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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Jessica Compton

Chapter 2 Notes CJE4174

Jessica Compton
GPA 4.0
Doreen Ruggiero

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Doreen Ruggiero
One Day of Notes
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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Jessica Compton on Thursday January 22, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to CJE4174 at Florida International University taught by Doreen Ruggiero in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views.


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Date Created: 01/22/15
Chapter 2 Brief Notes by Jessica Compton Text material used Measuring and Comparing Crime in and across Nations Comparative Criminal Justice Systems Compound Crime lesser of crimes such as theft assault robbery and sometimes rape The findings of these translational crimes have only recently been defined as such It is hard to account for the frequency of translational crimes for three reasons 1 Difficult to detect due to their secretive and multijurisdictional nature 2 Which countries problem is it Does it belong to the source country or destination location 3 Crimes often extend going over a period of time and by the time detection occurs evidence is difficult to find What we do know is that even though one country may have more of a problem with crime then another every country has crime Crime is universal Also we know globalization is a cause of more types of crime of international concern than in the past Why measure and compare crime data PG 17 The primary reason according to the text is to determine risk Risk of crime evaluates the probability that certain crimes will occur and their potential harm Comparing and asking questions such as how safe is one country vs another or how does crime rate in the US compare with the rates and other countries provide answers in which in uence our fearbehavior as citizens Crime statistics help us to judge whether we live in a safe place what crimes we should focus on etc Basically the more you know the better we can make rational decisions Measuring and comparing crime data serves at least two purposes 1 Collecting data allows us to determine the kinds and extent of crimes reported in any one country and distinguishes longterm patterns Crime trends are more important to understand both domestically and internationally 2 It provides clues about why some nations are more successful than others in controlling crime rate we can study others policies and see whether they can be adapted to her own situation Historical background of international crime data PG18 The first attempt to collect crime data internationally was in 1853 Brussels But today we no longer look to Interpol a police organization which crime data was limited to Rather we use a survey called United Nations Survey of Crime amp trends amp operation of criminal justice systems But it focuses more on information about criminal justice system than measurement of crime It contains 4 parts police persecution courts and prisons The 3 different kinds of crime data three different perspectives 1 The offender perspective 2 The victim perspective 3 The police perspective 1 Police perspective Police reports in the US are called the Uniform Crime Reports UCR and are collected by each police agency in the US and compiled by Federal Bureau of investigation annually Pros assesses trends over time Cons aws affecting accuracy crimes they do not come to police attention are missed So the great deal of crime is overlooked and the UCR is voluntary so not all police report data every year Furthermore it gathers information on a limited range of offenses and in doing so ignoring others The program counts arrests for 29 generally less serious offenses while arrests occur less than police report crime Solution NIBRS developed to broaden extent depth of crime data by police 2 Victim perspective In order to know who has been the victim of a crime a representative sample of the population is selected and participants are asked questions about their experience with crime recently PG 20 National Crime Victimization Survey name used annually covers six crimes NCVS found that the total number of crimes committed in the US is at least double the number of reported to the police in the UCR Uniform crime reports the amount of crime occurring which is unknown to the police or general public NCVS tries to reduce this figure and enhances our knowledge about criminal behavior and consequences of crime on victims Comparison UCR collects small amounts of information on all crimes known to police while victimization surveys collect a lot of information NCVS finds that overall approximately 50 of violent crimes and 40 of property crimes are reported to the police So more crime occurs then is revealed in the police statistics 3 Offender perspective This perspective is gathered from self report surveys in which participants are asked to report their own delinquent behavior anonymously or in a confidential interview mostly young people They are helpful because we can compare information about nonoffenders and I was not caught and they provide information about quotvictimless crimesquot in which the victim and offender are the same or engages consensually example prostitution Use mostly young people and has a limited sizeduration With the exception of the ISRD which uses standard instruments to compare juvenile rates of crime and 12 European locations and the US PG 21 International crime data The reporting and publication of crimes reported to the police remains an exercise for individual nations with too many differences to compare nationally The best available sources of international crime data are the international victimization surveys low level of material and social development majority of the world39s nations high level of development Surveys now called ICVS International crime victim surveys which are the most extensive standardize surveys of victims in the world It uses telephone interviews to ask about 10 specific offenses experienced But we see that a lot of countries fix the stats because they do not want you to see them in a bad way Table 21 shows the percentage of people victimized one or more times by any of the 10 crimes included in the ICVS 16 of the adult populations in the 30 participating countries were victims of at least one crime over the course of a year we see you crime drop and many of the tables and the author thinks it may have to do with factors that of change universally such as improved antitheft methods PG 27 in sum international victimization surveys provide the best available information about crime rates internationally because include crimes both reported and unreported to the police and they use standardized questionnaires with uniform definitions of offenses If we want to compare with models the US has the highest crime rate and Japan has the lowest The one reason Japan has lowest crime rate is because almost everyone has the same ethnicity and values etc But in the US we have such high diversity Also every country doesn39t always use the court system and it is soft and formally but in the US we do not believe in communism The US has more violent crime because economic disparity urban areas violent images in the media differences in culture 4 approaches to criminal behavior 1 internal or external forces to blame If you change the these then you can prevent it Example home monitoring children39s behavior can help drop crime rate 2 quotutilitarianismquot of something feels good you do it if not then you don39t 3 calling things that are not socially acceptable criminal we create organized crime and other serious social problems 4 crime committed by people that don39t seem to care What pain they cause the Victim May lack religious education


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