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Date Created: 11/01/15
Ff Randy Carlson Astronomy Seminar 31 Oct 2008 Spectra of TransNeptunian Objects I Pluto amp ll Charon quot 3 I I 02 n 1 I r39 5 T Outline What the heck are TNO s TNO Fun Facts Motivation for studying TNO s Spectral characteristics PlutoMakemake Spectra Haumea Spectrum Conclusions Questions amp Sources TransNeptunian Object a gt 30 AU 39 l I l Scatterd Disk Oort Cloud a 55100 AU a gt 2000 AU Kuiper Belt a 3055 AU l H Cubiwanos Twotinos Plutinos Kuiper belt and orbital resonance 5 Inner Outer 25 cubiwanos rworinos TNO fun facts Total Observed 1000 mostly in Kuiper Belt Probably tens of millions 45 dwarf planets plutoids Pluto 1930 binary TNO Eris 2003 largest Haumea 2004 Makemake 2005 a e i distance arcseconds New Horizons on way to visit Pluto amp other Kuiper Belt objects A V 396 Cl 0 o a m o 3 6 V a o d d 4 VA quot 39u Largest known transNeptunian objects TNOs Dysnomia Dwa rf pla nets 7 c Charon C k 1300 km 1200 km 760 km 750 km amp quot Sedna Orcus Quaoar Varuna 740 km 500 km 400 km 200 km Earth 6400 km Moon 1740 km Motivation for Studying TNO s New area in planetary science Solar system formation amp evolution into future TNO s comets can come close amp bring water Role of resonances amp collisions past Neptune Should Pluto be a planet Planet X TNO Spectra Thermal component in far IR Reflectance component in visible amp near IR Molecular absorption features COMET HYAKUTAKE lce rock on surface Haumea AtmOSphere really only Pluto CN C Q on Comets GrEg S Cswwlulwlquot m39ul39lh ffwwlkwly WWIWWW lr DIVISIons Carbon rich vs Carbon poor Methane rich surfaces vs water ice surfaces Silicates and tholins methane amp ethane Largest known transNeptunian objects TNOs CARBONRICH C m 760 km 750 km 1 u r v Sedna Orcus Quaoar Varuna 740 km 500 km 400 km 200 km Moon 1740 km W Earth 6400 km 1 1 r Background Pluto a 395 AU e 025 i 171 F quot Surface is mostly N2 ice 44 K 739 M Thin frozen atmosphere is mostly methanequot Orbited by Charon which is tidally locked amp V2 the radius of Pluto Background Makemake a 458 AU e 016 i 200 1 Makemake Surface is mostly CH4 ice 35 K Probably no atmosphere maybe very thin No known moons Methan ice f 5quot m u E m H u m H E Eu E E 33 I3 15 Wavelength pm Largest known transNeptunian objects TNOs CARBONRICH V 739 Charon A V 397 quotf v gt 3 quot L mm c 1300 km 1200 km 760 km 750 km M u r a Sedna Orcus Quaoar Varuna 740 km 500 km 400 km 200 km Moon 1740 km Earth 6400 km 1 quot r Background Haumea is unique Largest known elongated rock in solar system Should have enough gravity to become a sphere But quick rotation period 39 hrs probably keeps it from doing so a 433 AU e 019 i282T40K Two known moons Rock surrounded by water ice Methane ice f hiquot a u 15 I m U 2 u I a tn 1 gt 39 E 13 a 05 D 1 3 f 10 Jw 391 xf 713339quoter V o J rquot D a n wavelengtk fmicror s 3 amp 4 shows water Haumea 3 I v 39 W4 K 1l39 a 39 WW I w r v 39 q I Q 32 U A 397 quot3333 s l 53 quota itquot I39an39 r 39 sj i v r H 5 1 I 339 H 393 y39 395 f 3 hLH a quot 7v 1 r J I DA 0 25 20 VISIble wavelengthicrors near IR Two Flavors ofWater Ice Crvstalline amp Amorphous R 4 ggg r i l l 7 t A 1 1 N Water ice on Earth is crystalline Amorphous occurs at lower temperatures like 40 K Haumea s temperature at 43 AU s See a mixture though 9 solar radiation converts amorphous into crystalline Wavelength mm wwwma Ezm mjnm D El 395 2333 ELE1 This wnrk 375 crystHED d Trujin u et al Tegler at al 625 amoer d spatial mixture T um 53 um D 20 Hapke scattering I Hum umln 25 Conclusions TransNeptunian Objects are solar system objects with a gt than Neptune TNO s come in many different varieties Pluto frozen atmosphere carbon rich methane Haumea no atmosphere but elongated rock surrounded by water ice amorphous amp crystalline TNO spectra are in visible amp IR with wide molecular absorption features TNO s are an emerging field helping us to learn about solar system s past amp future toquot Sources Alonso NP et al quotStudy of the Surface of 2003 EL61 the largest carbondepleted object in the transneptunian belt Astronomy amp Astrophysics 2008 E50 quotE50 Press Releases amp Photos 1996 wwwesoorgpublicoutreachprt srelpr1996l accessed 30 Oct 2008 Johnston WR quotTransNeptunian Objects 2008 wwwiohnstonsarchivenetastrotnoshtml accessed 30 Oct 2008 Lacerda P et al quotHighPrecision Photometry of Extreme K30 2003 EL61 The Astronomical Journal 2008 Mendez J quotThe TransNeptunian Object 2005 FY9 is Very Similar to Pluto 2006 httpwwwingiaces8080PRpreg2005FY9html accessed 30 Oct 2008 Williams DR quotPlanetary Fact Sheets Pluto 2006 httpnssdcgsfcnasagovQIanetarvfactsheetplutofacthtml accessed 30 Oct 2008 n U S e h T Malynda R Chizek Seminar 103108 What are Luminous Blue Variables Why study them Spectral Characteristics Special category of massive evolved stars M gt 20 M SUD a Classified by three optical properties a Blueness a Luminosity 106 Lsun D Variability Hubble image of Eta Carinae embedded within the a Microvariations tenth of Homunculus Nebula magnitude over weeks to months a Variations 1 mag over years a Massive Eruptions gt 2 mag What are LBVs cont39d T between 9000 and 30000 K Stage lifetime of lt105 years Movie of Eta Car Radio In our Galaxy 12identified LBVs Expectlt 100 Variability due to change in massloss rate Eruptions 100 to 1000 times more Massloss leads to NEBULAE Why Study LBVs LBV phase is very short postMS phase for most massive stars Progenitors of WolfRayets The government gives grant money to people who study things that have neato energetic events or blow up Energy output during Giant Eruption Photons 1O48 ergs Wind 1046 1O48 ergs LBV Spectra Visual Minimum Fewer features spectra resemble those of earlytype supergiants with emission lines of H balmer alpha beta gamma Hel and FeII FeIV Visual Maximum More features mass lost is cooling as it moves outward resemble A or F type stars P Cyg profiles of balmer lines and singly ionized metals strong Fell and Fell emission lines Comparison with other massive m1 He 11cw H11C111 Hu1 Hall W243 LEV W243 solide lRC39 10420 dashed 215 Wavelen gth pm Comparison Cont39d I V HD 45677 I I 39 39 I 39 39 7 JV 3 A m UMW U I H5 H7 Var C ImJ WW N WVW I I I I I I I I I I I 4000 4200 4400 4600 6000 wavelength 1 log ux constant I V Cal WW MW IWWW WMMWW WW WWW IWWMIIIMAWW I I I HubbleS and age Var A I I JAB NW N IJII I I ZWquot39 W WIIIIIIWJ IIIIIIIW I39ID 187428 FBI I39ID 25361 GUI II I W39WNWWWW HD 188293 K01 M983 14336 460 w Ha WW I39 5000 wavelength A I I I l 6000 7000 Spectral Evolution of NGC 2363 40 u u I I u x n u u I 30 Reali ed flux to I D 66 00 E5 50 55B Waveleng 11 A Fla 6 Evolution oflhe Hn ll 11g nbsel39ved with the medimn Iemlmion gm mg G750M The line is fully l aolved at all epochs Note me huge dilference between l999 and 2004 a well as the disapmarmwe of the absorption compo g nnu I I l l I I5x10quot I 7 V my I anon 41 w 1 I 391 Ir E LaxmN J E 5 E u 1 541x104 4050 won Emu Wavelength M FIG 2 F ux calibrated spectrogram of NGC 2363 V l with an emphasis on the Extreme lepuchs I997 and 2004 Nate the strong Balmer j amp in emissiun as well as the large variation o f ux in the UV nem after 3000 Evolution in Visible r I I p n I I I u a 3 a Eaaaeg 2 392 393 s h m a 935 3 a a a39 a W ll39 3395 3 up 395 3 3 E Izrma z g H L H Y E I A lt 6 2004 H a 51quotquot 39 39 Ml h 39 39lquot quot 39lquot V quot 39 i 2 2003 I 34mg JulLil A k 1 L W 3 1 r v Iquot I I I 1 Iquot I quot 23 2901 U a I n44 quotuntil l LL 1 u 1 k4 n 39 I39rlvllnu V Ir quotr 39 l 2000 2 um ah I l L L A wnvv quot111 T Iquot I I l quot39 A 1999 1997 HI I I I 2 a E e H 3000 4000 7000 5000 5000 6000 Wavelength A 239 a 1 Normalized Howresolution0430L and G750L spocLI39ogmms MW in 11e visible range Note the slrengdwning ofllw He 1 lines and the vmkeniugoflhe Salmer lines Evolution in UV 12 I I 1 I I l I I I I I I II I I I Few 2004 10 zoos a g 3 u 20m 39U 2 a FeIII E l I 392 20m 4 1999 Z 2 Fell I39eII r1 1 1 I997 o l I I 1500 2500 3000 2000 Wavelength A FIG 4 Evolution of the Fe lines from 199 2004 Note the gradual slIi in le dominant ionization structure from Fen to Fe w Compare with mm References Davies et al Asphericity and clumpiness in the winds of Luminous Blue Variables AampA 439 11071125 2005 Wolf and Stahl Inverse P Cygni type profiles in the Luminous Blue Variable S Doradus AampA 235 340 344 1990 HJGLM Lamers et al The lSO SWS spectra of Luminous Blue Variables Astron Astrophys 315 L225 L228 1996 PETIT DRISSEN amp CROWTHER SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF THE LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE NGC 2363 V1 l OBSERVATIONS AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ONGOING GIANT ERUPTIONThe Astronomical Journal 1321756Y1762 2006 Viotti et al The present status of four luminous variables in M 33AampA 458 225234 2006 TWal nda R b zsk ar 9 003 ubunltu UV Radio Spectra Memuw Venus hAars Eanh ubunztu Microwave Blackbody temperature Skin depth different wavelengths different depths into the crust No atmospheric lines observed Disk temperature at radio wavelengths is independent of wavelength ubunStu Interference from sidelobes gt antenna temperature increased from the Sun39s contamination increase in temp w wavelength between 34 mm and 6 cm Phase angle idan Model spectra for different disk temperatures at different wavelenghts depends on phonon conduc on line fitting mercury spectrum for different phases of observations seeing different areas of planet amp day vs night Optically thick atmosphere Atmospheric composition comes from up high Radio occultation measurements needed to estimate total amount of CO2 indirectly P and T profiles can be found using hydrostatic relation above optical thickness Surface pressure found by extrapolating from this 002 column density found from this ubunstu I quot35 5736 53 57 573 5150 51m 5752 5753 5754 In wave Number tamquot Optically thick atmosphere different wavelengths gt different depths into the atmosphere brightness temp from 2mm to 70 cm assumed adiabatic lower atm assumed percentage of molar abundance of water vapor Hydrogen Chloride absorption Upper is avg of two solar spectra lower traces avg of 4 amp 5 venus specra Learn about CLOUDS on venus Only radar probes su ace Optically Thin Atmosphere Reflected sunlight provides information on total abundance of 002 Abundance leads to atmospheric pressure Also could use pressure broadening of spectral lines ubun7tu IHTE N lT t I 3000 4000 WAVELENGTHA 1 0 8 6 4 intensity arb units 2 0 Meytv39o I fquot 1 l vquotD I 2 3 4 uosuhot v v390 I 2 3 4 5 s E r fit it i r 39i i quotv Um Km tvil Lt jw4 uvtw L I I I n I n I I 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 Wavelength nm ubuntu UV spectrum shows Mars39 upper atmosphere CO bands 002 0 Comparison between Earth amp Mars39 nightglow production of molecules in the atmosphere showing Mars39 lack of 02 bands BL corner reflected light albedo tells a little about the surface material Earth Inhabited Exoplanets How do we get a spectrum of the Earth from the ground Earthshine Multiple gases in significant amounts Spectra showing evidence for life chlorophyll ubungtu HI l lll t l l i l l H H up H10 H Dzl l 393 0m iiiiriiriii its Ln 07 iii in Lil 11 14 117 3 201214 wavelength tun Top half Black observed spectrum red fitted spectrum sum of blue high coudscirrus ice 10km green medium coudcumuus water at 4km magenta ground reflectance gray surface at 0km Bottom half molecular components bluewater green c02 orangemethane red oxygen magentaozone and nitrous oxide not shown H20 02 dominant spectral signatures methane and c02 not dominant but could be stronger on a similar planet like early Earth Sun Chlorophyll g 3 Chlorophyllmg 10 Chlorophyllr lg 30 I orophyllmg 300 LE Q7 Wavelength urn Green bump chlorophyll doesn39t absorb green light as much as surrounding wavelengths red edge 700 nm chlorophyll highly reflects to the red of red edge absorbs blueward of red edge References lngersoll and Leovy The atmospheres of Mars and Venus Ann Rev Astro 19719147182 Morrison and Klein The Microwave Spectrum of Mercury 1970 Ap J 160325332 Slanger Cravens Crovisier Miller Strobel Photoemission Phenomena in the Solar System Space Sci Rev Accepted May 2008 Turnbull et al Spectrum of a Habitable World Earthshine in the NearInfrared 2006 Ap J 644551559 Ehrenreich et al The Transmission Spectrum of Earthsize transiting planets arXivastroph0510215v1 7 Oct 2005 12 ubuntu
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