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Principles of Biology

by: Tod Paucek PhD

Principles of Biology BSC 120

Tod Paucek PhD
GPA 3.72

Brian Antonsen

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Brian Antonsen
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tod Paucek PhD on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 120 at Marshall University taught by Brian Antonsen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/233253/bsc-120-marshall-university in Biological Sciences at Marshall University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
BSC 120 Practice Chapters 1421 01 A mother carries a genetic trait and the father does not All of their offspring carry the trait This trait could be39 A due to a mutation B Y linked C linked to another trait D mitochondiral 02 ABO blood types in humans is an example of A anticipation B linkage C epigenetics D codominance E non disjunction 03 An organism that is heterozygous for an allele and can therefore pass on the recessive form of the allele to their offspring even though they do not express the recessive phenotype themselves is called a C carrier D haplodoploid 04 When scientists perform test crosses in the study of genetics they rarely see perfect Mendalian ratios in the phenotypes or genotypes of offspring even ifthe trait obeys Mendelian laws This is because of A linkage B epistasis C codominance D random chance E silent alleles 05 Mendel39s law of independent assortment will be followed if A two traits genes are on different chromosomes B organisms are homozygous for an allele C organisms are heterozygous for an allele D organisms are asexual E organisms are wild type 06 The term homologous means A identical B located at the same position on a chromosome C derived from a common ancestor D sex linked E autosomal 07 If you cross a heterozygous organism a homozygous organism the genotype ratio of the offspring will be oowgt 9444 2 1 3 4 08 Down syndrome is an example of A point mutation B aneuploidy E deletion 09 Fredrick Griffith39s experiment that confirmed DNA as the material containing genetic information eliminated protein as the genetic material because A there was not protein in the heat killed cells B the capsid proteins were removed C heat killing the pathogenic strain denatured proteins leaving them nonfunctional D he only injected nonpathogenic protein 10 A hydrogen bonds with T by bonds while C hydrogen bonds with G by bonds 11 Which scientist produced the Xray diffraction photographs of DNA that helped determine the double helix ture c Maurice Wilkins D Rosalind Franklin E Erwin Chargaff 12 Which enzyme is responsible for relieving twisting tension during DNA replication D Topoisomerase E DNA polymerase 13 Which enzyme is responsible forjoining Okazaki fragments into a complete DNA strand A DNA polymerase III E Primase 14 Telomeres are made during A meiosis B splicing C transcription D translation 15 Which statement is true concerning heterochromatin A DNA appears like quotbeads on a stringquot B DNA is accessible C DNA can be used for transcription D DNA is condensed E DNA is decondensed 16 A gene has the sequence 339GGCATTGC539 What is the sequence ofthe complimentary strand of RNA A 339CCGTAACG539 B 339CCGUAACG539 C 539CCGTAACG339 D 539CCGUAACG339 17 During transcription what enzyme is responsible for beginning the new RNA strand A Primase B DNA polymerase III C RNA polymerase D Ligase 18 One function of the poly A tail is to A specify amino acids in the protein B bind to ribosomes C protect the RNA from degredation D initiate transcription E initiate translation 19 The signal that stops transcription in eukaryotes is the A operator B polyadenylation signal C 539 ca D stop codon E terminator5 20 Mutations in an exon ofa gene may A change the protein formed by that gene B change translation levels of that gene C have no effect on the protein formed by that gene D All ofthe above are correct E None ofthe above are correct 21 What typically triggers the switch from the lysogenic to the lytic life cycle in bacteriophage A Sexual reproduction of the bacteriophage B Sexual reproduction of the host bacteria C Stressful conditions for the host bacteria D Good growth conditions for the host bacteria E All of the above are possible 22 What is the contributing factor to the size ofthe genome in eukaryotes A Complexity of the cells B Complexity of the organism C Number of genes D Repetitive DNA E Number of chromosomes 23 What is the key feature that quot quot 39 39 a 39 r from a r A One uses a virus to move around one does not B One uses an RNA intermediate one does not C One inserts into the genome forward the other inserts backwards D One uses the leading strand the other the lagging strand E One reads 539 to 339 the other 339 to 539 24 Male chickens are heterozygous for the sex chromosomes 725 Unequal crossing over can duplicate genes in a genome 26 All the Xlinked alleles a female offspring has came from her father 27 Okazaki fragments are made on the lagging strand during DNA synthesis 728 DNA polymerase synthesizes a new DNA strand from 339 to 539 29 Prokaryote mRNA is ready to be used as it is transcribed 730 UGA is a stop codon 31 Conservation of the genetic code allows scientists to design bacteria that express human genes 32 mRNA is read from 339 to 539 during translation 33 RNA polymerase has proofreading ability 34 Evolutionary theory suggests that two organisms that have more similarity in their DNA sequence are likely to be more closely related Longer answers 1 Compare and contrast DNA replication on the leading and lagging strand 2 Explain how the genetic code ensures that proteins with the correct amino acid sequence are formed from mRNA 3 Explain why sex linked inheritance follows different rules than autosomal inheritance 4 Explain how transposons and other repeated elements may contribute to evolution 5 Explain the evidence that suggests that some viruses may have evolved from eukaryotic cells 6 Explain how regulatory proteins and genes determine developmental sequence and patterning in an organism 7 Explain the key difference between a repressible and an inducible operon 8 Explain the lytic and lysogenic life cycle of bacteriophage 9 What has the old theory that suggested quotontogeny recapitulates phylogenyquot taught us about evolution and development even though the theory itself has been disproven 39 9quot 9 N l39393939ll439 l39 I39HWUOUWOOUUIDOUUWOW the rest of the choices do not obey Mendelian laws OgtUOUU B hint draw the Punnett square it does not matter what traits you use or whether the homozygous organism is homozygous recessive or homozygous dominant AC are all possible think carefully about this one 380 120 practice questions Use your notes and textbook to help answer these questions Some of them for example 1 and 3 go a little beyond what we discussed in class and ask you to put information together 01 A hydroxyl group is polar because A it likes water B the bond connecting the oxygen to hydrogen is an ionic bond C the bond connecting the oxygen to hydrogen is a polar covalent bond D the bond connecting the oxygen to hydrogen a hydrogen bond E it contains a double bond 02 Hydrogen bonds A form between a polar hydrogen and a polar oxygen or between a polar hydrogen and a polar nitrogen B hold water molecules together C are responsible for surface tension in water D are weaker than ionic bonds E All of the above are correct 03 If a person begins to sweat upon entering a hot room and the sweating is able to keep the body temperature relatively constant the person is A in a constant state B evolving C in homeostasis D out of homeostasis E using a positive feedback mechanism 04 The mitochondrion A is responsible for the synthesis of lipids B is responsible for the synthesis of carbohydrates C has an inner membrane folded into cristae D has an outer membrane that packages proteins E All of the above choices are correct 05 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH is A an energy transfer molecule B a li id C a carbohydrate D a protein E another name for ATP 06 Nucleotide monomers are linked together with to form DNA A peptide bonds B ionic bonds C glycosidic linkages D phosphodiester bonds E hydrogen bonds 07 Beta pleated sheets are an example ofthe level of protein structure A primary B secondary C tertiary D quaternary E None ofthe above choices are correct 08 Your cousin is a pyromaniac and when heshe finds something new they burn it to see what happens One such fire started from a small amount of material produces so much heat that it burns halfa city block Which of the following statements may be true about that material A It is formed from molecules that contain sodium B It is formed from molecules held together by covalent bonds C It is formed from molecules held together by ionic bonds D It is formed from salts 09 How much glucose MW 180 gmol does it take to make 2 liters ofa 025M glucose solution B 20 C 90 D 180 A 5 E 360 10 What is the pH ofa solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 1012 M A2 B6 07 D12 E14 11 Morphine mimics natural endorphins by binding to endorphin receptors This is an example of which biological principle A Evolution B The heritability of genetic information C Structure is related to function D Feedback control 12 Carbon can form such a diverse number of organic molecules because A it can form 4 covalent bonds B it can form 6 covalent bonds C it has a valence of 2 D it can bind to oxygen E it can form hydrogen bonds 13 Double bonds give what property to membranes A Rigidity B lmpermeability C Permeability D Higher protein content E Fluidity 14 An amino acid that contains a sulfhydryl group in its R group is likely to be in what class E Charged 15 Most plant and animal cells have about what diameter A 110 nm B 100200 nm C 12 um D 10100 um E 15 mm 16 Lysosomes A are responsible for protein synthesis B are responsible for protein packaging C are responsible for lipid synthesis D are part ofthe nucleus E are part ofthe endomembrane system 17 Mitochondria have DNA similar to which suggests they may have first arisen as A plants endosymbion s B bacteria endosymbionts C viruses pathogens D chloroplasts plants E lysosomes phagoctytes 18 One structure composed of actin subunits is A microfilaments B microtubules C intermediate filaments D collagen E petidoglycan 19 Gapjunctions are present A in the membrane of gram positive bacteria B in the membrane of gram negative bacteria C in the plant cell wall D between plant cells E between animal cells 20 Which of the following isare characteristics of membrane bound proteins A They must contain acidic amino acids B They must contain basic amino acids C They are completely hydrophobic D They contain alpha helices plural of helix E All of the above choices are correct True or False IA 1 l 39 statesa quot I 39 for the results of an experiment Gain or loss of electrons from an atom creates an ion The bond holding the phosphates in ATP is covalent All proteins contain amino acids The fluid mosaic model describes how proteins are made from genetic information All life is able to process energy Bacteria tend to have more endoplasmic reticulum for their size than do plant cells Cellulose is a carbohydrate made from fructose monomers A cation has more protons than electrons Plant cells are the simplest cells Short answer Some of these are longer than you will see on this test but they are the same sort of question 1 Outline the 7 major themes of biology 2 Outline all of the properties of phospholipids and explain how they form membranes 3 Define the types of isomers 4 Diagram a chloroplast and name all ofthe parts 5 Outline the different types of extracellular structures used by plant and animal cells and explain their functions Answers


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