ELEMENTARY SPANISH II
ELEMENTARY SPANISH II SPAN 112
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PDSVERSOND st3 LABELREVSONNOTE quot quot OBJECT INSTRUMENT NSTRUMENTHOSTID quotVOYAGER1VOYAGER2quot NSTRUMENTID ISS OBJECT NSTRUMENTINFORMATION NSTRUMENTNAME quot NARROWANGLECAMERA quot NSTRUMENTTYPE quotVIDEO CAMERAquot NSTRUMENTDESC quot quot Instrument Overview The narrowangle Voyager 1 and 2 cameras mounted on the scan platform are designed to work with the boresighted wideangle cameras to optimize resolution and areal coverage The narrow angle cameras has a eld of view of 74 X 74 mrad and an eight position lter wheel containing 2 clear 2 green orange blue violet and UV lters to allow multicolor imaging in mosaicing mode Each frame consists of 800 lines with 800 eightbit picture elements Because ofthe small amount ofonboard memory operational options were limited and observing sequences were planned far in advance Scienti c Objective One objective ofthe Voyager 1 and 2 Imaging Science SubSytem ISS teams was to provide a continuous set of multicolor images composed of 3 to 4 colors taken every 72 degrees of rotation mapping the planet as it rotates This data have been processed and mapped into cylindrical maps that allow investigation of temporal evolution of speci c cloud features Instrument Calibration Various preflight and in ight tests ofthe ISS camera were performed to characterize the instrument performance and calibration The magnetically focused vidicon was subject to geometric distortion and had a nonlinear response to incident light Correction for distortion expands the observed eld to a frame nearly 1000 X 1000 pixels A cube consisting of eight 800 X 800 planes on increasing exposure was generated for each filter to allow photometric correction accounting for the individual response of each pixel An XY reseau grid was imposed on the vidicon These marks were used to determine the focal length 1500 mm and eld of view 74 x 74 mrad ofthe camera Exact knowledge ofthe x y position ofthe 202 reseau marks allows the quotpincushionquot distortion to be removed by double linear interpolation This data set has been processed using standard VICAR routines Because center to limb gradients have been analytically removed and the images stretched and filtered absolute photometric calibration is not required Operational Considerations To adapt to limitations ofonboard memory the ISS cameras are designed to be commanded to operate in several modes These cyclics are driven by command sequences that designate the type of scan pattern for a mosaic the starting point ofthe mosaic the filter and exposure sequence at each location in the mosaic grid the camera mode ie narrow angle only both simultaneously or both alternately and the read out mode The filter wheels on the narrow and wideangle cameras could be selected independently and changed from picture to picture The shutter assembly controlled the duration ofthe shutter yielding exposures between 0005 and 15 sec in standard mode Optics and Camera The narrowangle camera is mounted on the Voyager scan platform with its optical axis nominally coaligned with the wide angle camera It employed a 1500mm focal length allspherical catadioptic cassegrain telescope with an fstop of 85 The eld of view is 74 x 74 mrad and the plate scale is 8482 pixelsmm The narrowangle camera used a 8410133 General Electrodynamics vidicon with a seleniumsulfur detector that had a limited spectral response in the 280 to 640 nm range The active target area was 1114 X 1114 mm and an electron beam scanned the image linebyline The scanning rate could be adjusted to require 48 to 480 sec for a full readout The system electronics converted the analog readout to an 8bit digital signal The signal followed by engineering data could then be transmitted directly to earth or sent to the onboard taperecorder Filters The narrowangle camera was equipped with broadband lters selected as a compromise set to allow accomplishment of satellite and atmospheric goals Clear were empty lter wheel positions Filter Wheel Color Center Bandwidth Position Wavelength nanometers nanometers 0 clear no lter detector response 280 to 640 1 violet 400 50 nm 2 blue 480 50 nm 3 orange gt570 nm 4 clear no lter detector response 280 to 640 5 green gt530 nm 6 green gt530 nm 7 ultraviolet 325 45 nm Operational Modes The ISS cameras are commanded by a series of cylics that are assembled into command loads These cyclics determine the imaging sequences filters used exposures readout modes and transmission or storage each series ofobservations The size ofa command load is limited by the size ofthe onboard memory ISS camera commands are integrated with all other commands during the execution of the command load ENDOBJECT NSTRUMENTNFORMATON OBJECT lNSTRUMENTREFERENCENFO REFERENCEKEYD quotBENESHETAL1978quot REFERENCEDESC quotBenesh M P Jepsen 1978 Voyager Imaging Science Subsystem Calibration Report NASAJPL Report 618802quot ENDOBJECT lNSTRUMENTREFERENCENFO OBJECT lNSTRUMENTREFERENCENFO REFERENCEKEYD quotSMITHETAL1977quot REFERENCEDESC quotSmith B A et al 1977 Voyager Imaging Experiment Space Sci Rev 21 103127quot ENDOBJECT lNSTRUMENTREFERENCENFO ENDOBJECT INSTRUMENT END PDSVERSONID PDS3 LABELREVSONNOTE quotCharles C Avis and Stewart A Collins 198302 Lyle Huber 20080214quot OBJECT DATASET DATASETID quotVGR1VGR2 JlSSNA5JUPlTERMOSAICSV10quot OBJECT DATASETINFORMATION DATASETNAME quotVoyager 1 and 2 TimeLapse CylindricalProjection Jupiter Mosaicsquot DATASETCOLLECTIONMEMBERFLG quotNquot DATAOBJECTTYPE IMAGE STARTTME 19790106T052920 STOPTME 197906 24T21 21 34 DATASETRELEASEDATE 20080215 PRODUCERFULLNAME quot Charles C Avis and Stewart A Collins quot DETAILEDCATALOGFLAG quotNquot DATASETDESC quot Data Set Overview These mosaics were assembled to provide a consistent set of data for studies of Jovian atmospheric dynamics The camera images used in these mosaics have been processed as described below and projected into global mosaics constructed in planetary coordinates The format is designed to facilitate quantitative measurements by investigators without requiring the sophisticated software systems that are necessary to process raw data sets Data from the narrow angle Voyager cameras which allowed global coverage has been processed to remove geometric distortions and nonlinear photometric response This data includes the early approach of Voyager 1 and 2 when the entire disc could be imaged in one narrowangle frame through the period when 2 X 2 mosaics were required to coverthe planet Limb darkening due to solar insolation angle and cloud scattering effects has been analytically removed and the regions in each of 6 adjacent sets of observations have been integrated into each cylindrical map These 6 data bins are spaced at approximately 2 hour intervals the 6th bin in mosaic N is the same as the 1st bin in mosaic N1 allowing for quotwrap aroundquot comparisons lmages obtained with the shortest wavelengths were selected blue48050nm in the early Voyager 1 mosaics and violet 40050nm and ultraviolet325 45nm for later Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 mosaics See Tables 1 and 2 Each cylindrical map is 960 and 965 lines for VGR 1 and VGR 2 respectively by 3915 samples and projected at 9 pixels per degree lnput Data VGR 1 FDS Count 1464110 to 1602743 Range Mkm 580 135 Rotation No 1 112 Date 1979 January 06 1979 February 21 VGR 2 FDS Count 1840912 to 2017804 Range Mkm 555 139 Rotation No Date 266 408 1979 April 25 1979 June 24 Creation ofthe Mosaics Processing Steps for Each Longitude Each image is processed through the following steps utilizing navigation data the Voyager SEDR file 1 Noise removal via a despiking algorithm 2 3 4 001 Radiometric correction Removal of geometric distortion Location of planet center via a limbfitting algorithm or for images without limb by picking tiepoints in common with an image with a limb Removal of limb darkening via a photometric function Map projection A set of cosmetic processing tasks were applied to the mosaics during production These tasks included O FnPFDN Reseau mark and blemish removal Line drop replacement Removal of satellites and shadows Removal of miscellaneous garbage usually lines Transform UV and blue projections to appear as violet projections Missing longitudes were either a ignored or b partially lled in by extending neighboring projections Generation of2 X 2 Mosaics Later in the Voyager 1 and 2 sequences those longitudes requiring multiple frames for full coverage needed a mosaicking step Each completed projection covered a different portion ofthe subspacecraft hemisphere ofthe planet In the steps outlined above all of the frames for a single longitude were transformed to a common map projection essentially registering these pieces for mosaicking using the following approach 1 Clean the edges of each projection resulting in sharply cut borders 2 Overlay all inputs with a priority scheme to favor images with observable limb Generation of these mosaics involved a priority scheme for the case in which 2 or more inputs covered the same area The following rules defined which input image received priority in areas of overlapping coverage a Two inputs Use the pixel ofthe greater FDS count whose pixel is nonzero b Three or more inputs Use the pixel ofthe smallest FDS count whose pixel is nonzero These were not hardandfast rules but generally followed guidelines They give images with visible limbs greater priority Global Mosaiking Before mosaicing each Voyager 2 UV projection and Voyager 1 blue and UV projection is transformed to appear as a violet projection This is needed to ensure consistency of appearance both within each mosaic and between mosaics The global mosaics were generated from the mapprojected inputs Each input frame covered one entire longitude section 75 degrees and was derived from a single frame or complete or partial 2 X 2 mosaic All have the equator at line 483 but each has sample 1 at a different longitude The nal global mosaic is constructed from six projections as shown below The ve projections for this rotation plus the last projection of the previous rotation are laid down in increasing time order from right to left such that each falls at the appropriate longitude All overlap regions are averaged lt TIME 5 4 3 2 1 5 LONGITUDE SECTION Rotation N Rotation N1 Parameters The cylindrical mosaics have the following characteristics The origin ofthe array is the northwest corner of the mosaic The mosaics should be displayed with the origin in the upper lefthand corner with longitude increasing from right to left They are projected on a scale of 9 pixelsdegree in longitude This results in a sampling rate of 138464 kmpixel at the equator compared with sampling rates of 450 to 100 kmpixel in these narrow angle frames incorporated in these mosaics The following chart speci es the Mosaic parameters Spacecraft Location Size of Mosaic Latitudinal range Longitudinal Scale Of Equator line sample Planetocentric latitude Sys lll W longitude VGR 1 line 483 960 3915 8759 deg to 8086 deg Long 3646sample9 335855E08 rangekm VGR 2 line 483 965 3915 8759 deg to 8759 deg Long 3646sample9 335855E08 rangekm Applying this function 0 degrees longitude is located at Sample 362849 for Rotation 1 Sample 364189 for Rotation 112 Sample 362923 for Rotation 266 Sample 364145 for Rotation 408 Rotation 1 begins at 52920 UT January 6 1979 spacecraft receive time Voyager 1 mosaics span 112 rotations most of rotation 58 and all of 59 were not imaged Voyager 2 mosaics span 143 rotations from 266 to 408 with rotations 337 and 338 were not imaged Note System lll Longitude is based on periodic variation in decametric signals and is used to relate cloud motions with the rotation rate of the planet s interior According to International Astronomical Union standards System lll longitude is de ned with longitude increasing westward or with time as seen by a remote observer The zero point corresponds to the longitude that was coincident with the Earthbased observer s central meridian at 0 h UT January 1 1996 Julian Day 24387615 The rate is de ned as 8705366420 degreesday which yields a period of 9h55m2971 1004s or 992492hrs See Table 4 for ranges associated with individual mosaics Latitude and Longitude All frames were projected using a normal cylindrical projection with a scale of 9 pixelsdegree or 1384638 kmpixel at the equator and the origin 00 ofthe array at the northwest corner and in all cases the equator was placed at line 483 Because the projection size was 675 samples by 960 or 965 lines each projection extended 75 degrees in longitude The vertical projection is proportional to the sine of planetocentric latitude the angle formed by the intersection ofthe local radius with the equatorial plane On an oblate planet the radius Rplanetocentric latitude Rlatc is given as Rlatc a ab2 sinlatc2 coslatc2 12 where a is the equatorial radius 71400 km and ab is the ratio of the equatorial radius to the polar radius of 1 069 The line that corresponds to a given planetocentric latitude is line lineequator Rlatc sinlatc scale 483 Rlatc sinlatc1384638 Where lineequator is the location of the equator and scale is the projection scale in kmpixel To transform from line number to latitude de ne Z as Z lineequator line scale then the transformation is latc arcsin z a2 1 ab2 z2 12 Note Local illumination and reflectance tends to occur on equipressure surfaces therefore angles of incidence and reflectance are referenced to the local normal Thus for removing the limbdarkening planetographic latitude latg equivalent to the angle formed at the intersection ofthe local normal with the equatorial plane is needed On an oblate planet planetographic latitude is equal to or greater than the planetocentric latitude V th maximum differences at mid latitude The relation between the two angles is tanlatg ab2 tanlatc The last 60 or so lines in a mosaic are black due partly to the viewing geometry The spacecraft had a positive sub spacecraft latitude and thus could not see all the way to the south pole This effect was exacerbated by certain software restrictions The longitudinal extent of each ofthe 6 bins making up a global mosaic can be de ned by stating the longitude ofthe leftmost sample sample 1 ofthe bin For rotations 266 through 339 each frame was projected such that the subspacecraft longitude plus 20 mapped to sample 1 For the ve longitude sections of rotations 340 through 408 sample 1 became longitude 120 192 264 336 or 48 depending on whether the subspacecraft longitude was about 100 172 244 316 or 28 degrees A similar approach was used for Voyager 1 which was mosaiced later Uncorrected for light travel time error the longitude ofany point is long 3646 sample 9 In the middle of this task it was discovered that the Voyager SEDR reports the spacecraft event time the subspacecraft longitude at the time the signal arrives at the craft The reported SCLON is for the moment of camera shuttering rather than for the instant at which the imaged photons were re ected by Jupiter The difference can be as great as 35 minutes thus the lighttravel time is needed to correct for the rotation ofthe planet THIS EFFECT HAS BEEN IGNORED IN THE PRODUCTION OF ALL MOSAICS to keep them consistent As the correction is range dependent all frames will have different corrections The correction is applied such that true long long dL where the correction dL is given by dL rP c degrees r isthe range to planet surface in km P is the planetary rotation rate in degsec and c is the speed of light For Jupiter dL 335855E08 r degrees thus true long 3646 sample 9 335855E08 r Conversely sample 3646 9 long 30227E7 r See Table 1 for range values associated with individual data les If more accurate distance information is desired see Table 2 Since Jupiter39s radius is only 023 lightseconds it matters little whether r is measured to Jupiter39s center or surface TABLE 1 VOYAGER 1 and 2 TIMELAPSE CYLINDERICAL PROJECTION JUPITER MOSAICS See DOCUMENTSTABLE1TXT Table 2 LIST OF ALL FRAMES USED TO CONSTRUCT THE MOSAICS See DOCUMENTSTABLE2TXT Photometric Processing LimbDarkening Correction Each input image has intrinsic shading due to variations in lighting and viewing angles across the frame This shading can be characterized by a wavelength dependent photometric function that is a function of illuminationviewing geometry expressed in planetographic coordinates and the scattering properties of the atmosphere The Hapke photometric function Hapke 1981 an analytical function designed to quantify light scattered from a rough surface and with enough degrees of freedom to assure removal ofthe limbdarkening was used Hakpe s reflectance function is given as Rcosicoseg W 4 cosi cosi cose 1 Qtang PFtang Hcosi Hcose 1 where cosi is cosine ofthe incident angle cose is cosine of the emergent angle and tang is the tangent of the phase angle g the solid angle formed by the intersection of the incident and emergent rays W is the single scattering albedo and HX is the multiple scattering component due to porosity of the surface and is expressed as HX12X12XSQRT1 W where X is either cosi or cose Qtang is a multiple scattering term and is parameterized as Qtang EXPW22 1tang2H 3EXPHtang 1EXPHtang fortang gt 0 0 for tang lt 0 PFtang is the phase function of a single particle and is represented as PFtang 1 Btang C3tang2 12 Parameters were derived by trial and error are listed in Table 3 TABLE 3 PARAMETERS USED FOR LIMB DARKENING REMOVAL PARAMETER Symbol Violet Value UV Value Blue Value Single scattering Albedo 095 073 099 Surface texture B 0068 068 0013 Phase function Coef cient h 0369 088 0375 Coef cient 2nd Term of Phase Function C 00 00 00 Adjustment for Different Filters All frames utilized for this task were chosen to be of the shortest wavelength available In general images in the violet lter 409 nm were used However many times the violets were replaced in the imaging sequence by ultraviolets 338 nm or blues 480 nm When the UV39s or blues were used a transformation was applied to give them the appearance of a violet image This transformation was additive in nature and was de ned in the following manner Let V be the image produced by averaging five different longitudes of violet projections Let U be the equivalent UV average Applying a 7 line by 675 sample low pass lter to VU128 gives a correction image fhaving latitudinal dependence only The transformed UV image U39 is derived from the input UV image U by U39Uf128 It is interesting to note not only that this correction worked very well for the large scale banded structure but that it also performed well for most of the individual cloud systems HighPass Filtering No highpass ltering was performed on the Voyager 2 mosaics See directory mosaicvgr2 Various forms of the Voyager 1 mosaics are included in the data set Both ltered directory mosaicvgr1f and un ltered directory mosaicvgr1 u Voyager 1 mosaics are available An additional cosmetic step was performed on incomplete mosaics for inclusion in movies where black gaps would distract from the visualization When data was missing adjacent data with high incident and emission angle was used to ll the gaps When this was not adequate data from the previous or subsequent mosaic was used For the gap of two rotations in Voyager 2 337 and 338 would be lled by repeating 336 and 339 The ltered filled mosaicvgr1 ff and un ltered filled mosaicvgr1uf are included for generating movies The highpass filtering of Voyager 1 data was carried out to enhance cloud structure In order to minimize the effects of the longitudinally variable cloud structure and maximize the removal of the latitudinal beltzone albedo variation a lter window 21 lines by 101 samples was used to compute the latitudinally dependent surface brightness The resulting value ofa ltered pixel is given as OUT DN ADN BOOST DCTRAN DN DCLEVEL Where ADN is the average latitudinally dependent brightness and the parameters BOOST DCTRAN and DCLEVEL were selected to optimize the visible cloud structure Parameters with a linear dependence on Rotation Number such that the higher resolution mosaics had the greater boost of the high frequencies See Table 4 were selected Table 4 Parameters used in ltering Voyager 1 mosaics See DOCUMENTSTABLE4TXT Data Table 1 contains the file name of each mosaic followed by the start and stop time ofthe les and the range ofthe rst image that was incorporated into the existing mosaic lfmore accurate range information is desired see Table 2 In the case of Voyager 1 the same le name has been maintained and different processed versions are stored in individual directories Mosaicvgr1u Voyager 1 unfiltered Mosaicvgr1f Voyager 1 ltered Mosaicvgr1uf Voyager 1 unfiltered and lled and Mosaicvgr1ff Voyager 1 ltered and lled The Voyager 2 un ltered mosaics are in one directory A similar filtered version could be generated by applying a procedure similar to the one given above Ancillary Data The standardized structure and level of reprocessing have incorporated all necessary data Thus no ancillary data is needed to utilize these les CONFIDENCELEVELNOTE quot Con dence Level Overview Navigational accuracy ofthe mosaics is at the subpixel level Absolute photometry is not preserved as a result of limb darkening corrections and adjustments for different lters Data Coverage and Quality Coverage of the mosaics is as complete as possible given the original data set GN3 iNEW HiSNIiOEFSO 0N3 OANFHONaaadaa39ias39VLva i03P80GN3 vgos 6 0 d 99 WA umeesea ItemsWoes JO 39Jnor SOUE IOSIJSH eoeuns L960 some exdeH gSEICIEIONEIHEIIEIH J86L9 99H GIAEM EONEHEdEH OdNIEONEHEdEH iES Viva iOEFQO 0N3 LES Viva i03P80GN3 LEOHV1LESVLVG i03 80GN3 a3Uer EWVN iEOHVi iEOHVL iES Viva iOEFQO NOUVWHOdNFlESViVG i03P80GN3 summuwn