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Physical Geology

by: Maxie Daugherty

Physical Geology GLY 200

Marketplace > Marshall University > Geology > GLY 200 > Physical Geology
Maxie Daugherty
GPA 3.6

Ronald Martino

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Ronald Martino
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maxie Daugherty on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GLY 200 at Marshall University taught by Ronald Martino in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/233259/gly-200-marshall-university in Geology at Marshall University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
EXT R US VE IGNEOUS ACTIVITY Typ es 1 Volcanoes 2 Fissure Eruptions Distribution active plate boundaries and hot spots lenmerfl c aarvma son Physical39 Geology BE Copyrigh t 1999a McGraw Hiil Companies inc Ml ighta Reserved World s Major Volcanic Belts 7 Ma a Cascade Vesuvius law 55 vomanoes P man If El cmn a39gouirl39are Hula Fuiiyama Elna Hamill Par I I Rlng 0f Flre lmggmm Krakatoa Amnmgua Dmmu beamlion elaland 7 Circumaei c ban Medllnrmnean belt Erehus Erupiive Violence amp Characteristics ofLava Controlling Factors high volatile content dissolved gases espHzO vapor high silica contenthigh viscosity andesitic amp rhyolitic lavas intermediate to felsic cause explosive volcanic eruptions eX Mt St Helens basaltic lava ma c favors quietquotlt eruptions unless water is added eX Kilaeua HI Growth of Hawaii Geothermal energy Effect on climate Volcanic catastrophies Mt St Helens 1980 USA WA Vesuvius AD 79 Italy Krakatoa 1883 western Paci c 0 Crater Lake 4600 BC USA OR VOL CANOES f Volcanoes cones and mountains Vent caldera gt 1km crater Crater Flank Eruption en Magma Chamber Caldera Types Shield Cinder Cone Composite PILImneI c aaryma aun Physimf Geology Be Capw39iglrt 1m McErawHill Dummies Inc M Fltth ResetMd Kamchatka Russia Crater and Caldera Pyroclastics amp Gases Origin and Classi cation of Pyroclasrtic s 77quot explosive eruptions bombs Cinders ash dust Gases Primarily H20also CO2 SO2 H28 HCl Effects pyroclastic ows Vesuvius destruction of Pompei AD 79 climatic effects short term cooling sunlight blocked long term warmingcarbon dioxide buildupgreenhouse effect le mer n aaryquot az san Physics GEDJDgy BE Copyright 199g McGrawHiil Companiea inc M ighia HEEEIVEEL Mayon Volcano Pyrociastic F ow World s Major Volga mumquot Dwaw un mm A mkPl IIc but dllarruneun bequot 1984 Philipnes SHIELD VOL CAN OES LOW Viscosity lava ows LOW silica magma mafic Basalt Pahoehoe r0py surface 0 Ad jagged blocky surface Gently sloping flanks between 2 and 10 degrees Tend to be very large Spatter Cone minor feature PMmmer k Eammarlam Physical eafagy BB 130QO 1999 Mchw Hill Cnmpaniea Inc All Righla Reserved Cutaway View of a Shield Volcano Layers of basalt Ptummen39McEeam Carlsan Physma Geafagy BE Copyright IE1 i999 h39chmw Hilh Companiea inc AM ighia Reserved Mauna Loa a Hawaii Shield Volcano Fimumerf n eanmarlann Physic5139 w agy BE Cupyright 15m Mn rawHiil Cempanies inc Mi ights Reaerve ahoehoe Fro 1972 Hawii Eruptio ary Egon Physics Gaming Ba Gapm me 1989 MDGrsw Hill Companiea inc Mi ighia Fleaawed aa flow in Hawaii 1983 le me l c aam l a mn Physics Geology BE Caprth 199 McGrawHi l Companiea inc M Ftighia Hagartad 1969 Hawaiian Volcanic Eruptions COMPOSITE VOL CANO STRA TO VOL CANO Alternating pyroclastic layers amp lava fl o Ws Slopes intermediate in steepness25 degrees Intermittent eruptions over long time span Composition mostly Andesite Distribution CircumPaci c Belt Ring of Fire Mediterranean Belt lenmer c aarymaalmn Physical Geology BE Gapwig t 1999 McGraw Hiil Companies Inc Ali ights Fitaerde utaway View of Composite Volcano Crater Older Eava flow New lava flow pyroclastics lenm c aaryma mn Phyajna 33mqu 38 Capryrigh t 1999 MchwH l Companim inc All ighia Bauerrad Mt St Helens Prior to 1980 Eruption Example of N m7 lenmmfldc aaryma son Physics Gemogy Ba GamQMQ 1989 McGraw Hill Companiea inc Ml ighia REBEIVEEL Cascade Volcanoes North x mamIde u gt I I v m BRITISH COLUMBIA 5quot 1Mquot MLBaker 1 naaa uIIl f lacler PEER wnsmnamn 7 I Mount Rainier DWI Tacoma 1 Mount 1 5 Helen MW Adams Purumdi quotquotquotquot39 quotquot I quot Mount Wi amatte Vinny 173 Mount Je eraqn Tnm 915mm Mt Thbetaen A Mount Mchghjln I V Eugene I OREGON Ward 1 o Muunt Shasta139 Bedding y cmmnum I Lassen Peak 58 CMIIIEMU vans Baum Ple lmem cGeaerazlmn Physical Geology BE Copyright 1999 MoGraw Hill Companies inc All Rights Reserved Even s of 980 Eruption of Mt St Helens Ground water Steam and ash eruption heated by the magma Surface before bulging began A Surface before landslide L kfa Steam and ash blast out Lands de leumer 39 c aaryma mn Physics Gaming e Copyright 1999 MBGmw Hill Companies inc All Rights Regened nontserrgt and Soufri re Hills Volcano 3 r Bahama 7 5 quot Manda Florida Keys I A Turks anduaieue mmds st 39 a 33 quot9 Islad39e39f 39 Bmaireuargarita AILANHC DGEM39I GABIBBEM 55 quotWWquot at m W Tibial Island Arc CINDER CONES Formed of pyroclastics only Steep sides 33 degrees Relatively small Short duration of activity Compostion usually basalt lenmm 39 c aarymazimn Physics Gaming Ba Zappigme 1989 McGrsw Hill Companiea inc Mi ighta Healerted Cerro Negro a Cinder Cone in Nicaragua Extrusive R ks Composition importance of silica content W39 Rhyolite felsic Predominantly feldspar and quartz Andesite intermediate Plagioclase feldspar amp ferromagnesian minerals Basalt mafic Ferromagnesian minerals amp plagioclase feldspar Extrusive RQ ks Textures aphanitic negrained crystals smaller than 1 mmrapid cooling rhyolite basalt porphyritic 2 sizes of crystals 2 stage cooling phenocrystsgroundmass eXbasalt porphyry glassy no crystalssupercooling obsidian vesicular holes from trapped gasses pumice scoria vesicular basalt Pyroclastic Rocks 39 Pyroclastic texture fragmental vs crys 39 Rock Types Tuff ash Volcanic breccia angular gravel sized frags Volcanic agglomerate rounded lenmer 39 c aary 39 a son Physics Gem39agyg Ba Gapmgml 15m McGrawHill Companiea inc Ml ighta Reaawed Obsidian lenmm 39 c aarymazimn Physics Gaming Ba Zappigme 1989 McGrsw Hill Companiea inc Mi ighta Healerted Vesicular Basalt le me l c aary Miscn Ph af amagy BE Cap ht 1999McGrawHi l Companiea inmk ighia HEEEIVEEL Porphyritlc Andesi Porphyritic Rhyolite Orthoclase feldspar and quartz p henocrysts LA VA FLOODSFISSURE ER UPTIONS g Ma c lava solidi es to basalt Fissure ows Plateau basalts ows infill landscape occur above mantle plumes and divergent plate boundariescontinental rifting eX Columbia Plateau NW US submarine lava ows along midoceanic ridges pillow basalts lenmer c aaryma mn Phyamal39 Gemagy BE C3Dprth 199g McGrawHill Companiea inc Ml Ftighia Reserved Columbia Plateau Basalt Layers lenmen l39 cGaarymarlson Physical Geadayy Ba Cawrigm E 1999 Monw Hiil Companiea inc All Rights Heaewed SieVi of Columnar Jointing Plumn1eIl39McCiaaryquotCarEscn Physical Geology BE Cupynght 1m Mn rawHiil Cempanies inc All Rights Reaerve Pillow salt Mid Ocean39c Ridge Extraterrestrial Igneous Actt 39 Earth s moon maria seas but of of basalt ssure eruptions from meteorite impacts dark smooth areas of moon highlands light colored made up of anorthosite mostly feldpsar Planetary Volcanism Mars Venus Box 43 Mare Humboldtianum Marc Sereit tis Mare Anguis Mare Marginis Jiair l Tranquillitatistavq 1 39 Mare Undarum 3 E i V t g are gnitum A V quota Mare Spumans Mare Smylhii Mare Orientale Mare Australe Enrique Luque Cervig n wwwthesuperspacecom httpmoontag leswordpresscom200905mariajpg lemmfldc aaryma son Physical39 emogy Be Dog ght 1999 McGraw Hi l Companiea inc Ml Ftighia Reserved QLYmPUS MOHS 0 Mars T he End le lm c aarym a mn Physical Benin Ba Bapy QIrt 1999 Mchw Hi l Companies inc Ml Rights Reserved St Pierre 1902 Ruins le mm l c aaryma son Physics Geology Be Copyrigth 199G McGraw Hi l Companiea inc M Ftighta HEEEI39JEEL 3quot I 39 rquot x 7 quotK PLamn c aaryma mn Pbyajcaf Geology Ba appight 1999 McGraw Hill Companies inc Ml Flights HesterMd Volcanic Bombs Plumman mmm narlam Physf al aafagy Be Copyright bi 1994 McGrm39i Hill Companiea inc All Rights Reamted Photomicrograph of a Tu lenmm 39 c aarymazimn Physics Gaming Ba Zappigme 1989 McGrsw Hill Companiea inc Mi ighta Healerted Volcanic Eruption on Jupiter39s lemw u aar mmn Physical wiogy He Copyrighi 1999 BkawHill Cmpaniaa Inc Ali Highls Reserved Viscous Eava walling up into a crater Forming Voicanic Dome broken from rising le mm l c aaryma son Physical39 Geology Be Copyrigth 1999a McGraw Hiil Companies inc Ml ighta RagnarJed Spraying Lavq How with Wter VOL CANIC DO ES Forms above a volcanic vent Viscous lava Usually silicarich or cooler magma Associated with violent eruptions


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