Principles of Ecology
Principles of Ecology BSC 320
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tod Paucek PhD on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 320 at Marshall University taught by Jeffrey May in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/233254/bsc-320-marshall-university in Biological Sciences at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Principles of Ecology BSC 320 Dr Jeffrey D May Office 378 Science Bldg Marshall UniversiTy Spring SemesTer 2009 Phone 6963637 Email may marshalledu Major TerresTrial Biomes of The World I INTRODUCTION A Biomes are The world39s major ecological communiTies 1 They are characTerized largely by The predominanT vegeTaTion and by The adapTaTions of organisms To The parTicular environmenT 2 The communiTy composiTion The mix of species presenT in The communiTy of each biome is deTermined in Turn largely by climaTic facTors and especially by The seasonal paTTerns of TemperaTure and precipiTaTion B For each biome be familiar wiTh 1 The climaTic condiTions ThaT give rise To ThaT biome 2 The dominanT vegeTaTion Type ThaT characTerizes ThaT biome 3 some of The adapTaTions of organisms To living in ThaT biome and 4 general soil characTerisTics II DESERT A ClimaTe 1 PrecipiTaTion lt 25 cm annually 2 TemperaTure widely variable B DominanT vegeTaTion 1 SucculenT planTs Thickbodied planTs wiTh considerable waTersTorage capaciTy eg cacTuses 2 Ephemeral herbaceous planTs shorTlived nonwoody planTs 3 DeeprooTed shrubs C Soils are generally nuTrienTpoor wiTh low waTerholding capaciTy III TUNDRA A ClimaTe 1 PrecipiTaTion Variable buT usually lt 50 cm annually 2 TemperaTure a Cold mean annual TemperaTure below 0 C b Long cold winTer shorT growing season B DominanT vegeTaTion 1 Lichens 2 Mosses 3 Grasses and oTher grasslike planTs 4 Dwarfed sh rubs C Soils Tend To be cold and weT in arcTic Tundra permafrosT areas andor very shallow in alpine Tundra and are nuTrienTpoor Page 1 of 3 IV GRA SSLA ND A ClimaTe 1 PrecipiTaTion 2580 cm annually more falling during winTer monThs and less during The summer 2 TemperaTure STrong seasonaliTy wiTh warmhoT summers and coolcold winTers B DominanT vegeTaTion 1 Grasses 2 OTher herbaceous planTs ofTen Those in The pea family and The asTer family 3 Each of The major grasslands of The world has a seT of naTural grazing animals eg bison in The NorTh American grasslands ThaT are imporTanT in mainTaining The grassland ecosysTem 4 Fire plays an imporTanT role in mosT grassland sysTems conTribuTing To soil ferTiliTy and helping To keep deciduous planTs from encroaching C Soils are rich and deep V TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST A ClimaTe 1 PrecipiTaTion 50150 cm annually disTribuTed fairly evenly ThroughouT The year 2 TemperaTure Seasonal wiTh warm summers and cold winTers Mean annual TemperaTure usually ranging beTween 12 and 28 C B DominanT vegeTaTion VegeTaTion is sTraTified as 1 deciduous Trees forming a canopy sTraTumquot overhead 2 a shorTer shrub sTraTum and 3 herbaceous planTs living on The foresT floor C Soils are quiTe variable usually shallow relaTive To The grassland soils and of variable ferTiliTy VI BOREAL CONIFEROUS FOREST A ClimaTe 1 PrecipiTaTion 40125 cm annually 2 TemperaTure Cooler on average Than ThaT of The deciduous foresTs Mean annual TemperaTure usually ranging beTween 2 and 14 C B DominanT vegeTaTion 1 Needleleaf coniferous coneproducing Trees ThaT are commonly evergreen 2 Usually shrub layer and herbaceous layer are presenT buT are less welldeveloped Than in The TemperaTe deciduous foresT C Soils Tend To be acidic and relaTively nuTrienTpoor Page 2 of 3 VII TROPICAL RAIN FOREST A Clima re 1 Precipi rafion gt200 cm annually some rimes much more 2 Tempera rur39e Hof wifh r ela rively li r rle seasonal var iafion B Dominan r vegefafion S rr ongly sfr afified wi rh 1 a Thick Tree canopy 2 r ela rively few Taller emergenf Trees arising above The canopy 3 an undersfor39y of shorfer39 Trees 4 shrubs 5 numerous climbing and epiphy ric plan rs C Soil is usually shallow and nufrien rpoor39 Page 3 of 3
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