Bureaucratization and impersonalization o Notion of different levels of authority with supervision oflower offices by higher ones 0 Advantage deliberate decision making equality in rule making organized rule making 0 Disadvantage in exibility lack ofimagination impersonality con ict between exercising official duty amp personal objectives 5 Transfer of Functions to Profit Enterprise and Government I Individual family9 no finance exchange I Groups larger than family 9 barter I Voluntary Associations 9 gifts fee dues I Businesses 9 through prices paid I Government 9 through taxes paid 6 Urbanization and Suburbanization I Cities and their suburbs are a symbolic whole I Suburbs are a reaction to anonymity and heterogeneity of urban life I A move to the suburbs expresses an attempt to find a place to conduct family life more suitable than the central city I Emphasizes family Sprawl and Suburbanization Impacts and changes in residential growth patterns Causes 0 Post WWII FHA and VA loans 0 Encouraged construction ofnew homes 0 Provided mortgages for over 1 million homes 0 Created Zoning laws 0 Zoning was originally a response to filth cities 0 Development of the Interstate Highways System 0 Built over 40000 miles of highway from 195 71977 0 Without these large highspeed highways we could not have developed suburbs 0 Construction of beltways and other 4lane highways created additional sprawl 0 White Flight from the Cities 0 Began with FHA and VA mortgage programs in the 40s and 50s 0 Excelled in the 60s in the wake of urban 0 Cheap Oil 0 Europe never developed our kind of sprawl Why I Better planning 0 Oil there has always been more expensive 0 Sprawl in the US could not have happened or continue to happen 0 Local Growth Promotion 0 Municipalities promote growth because it is assumed to bring in taX revenue they don t 0 Businesses promote growth because it generates profits 0 In many Elements of Sprawl Subdivisions Shopping Centers as opposed to alternative shopping districts Main St Office Parks no green Civil Institutions municipal buildings schools ect Roadways needed to connect these elements Consequences of Sprawl Continued decline of cities and older towns Traffic Congestion Since 87 US miles of new roads grew by 1 Number of cars increased by 27 0 Vehicle miles increased by 35 Much traffic is from 1 suburb to another Commuting times increase 1 hour each way Radical and Class Segregation 0 Poor populate our cities 0 Housing prices and discriminating zoning keeps poor from the suburbs 0 Zoning law with in suburbs segregate people by class and income re lining Pollution 0 Cars account for 25 for C02 emissions 0 Between 1960s and today average size of housing increased by 60 numb er family size Contributes to obesity 0 Lack of walkable area 0 Lack of areas for children to play 0 25 of all children are obese Fiscal Distress o Revenues increase by 111 o Expenditures increased by 119 Con icts between New Comers and Longtime Owners 0 New comers demand services not traditionally provided 0 Many new consumers oppose more growth quotgang plank and quotdraw bridge mentality o Con icts with farmers who may want to sell their land for development 00 00 Solutions to Sprawl Reinvest in cities older towns and rural and small places to make them attractive places to live Tax breaks loans and other incentives to rehabilitation and improvements to dilapidated norms Create incentives for businesses to locate in cities Regional planning and zoning 9 each community efforts Encourageforce municipalities to create regional zoning Growth boundaries localities decide where growth should occur sewer and water lines not extended beyond the boundaries 102610 Solutions to Sprawl Continued Benefits of growth boundaries 0 Promote compact development 0 Discourages land speculation 0 Create orderly process for phased development 0 Preserve Farmland 0 Maintain distinct communities prevent merging Lancaster County Townships have cooperated to create 20 growth boundaries and have zoned 320000 acres for agriculture Obstacles to growth boundaries Lack of state enabling legislation in PA Difficulty in reaching agreement among local governments collaboration 0 Lack of timely and accurate information on population and land use needs 0 Opposition from landowners outside the growth boundary and inconsistencies among those within 0 Opposition from developers who fear they will run out ofbuildable land 0 Opposition from people living inside growth boundary who fear overcrowding Lack of public education Existing development patterns if a place already has a bad case of sprawl growth Solutions to Sprawl Agricultural preservation protecting agriculture Land Agricultural Security Areas Purchas of development rights Strengthening local agriculture so it is profitable prevents sprawl because it maintains the farm 0 Farmers Markets 0 CSAs 0 Direct sales to restaurants Given percent of forested land couldn t this also work in this area The New Urbanism re Smart Growth To date we have built suburbs based on the scale and needs of cars 0 What if we now decide to create more human scaled and compact communities Places where direct communication and walking and biking were the norm New urbanism embraces traditional neighborhood design and development that reduces traffic and encourages walk ability and other forms of transportation Key Principles 0 Walk ability most things are within 10 minute walk ofwork or home 0 Connectivity interconnected street grid that disperses traffic no collector streets streets exist in a hierarchy from board boulevards to narrow lanes and alleys o MixedUses and densityvariety of shops offices houses and apartments Not what we have downtown today Principles of New Urbanism 0 Mixed housing multiple types sizes and prices in close proximity this helps to integrate low income residents 0 Quality Architecture Return to aesthetic architecture 0 Traditional Neighborhood Development This is the basic unit of planning It has a discernable center and edge public spaces for play and recreation alleys behind houses One half square mile in total 0 Increased Density Place 0 Smart transportation network of trains connecting cities and towns bike paths sidewalks 0 Sustainability minimal environmental impact ecofriendly technologies solar panels green design energy efficiency 0 Emphasis on enhancing local quality oflife Benefits of New Urbanism 0 Less traffic congestion leads to 0 Enhanced social interaction giving a 0 Greater sense of community this in turn provides 0 Tax savings to municipalities and residents and o Preservation of Open Space Criticisms of New Urbanism 0 Many new urbanism developments constructed in ruralurban fringe o In practice new urbanism developments have not provided the mix of housing they promised especially low income housing 0 Critics say new urbanism is social engineering trying to manipulate behavior by changing the physical environment take away the option of driving so much 0 In many areas zoning codes must be changed to build new urbanism developments difficult to do 0 Critics charge that new urbanism re ects a nostalgia for small town life that never really existed Warren Thesis Encapsulated 7 Changing Values Underlying principles on which people base choices Choice capacity to satisfy a human desire attributed to any object idea or content of experience you make the choices Values are products of culture Characterized by differing intensity duration extensiveness and prestige Expect governments to take care of us Theory and practice differ in execution Interactional Perspective Early roots in the work of Durkheim Toennies and Comte but most formally traced to work of Kaufman and Wilkinson Overt concern with the level of activity within the community Nondeterministic View of reality focuses on dynamics of emergence Community organization oflocality relevant actor roles and groups through which needs of the local society are met and the social identity of the locality are maintained within the larger society Community behavior is much narrower than the whole range of behavior which takes place at the local level Community can only occur in a local society One Key element is role ofsocial eld 0 Social structure provides a range ofacceptable behavior Individual characters have multiple possibilities for response patterns Behavior is a function of matching the two In a field theoretical perspective one needs to address both the action and its location Key elements of a field perspective A field is a Holistic interaction nexus Unbounded Dynamic Emergent The central feature of community from an interactional perspective is a generalizing process Generalizing actions are differentiated from others if they are 0 Typical of the community Expressive ofa broad range of interest Clearly located within a locality Involve substantial proportion oflocal populous Conducted through local associations Geared towards the local society Organized and purposive Coordination of activities among interest fields Community is a generalizing locality oriented social field Social field process ofinteraction through time with direction toward some more or less distinctive outcome and with constantly changing elements and structure 0 Community field locality oriented social field through which actions expressing a broad range oflocal interests are coordinated Community development an action which is purposively directed towards altering the community field structure in a positive way The essence of community is found in activities which facilitate coordination and interrelationships of groups in a locality so what results there is a configuration and not a number of discrete and segmented activities Interstitial groups basis for many interchanges between elemental groups they help create a sharing framework Elemental Group A ltgt Interstitial Group ltgt Elemental Group B The configuration of the local society helps contribute to the formation of interstitial groups Line Village Pattern typical in Europe places like New Hampshire and Pennsylvania developments are along the road Scattered Farmstead dominate pattern people in downtown and people on their farms Cluster Village Farmers live in village and are in walking distance of their fields In middle ages they had walls for protection from attacks Community Power Structures Decisions re ect actions taken by local and extralocals responding to forcescircumstances affecting local society Power inevitably viewed as either the potential or capacity to act or as the act of forcing andor persuading I in uence you to do something according to something that I want you to do Carry out hisher own free will despite what everyone else feels Community power Structure the network of individuals and group s which in uence and make decisions about local issues and projects Development of community Development in community when you put something into a community that wasn t there before Anyone who has rights to develop land can do Who has the Power Weber 0 3 Types ofpower leaders 0 Traditional represented by feudal customs I Queen of England o Bureaucratic power resides among those holding offices within institutions stable Not a personal relationship I Example President Deans of Colleges at Penn State The real power resides in StaffAssistants o Charismatic power results from uniqueness of the individual unstable Routinized I Example would be celebrities the Pope Iesus Hitler Marx 0 Power rests in the hands of those who control the means of production Saul Alinsky o The haves the have not s and the have some want more Mills 0 The corporate rich political insiders and military warlords formed an interlocking and overlapping power elite Approaches to the Study of Power POSITIONAL APPROACH o The oldest and focuses on individuals who hold formal positions 0 If they are organized they have power ex Iaycees lions club 0 Assumptions 0 Power lies in the important positions of community formal organizations 0 Those in these positions make decisions 0 Those in these positions control the resources Procedures 0 Identify all the major areas in the community and then find out who the leaders are in each one 0 Develop a directory ofleaders 0 Maintain accurate list by reviewing and updating yearly Most don t reelect more than once a year Visible leaders those assigned the same amount of power by other leaders and non leaders 0 Shakers and bakers visible leaders Concealed leaders assigned more prestige by leaders than nonleaders often not recognized by members of the community 0 People behind the curtain the ones pulling the strings Symbolic leaders assigned more prestige by nonleaders than leaders 0 Mayor of State College cut ribbons when things open Types of Leaders visible leaders typically involved I both public and private organizations Advantages o Visible easily identified leaders 0 Low costs 0 Directories offer crosssections of community leaders 0 Provides insights into potential role in other community development activities Disadvantages 0 Cannot and does not identify informal leaders 0 Those that actually achieve or use their in uence 0 Ignores difficulty of determining which positions hold power in what community decisions Reputational Approach Knowledgeable community citizens provide lists ofpower actors who are then ranked according to their reputation for power 0 Assumptions 0 Power is involved in all social relationships 0 Reputation is an indicator of an individual s potential to affect community issues 0 Citizens know power actors as a result of their reputation 0 One cannot identify power actors simply by knowing who participates in meetings or holds office 0 Procedures 0 Identify community knowledgeable 0 Ask knowledgeable to list power actors o Iterative approach to ranking power actors 0 Can gather information from knowledgeable external to but familiar with the community 0 Interview using standard instrument 0 Summarize names of reputed power actors 0 Check reliability of list 0 Types of Leaders 0 Generally both visible leaders and those operating behind the scenes 0 Advantages 0 Identify wide scope ofpower actors 0 Potential to determine power actors in multiple areas 0 Relatively easy and inexpensive o Disadvantages o Leaders maymay not exercise power but do have social status in community 0 Tends to identify elitist structure of community 0 Assumes knowledgeable of community are indeed knowledgeable DecisionMaking Method Traces history ofa collective decision on at least one issue Dahaal Power actors are those identified as actually having participated in the concrete decision 0 Assumption 0 Social power to affect decisions is evident through participation in the process 0 Procedures 0 Determine representative actions of community decisionmaking 0 Pick areas relevant to community development 0 Traces process from initiation stage to actions completion stage 0 Identify actionoriented leaders 0 Types of Leaders 0 People who are active or instrumental in the resolution ofissues andor problems 0 Advantages o Determines behavior rather than reputation 0 Identify general power actors 0 Identify specialized power actors 0 Determine roles people play in various phases of action episodes 0 Disadvantages 0 Time consuming and costly o Assumes actual behavior is a measure of leadership 0 May miss actors capable of keeping latent issues from emerging into open controversy Social Participation Method Focus on participants active in voluntary associations in the community 0 Assumption 0 Power to affect community decisions is acquired through active participation if you actively participate you get power 0 Procedures 0 Identify associations representative of the range of organizations dedicated to community service 0 Identify lists ofmembers officers board of directors and committees of each association 0 Determine overlaps and assign weights to positions I Are you a member or do you hold a chair position 0 Determine highest point gainers 0 Types of Leaders 0 Visible participants in various activities of voluntary association 0 Advantages o Identifies activists future leaders community members likely to participate in various action phases 0 Disadvantages 0 Time consuming and costly only identifies activists fails to identify the special issues in which highscore participators are likely to be decision makers or active participants Does it Matter Which Method Decision Making 100 decision making 25 social participation 33 reputational positional 39 Social Participation 100 social participation 25 reputational 22 positional Reputational 100 reputational 74 positional Positional 100 positional Ultimately choice of technique depends on 4 things 1 Objectives of research 2 Types of actors one wants to identify 3 Resources available for the effort 4 Researcher s personal preference and style Types of Power Structure Pyramidal small number ofpeople at the top controlling many Factional characterized by two or more power blocks or special interest groups competing with each other in the area of community life Coalitional in uentials from various loci from temporary coalition with respect to key projects Amorphous No discernible or persistent pattern is evident Types of Power Actors In uentials those with the greatest power Lieutenants those who carry out details of planning and implementing policy decisions ofin uentials Doers those who carry out the tasks Stages of Community Action Episodes Generally 5 stages can be identified Initiation 1 or 2 people identifying a problem Legit Imation initiators speak with appropriate in uentials Goal Setting finalization of action goals and strategies Resource Mobilization includes people economic and environmental resources Implementation Evaluation enters the action phase with movement toward a goal once started evaluation component commences Agency and Disaffection Human Agency ability to act upon situations and be effective in altering outcomes Operates at two levels Individual you each have an agency Collective as a class have an agency Community Agency ability of a community to act in addressing specific locale oriented needs Can be thought of as the capacity for collective action Major defining characteristic ofa community social structure People must come together Ability to act amp the positive consequences that come from it Found where people care about each other and the place they live Disaffection a generalized community phenomenon which acts to limit community agency and as a result limit local social and economic development Both structure and culture are denied having any role in shaping human history and daily lives Community Change Development in the community V Development of the community In treats the community only as a context within which special interest programs of change occur aka differentiation modernization and community growth of requires attention be given to the integrative generalizing structures in a local society Two forms Crescive change occurring quotout there independent of change efforts at the community level Warren Purposive change which we seek to bring about in the ongoing situation Purposive social change represents an active intervention into a ow of events that will result in change because of the purposeful action of others Purposive Change 3 levels of purposive change Warren 1 Organizational change how to induce desired changes in formal organizations 2 Community change emerges from community organizational field and re ects active attempts to bring about greater coordination among social service agencies 3 Societal change re ective of social movement literature concerned with a variation of the second NIMBY LULU Purposive collective action issues are episodic in nature We understand community more by its actions and task orientations than its structural characteristics typical action configuration how a community responds to a situation 11 91 0 Five Stages in Most Community Action Episodes 2quot Few people become aware ofa problem and express an interest in working towards a solution Creation of an quotinitiation set Enlist the cooperation ofpeople who by virtue of their position in the community can make or break a project 9 Seek and gain widespread public support Achievement of goals and purposes of the action episode usually results in several things a Disbandment b Create a group to tackle future problems 0quot Dimensions of Community Action Task Accomplishment movement toward a goal Task Maintenance activities which develop or maintain the structure of the community action process Community Action For localities with lt12000 type of collective action varied with distance from large urban centers Smith 1975 Places characterized by low scale ofinteraction and low accomplishment rates usually have less reason to emphasize local initiatives Where action is task accomplishment oriented it is often more defensive in tone Community Development Types of Functionaries Local leaders Resident professional Professional organizer Multipurpose community workers Community Development Field Theory Perspective Social Field gt Locally oriented institutionalinterest fields gt community field The development process is set against powerful tendencies in nature Community development is always purposive Development is nothing more than action undertaken with a positive purpose Comprehensive development requires integration amp coordination across interest fields Community field requires both but is different than both 3 elements to community field 1 Actors start ofbeing key leaders of the community 2 Associations 3 Activities ACTION STLYES o Autonomous each field operates independently o Coordinative generalized leaders interacting with broad networks of others in multiinterest packages MODES OF ENTRY when planning and development is the issue 0 Intervention Model stresses the altering oflocal values and structures to provide the necessary infrastructure for program success Collaborative Model agency and community enter into a creative partnership requires a strong commitment on the part of the agency to local participation as a w Community Development Issues Values stressing this kind of community desired Capability determine the effective purposive action Responsibility question ofsocial consequences of CD efforts initiated from the outside Commitment degree to which it is self seeking or community service oriented Autonomouscollaborative no or limited resources Coordinativecollaborative highest level of accomplishments Internally consistent cells have fewer con icts and higher levels ofaccomplishment Purposive Social Change Concerned with inducing change Neglect in community studies ofsocial change in general no grounded theories in the field Grounded theories in order to develop concepts the importance of the comparative method with emphasis on empirical work is needed Structural functionalists favor equilibrium concept Most purposive social change at the community level is a response to a problem that has arisen in that community Norton Long s quotEcology of Games Organizations and activities are often set up to adapt to largely uncontrolled processes and in this sense belong to and become part of the changing scene 111110 Purposive Social Change Two forces directly affect adaptive patterns of social systems 0 Internal structure system internal to the place 0 Environmental conditions which impinge upon the system Most purposive social change at the community level is of secondary rather than basic nature Change to industrial development and others change is adaptive Any community action may involve a number ofpurposive action processes Process vary on several dimensions Consensus Dimension issue agreement disagreement variables 0 Interest relation ofactors to specific configurations 0 Values implicit basis for judgment amp evaluation 0 Culturally in uenced Consensus agreement of values ampor interest Dissensus disagreement ofvalues ampor interests Saliency focus of attention or extent of concern Latency failure to attract attention Role of Change Agent Change Agent party who seeks to bring about change Proposal an explicit change objective Issue aspect or possibility of change 3 Situations could arise 1 Issue of Consensus agreement to solve problems in a certain way They all share this Common interests arise from common values They all come to an agreement 2 Issue of Dissensus refusal to recognize issue or oppose change agent s proposal uses contest strategy a Most regular in the community level 3 Issue of Difference intermediary position issue consensus could be reached but proposal is an issue uses campaign ofpersuasion strategy a Apathy is a major issue Con ict we engage in deliberately harmful activities Contest issue of Dissensus Types of contest strategies 0 Within accepted social norms elections 0 Attempts to alter status quo We redistribute local power our new representative on the consol for the borough o Violation of community norms tolerated but not sanctioned sitins strikes smear campaigns changing the welfare program Ultimately con ict is a deliberate attempt to harm individual or opponent and remove them from field going beyond smear campaign Community development usually attempts to make use of campaign strategies to achieve consensus in decisionmaking Parsons change is problematic Marx stability is problematic Neither is now nor can ever be right Community Con ict Past precedent as whetstone for future occurrences o Attitudes predict attitudes o Behaviors predict actions Time as element of controversy and community There is no such thing as static controversy Need to estimate participation readiness of target Need to expand information base we need to move information from town to town and within towns Community Controversy If there were no controversy we wouldn t have communities Degree of community involvement affects controversy level Community interest parallels community growth inverse relationship The bigger the places are the less interested we are in that place Type of event stimulates controversy Makeup of community Criteria for Dispute Issue must be communal in nature Must affect people differently Must lead to action Source of dispute external or internal Content ofissue which area of community life affected 0 Economic 0 Power of authority 0 Culture values amp beliefs 0 Existing antagonisms Conditions for Controversy Differences in economic structure 0 Some are tourist communities 0 Leisure class activities 0 Communities revolved around government and other organizations Changes in time o More concerned about communism during times of McCarthy Cultural Mix 0 Our country was founded on immigrants 0 Who we are where do we come from Residue ofpast controversies 0 Leave existing cleavages in communities 0 Predisposition to con ict 0 Generally are areas where there area activists extremist festers in a national climate of fear and suspicion Con ict emerges from a lack of common denominator 111610 Dynamics of Controversy 0 Induction form specific to general 0 Issue Multiplication no more suppression of new and different issues unrelated to original ones 0 Disagreement 9 Antagonism o Involuntary expedient to hate your opponent o Deliberate personal changes on part ofprotagonist 0 Flow or controversy 1 Initial Single Issue 2 Disruption of Equilibrium 3 Frees up Suppressed sentiment 4 Widespread Participation 5 Opponents Appears Bad 6 Charges Against Opponent as Person 7 Dispute Independent of Initial Issue 0 Change in social organization of community 0 Polarization of relations 0 Formulation ofpartisan organizations 0 Emergence of new leaders 0 Legit Imation through organizational participation 0 Rumor Leads to a reciprocal causation psychological polarization leads to social polarization Factors Affecting Course of Controversy Socioeconomic Status SES Decisionmaking structure Leadership Informal cooptation opposition has real voice but does not appear to have one 0 Formal is more direct Differences among communities 0 Community attachment how long someone lived within an area sets of roles and mores Organization density how wide spread Distribution ofparticipation is it narrowly located Interlocking memberships Dynamics of Controversy Individuals are aggregates of attachments to everything Groups and organizations as well as individuals attempt to maximize their desired outcomes Individuals maximize their actiontaking potential by making their attachments consistent Environment A natural resource is a cultural construct Definition ofa resource is in uenced by 0 Cultural settings 0 Available technology 0 Environment where the resource occurs 0 Economic and Political contexts Values placed on forests have changed over time o Forests as obstacles O o Forests as sacred 0 Ancient to religion 0 Forests as commodity Attitudes regarding nature are diverse Land Ethic quotA thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity stability and beauty of the biotic community It is wrong when it tends otherwise Leopold A Sand County Almanac quotA land ethic then re ects the existence of ecological conscience and this in turn re ects a conviction of individual responsibility for the health of the land Leopold A Sand County Almanac Conservation vs Preservation Two concepts which have set the US public agenda for natural resource management for over a century 0 Conservation proper use of natural resources 0 Preservation Protection of natural resources from use US Natural Resource Management First federal forest reserves were established for utilitarian purposes 0 Organic Administration Act of 1897 0 Water quantity quality 0 Continuous supply oftimber o Authorized to sell timber Management of first national parks set aside to protect from use in uenced by utilitarian purposes Not everyone agrees on what qualifies as quotwise use Thegreatestg00df0r the greatest number in the long run Gifford Pinchot Binds the resource to materialism At the same time preservationists ie John Muir emphasize aesthetics and intrinsic value value in and ofitself Hetch Hetchy Reservoir 1913 dam built in Yosemite to supply water for San Francisco Conservation vs preservation The issue still has a place on natural resource management agendas in the 21st century Directly led to the formation of national parks National Park Service Organic Act of 1916 Makes a natural resource 0 Technologies 0 Management Practices 0 Social and Economic Institutions Sustaining resources requires difficult choices and public consensus Values change over time creating challenges to our concepts of how to manage sustainably Sustainability Securing the needs and values of our own generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs and values How and what humans choose Consider our current choices so future generations will have more options than they might otherwise have USDA Forest Service Organic Administration Act 1897 Transfer Act of 1905 193 million acres of national forests and rangelands about the size of Texas 155 national forests Premised on conservation Secure Rural Schools amp Community SelfDetermination Act of 2000 111810 National Park Service National Park Service Organic Act of 1916 84 million acres o 45 million acres of oceans lakes reservoirs I A lot of these have the original owner ofland 85000 acres of rivers and streams 43000 miles of shoreline 68000 archeological sites 27000 historic sites 2500 national historic landmarks 582 national natural landmarks 393 national parks 0 40 national heritage areas Premised on preservation OOOOOOO Bureau of Land Management Established in 1946 245 million surface acres 40 of all federal land 700 million acres of subsurface mineral estates Western land holdings Mission manage energy and mineral timber forage recreation wild horses and wild burros historicalcultural sites lighthouses National Wilderness Preservation System Do not fall within one agency not an agency within the federal government Wilderness Act of 1964 and Eastern Wilderness Act of 1975 Wilderness an area on the earth and its community oflife which is untrammeled by man where man himselfis a Visitor and does not remain 756 wilderness areas in 13 states 207000 acres Pennsylvania s Natural Resources Historically thought to be 100 forested 0 Southern Area oak yellowpoplar amp hickory 0 Further North pick up eastern hemlock amp white Pine 0 Northern Tier American beech birch and maple Industrial development 0 Mid 17005 iron industry 35 million acres of forest cut 0 mid 18005 shipping industry eastern white pines lost 0 18805 logging railroad engines allowed harvest away from streams 0 Late 18005 Tannery Industry eastern hemlocks cut Beginning of 20th Century PA forests are ecological disaster 0 Fires erosion landscapes were barren PA GAME COMMISSION State Game Lands 0 300 tracts 14 million acres 0 managed for purposes of providing space for hunting specified game species TampE species wildlife management and protection PA Fish amp Boat Commission quotResource First philosophy Protect conserve and enhance Pas aquatic resources and provide fishing and boating opportunities Natural Resources Are Cultural Constructs o What is considered a resource can change over time and according to the context where it occurs Conservation vs Preservation 0 Has set public agenda for natural resource management in the US for over a century Many Managers 0 Each agency approaches management from the basis of distinct mission statements and management philosophies 12210 Resource Extraction Rural America is often characterized by two landscape types 0 Social landscapes of agriculture 0 Social landscape of extraction Extractive enterprises are always in a position of dependence 0 Raw material acquire value through processing Decision to extract resources is usually made by extralocal interests 0 Owners of coal mines don tlive in WVirginia Extralocal interests not surprisingly routinely lack interest in the local social world Remote rural locations become a major part of the extraction landscape Top Five Forestland Activities Most Likely to Do 1 Recreation other than hunting 728 2 Hunt 714 3 Improve wildlife habitat 4 Plant trees 5 Vegetation management 12710 4 Things that in uence how we define what a natural resource is 1 Culture 2 Ability to use it 3 The environmental contextwhere it s found 4 Economic and political context Resource Extraction Good Exam Question What issues confrobt rural America in terms of the relationships among extractive industries communities and their impacts 0 Way of life recreation is disrupted well being and self identification 0 The extractors not rom community so they don t care 0 When the resource is gone the community fails 92310 Beginning of second exam notes Social Inequality and Poverty Inequality among men is a rich source of evil Stratification Differentiation among society s members resulting in an unequal distribution ofbenefits and burdens among people Systems are Not neutral serves to promote some over others 0 This is a historic process Marx and Webber revolve around this In 18th century work was captured under the origin ofinequality focused on a set of classes place of residence and place ofwork Ancient Roots Plato amp Aristoltle talked of slavery o Depends upon social differentiation 0 Divinely ordain as the good of all 0 Different rewards for different occupations 0 Greater our technology the more we can specialize 0 Results in incongruous life chances The inescapable conclusion is the time at which one dies is related to one s class Can be opened or closed easy and degrees to which you can change your status Open America s democratic creed The American society takes into account many factors for the Ascribed status Ifyou are a woman you always hit the glass ceiling in firms Constraints are age gender race Affirmative action the gov s solution to make sure you are not discriminated against in the workforce Closed India s Caste System 0 System of cast you are what your parent were Brahmens very high up in system kshatriyas warriors and descendants of warriors Vaisyas merchants the traders Sudrids peasants Untouchables people who serve lower roles in society 0 First 3 cast account for 10 of the population India has 11 billion people 0 DARMA legitimized that notion that it is only morally acceptable to live a life of grace You need to do and be at peace with your lot in life Achieved status working your way to that status Ascribe one that is assigned to you by your group in society Dimensions of Stratification Durkheim the division oflabor in society resulted from industrialization conservative framework Marx the dysfunctions associated with capitalism alienation o Emergence of social class 2 step process 0 Common awareness common conditions ofinterest o Collective Conscience only when there was an awareness of common awareness Weber multidimensional not just economic system Felt Marx views were too simplistic 0 Class an economic standing 0 Property differentiated by what you own 0 Acquisition determined by your opportunity to seize the moment use those services available to you 0 Social fun party people who are like you 0 Status social standing estimation of honor o Amode ofliving 0 Formal process of education 0 Prestige of birth or occupation how you were born and who you were born too 0 Party we need to consider power parties are only possible in societies that are socialized o Constitutes a distinct aspect of social ranking Drs have great prestige 120 million a year for ARod Has a highly known status because we re more concerned with entertainment than life Lindsay Lohan Their money buys them power Each of these three dimensions constitutes a distinct aspect of social ranking 0 Economic Standing 0 Wealth what we have what people own 0 Income is the amount of money you receive or get Prestige generally intangible carried around in our heads 0 Conspicuous leisure o Conspicuous consumption 0 Not enough to just have wealth and power you must put it on public view Power ability to realize that I have powers to get you to do something you wouldn t else otherwise do Identifying Social Classes Objective Method 0 Socioeconomic status 0 Provides some standards for measurement SelfPlacementSubjective Method ask people to identify their class 0 Confusion between actual class and that which they aspire to be Reputational Method 0 Class as a social group 0 Share a feeling of quotonenessquot Functional Perspective Straification is Beneficial to society Universal Shared interest are stressed Original theory those who had the supply for demand were rewarded Two Assumptions Society must motivate people to fill positions 0 How anxious you are to go out and get the job 0 Dentist have the highest rates of heart attacks because they understand the level of fear people have Society must motivate occupants to carry out roles Con ict Perspective Stratification is beneficial to individuals with power 0 Example the mining industry People needed for drudge jobs Stresses interests that divide Often tied to Marx current state of technology were determinants of society Commodification of things 0000 92810 American Class System Structured Social Inequality the institutionalization of inequality so there is a system for determining who gets what Not a random process follows consistent set ofpatterns passed from one generation to the next Universal because society needs a means to fill all statuses in the structure Stratification Con ict Views Through stratification they can dominate and control other Functionalist see as being beneficial filling an needed purpose within a society Those that had power retained their power Significance of Social Class It determines people s life chances It re ects their style of life Facets ofAmerican life are associated with social class 0 In coming religion social class and sexual behavior 0 Little is left un touched by social class Social Class Participation in poitical process the higher you are the more involved you are Attitudes toward civil liberty issues Divorce and marital disruption increases with declining social classes 0 Lower the social class the more likely we see divorce rates as well as single female headed households Religion higher status typically tend to be involved with protestant and withing that group the piscapalians are higher up Education attainment strongly correlated with income the more income you have the more likely you earn more money 0 Less than 10 of children with the opportunity to go to college do not go o In lower classes the number jumps to 25 Health status re ects an uneven playing field 0 2008 46million were without health coverage As many as 3 in 5 0 As rich people are healthier than poor people 0 There are greater risk for disease Upper class are more likely to be treated with psycho analysis Social participation volunteerism the higher your class the more likely you are to volunteer Across the board there is less volunteerism In higher classes individuals tend to participate in more community activities Child rearing differs with social class 0 Higher tend to focus on behavior patterns restraints oflove as mean of power 0 Lower classes there is more physical force used Paterns of criminal activity 0 More likely to engage in white collar crimes than lower classes 0 Lower classes are more likely to burglurize rob 0 Difference in how these crimes are punished The equal justice isn t equal Lower classes are more often denied bail and serve longer terms Disappearing Middle Class 1970 53 ofall families earned between 15003500 1982 only 44 1999 down to 23 2008 only 175 Decline of families living in the middle class a result ofpeople earning way more or people that would be are burdened by more taX cuts LCurve Video A tour of the US income distribution Median income is about 40000 A stack about 1 12 high Top 1 earn 1million Halfa mile high 10 billion dollars is as high as MtEverest Who s taxes are being cut and at whose expense This represents the income distribution not wealth which is more skewed Have and Have nots have is shrinking have nots it growing Poverty Viewed as an urban problem because you can see the poor in the inner cities Geographic isolation of rural poor How we gather national statistics 2002 o 142 ofnonmetro population live in poverty 0 116 metro population 0 26 million children 20 of nonmetro children lived in poverty 2007 1 225 of all nonmetro children lived in poverty 0 highest since 1998 The more time a child lives in poverty the greater the chance that that child will be poor as an adult Two basic frames for definitions 1 Absolute 0 Finding a minimal standard of living below which people can not live includes health care 0 2010 22050 for a family of4 in 1992 it was about 14000 2 Relative o Situation where people may be able to afford basic necessities but are unable to maintain quotnormalquot standard of living 0 Percentage ofpeople with income less than half the median 0 Those in society that make less money are in poverty Define Poverty 0 Money needed to purchase a minimum acceptable diet lowest amount of calories necessary for survival 0 Today various characteristics are used in order to define a series ofpoverty lines Minimum amount of money needed to purchase an adequate diet We recognize the need to include more expenses besides food Criticisms of Poverty Line Too high example under Regan a researcher received the maximum level of food stamps and ate well Too low Doesn t adjust for geography Should include inkind income 0 Standard ofliving attainable is austere Economy Food Plan now we call it the Thrifty Food Plan 0 Should be considered only in an emergency Perspectives on Poverty Individualistic vs Structural Is there something about the poor that explains poverty or is there something about society that explains poverty Blaming the Poor 0 Ideological basis ifyou try hard enough you ll make it o Ifyou are poor its because you deserve to be 0 Too simplistic those that share the framework poverty often occurs outside the scoop of things the individual can control 0 Blaming the victim 0 Those with less education are more likely to be poor Culture of Poverty 0 Characteristics of the poor 0 We must change the characteristics to get them out of poverty 0 Poverty fosters a culture which manifests in unique values and personalities which perpetuates poverty Lowlittle interaction with social institutions Early reproduction short childhood Feeling of alienation Present time orientation living for today no delayed gratification Problems with culture of poverty 0 Never intended for industrialized societies 0 In US the poor do not differ significantly on many values particularly value of work 0 Implicit causality 0 values and your lifestyle lead to poverty 0 poverty is a causal factor ofvalues and lifestyle 93010 Income distribution people in general the rich are getting richer the poor are getting poorer Perspectives on Poverty Situational Perspective Behaviors and lifestyle are result ofpoverty Poverty is explained by structural conditions Poverty is marked by its episodic nature Perceived lack of opportunities 0 Not re ective of the rejection of middle class values Structural Perspective 0 Cause and solutions lie at societal level 0 Industrial reserve army I how company s have growth in times of economic downfall I Derivatives not controlled by gov created by banks packages ofloans that were sold on wall street 1St time profits were being made on intellectual property 0 0 Social structure gt poverty 0 Derivatives lead to poverty 0 Conditions affecting demand for labor 0 Automation puts unskilled and semiskilled workers out ofwork 0 Industrial restructuring textile o Uneven development when new and expanding industries red line certain areas Example Silcone Valley 0 Dual labor markets many people with low skill are trapped in dead end and low wage benefitless positions with little to know room for promotion I Occupied by students people with out college degrees minorities women that are recruited o Cyclicality deals with natural swings in the economy down turns are accompanied by higher rates of poverty and unemployment AntiPoverty Programs many eliminated during Regan Food Stamps 64 to about 1 million 28 million people are served with food stamps costing 36 billion Job Corps Legal Services provide legal services free legal assistance from local agencies Head Start Good program 1billion yr for 12 million under privileged children Medicaid older people provides health care to more than 20 million people Serves vast majority of US elderly AFDC Aid Families with Dependent Children created in 1935 designed originally only for children Basis for Help 1 Reliefinstitutions are a response to societal problems 2 State Viewed as ruling elite placating the poor a Marxx religion is the opiate of the masses Social Mobility The shift ofindividuals or groups from one status to another Forms of Mobility Vertical moving from one status to the other Horizontal moving to an equal status Intergenerational children to parents Intragenerational over your lifetime Recapping Poverty and Mobility People in places that do not change struggle The effects are felt at the individual level Economic situation crippling the number ofpeople who are poor is expanding They cannot meet their needs always financing their debt Debt services credit limit says you have so much and you pay that much or pay minimum payment Interest rates are the debt services Consequences ofpoverty food stamps shame of using bill collectors visiting everyday Inadequacies of social structure Barriers to upward mobility Corrosive stereotypes become self fulfilling prophecies Constant pressure constantly trying to pay off debts incidental costs Balancing aspiration and achievements Their aspirations are kept low so failures don t seem so bad They cannot afford to take financial risks If you fail from high hopes you might never get up Failure syndrome get kicked so often you just give up repeated failure leads to lack of confidence drug addiction suicides Psychosocial deficits from early childhood in adequate social networks Closing in of horizons years of disappointment lock the poor in bounded environments Changes in Agriculture When you go grocery shopping you are supposed to shop around the edges for the freshest foods The insides are full ofnonperishable foods Ieffers O O Agrari O 2quot America s Historic Roots onian Ideal It s the natural right of those who labor on the land to possess it Governement is to protect rights particularly those of the individual an Ideology Ideology is a doctrine or set of beliefs its practitioners hold these beliefes inviolate Can t be changed Agriculture is the basic occupation Rural life is morally superior they understand nature living off the land A nation of small independent farmers is the proper basis for a democratic society Yeoman farmer attributed to Jefferson The independent man Saw man as being virtuious and the proper unit of society 0 Grant Woods sturdy stoech unhappy individual 0 Preconceived perspective of the nature of things that are rural 0 Focus is ofa whole Major Tenets of Agrarian Ideology Ag is only source of real wealth Natural right to land Lab or cultivating earth confers valid title to it Land ownership gives status Contact with nature makes a man virtuious and happy Government deicate to interest of freehold farmer Beliefin tenets has played a role in the first universities Consequences of Agrarian Ideology Current beliefs about rural society Equot National Policy Normative preference for the family farm Homogenization of the American farmer and the mindset of the general population 0 All farmers seem to have the same problem 0 Doesn t work Agrarian Ideology Applied to Nonfarmers o All citizens should be the owners ofa farm or small commercial manufacturing enterprise 0 Frontier Process Labor valued for capacity to improve opportunities for the individuals Ladder to farming Manifest Destiny Unmasking the Myth 0 What exactly is average 0 Averages are not real far too many differences 0 Considerations about farming in America 0 Organization differences Farm Size 10 or 1000 acres Regioal differences Differences in inputs OOO 10510 Farm Types 0 Farm differentiation 0 Ownership 0 Management 0 Labor 0 Family Farm farm owned by a family 0 Family owns it and runs the farm 0 We are dependent on family farms in NE PA 0 Tenant Farms 0 Lives on land 0 Makes most decisions 0 Does not have a majority of resources 0 Larger than Family Farms 0 Owned by one group of people 0 Managed by another 0 And worked by a third 0 Industrial Farms 0 Corporate Farm I Not that many I Account for less than 5 of farms 0 Managed Farm I Very typical I 7 0 Contract Farm I Where a farm management contracts with former farm children that continue to own the land but have no intention of being a farmer Farm Size Based on work not based on sales Census definition of farm is based on sales Place with 1 000 or more of agricultural products produced or sold or normally would have been sold during the censusyedr Everything is located at the extremes You either have a lot ofmoney or you don t 78 of nations farms have sales gt 5 0000 178000 get 40 of subsidies 1990 of 22 million produce 90 of all farm outputs Nearly 60 have sales less than 10000 Regional Differences Fallacy of misplaced concreteness 0 Nature ofland holdings 0 Quality of land 0 Weather patterns West largest farms livestock ranching Northeast smallest farms dairy and fruit and vegetable Input Differences o What farmers must use to grow something successfully on a given piece of land 0 Regional differences 0 Quantity and quality of arable land 0 Length and type of growing season
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