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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maxie Daugherty on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GLY 200 at Marshall University taught by William Niemann in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/233262/gly-200-marshall-university in Geology at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
httpenvironmentnationalqeoqraphiccome nvironmentnaturaIdisastersearthouake profilehtmfsvideonationalqeoqraphiccom National Geographic httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvSqRrv6GZ onampfeaturereated hole in highway httpwwwvoutubecomwatchv6iNUvIUOS JY global EQs for 2month period httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvreDqub BQampfeaturerelated 72 quake hits Japan 2008 httpwwwvoutubecomwatchv7TQDQAe szMampfeaturerelated NYC EQ Earthquake facts Earthquakes are by a buildup of stress within the crust causing rocks to fail suddenly gr w all the planet39s earthquakes e fquot along the Pacific magnitude 8 L f 39 every year quot Mos deaths during an earthquake are d9 collapsing buildings Whyearthquakes o Loca ons r ivi g fOrCes Reapnnse of rocks behavior aDDli fiiiD S ature of earth s interiior 39 Dieterminin g epicent39eirs Wh earth uakes Where earth uakes 39 1 I NCircumPacificBelt V u v v 39 A 7 p i ate 12 North Amen pl South American plate Divergemlbotmdanj Convergent boundary Translorm boundary Euraslatl 1 late I 6 Juan De Fuca plate San And Caribbean 1 K L was VPhillppine muquot plate Ar l rlcan Sea plate 739 5739 Cocos platei w a Pacific plate 7 1790 lndian Australlan quotL 639 plate 4 Nazca plate South American plate a c l Tquot Iigurv ll3 Whv earthquakes Locations 39 Concentrated heavily along plate boundaries Driving forces Plate movement stresses rocks alongvjl plate boundaries Response of rocks Types of Stress Plate T ctonics Settinq anfin39i ng 4ilt None 1 39 T ve gt I lt f Transformfl Strain isaquottquothe response of a materiel testress Elastic 1 Type of Strain depends on V L Clay Fbldfed39rocks I Brittle QQQ H 1 A Figure 1611 A V 3 1 3p IHIIs U u a a l In D r If m m I quotQ E U m a m l 1 U m E U 6 n I E Figure 21 w w m in 5mm w w Syncline Anticline Figure I2 8 39739 39 d J39El t mmetrica mam m the CRUDE If a 3 of fo ds 11d 39 r rymth Mn wow 1 m u Ovenurned Recumbent Asymmetrxcal antich ne folds annclme 7 mph wcal nd The U m a m l 1 U m E U 6 n I E A Normal fault tensional B Re 9 am t cm V I39S U I1 Thrust faull compressional D Strikeslip fault shear Figure 911 Block diagrams of four types of faults A Normal fault B Reverse fault C Thrust fault D Strikeslip faultl Stress is applied Hock deforms to iis elastic limit 7 7 amount of elasiic deformaiion is exaggerated After elastic limit is exceede track then fractures ii strain is su icienl Plate Movement Stress 1 Ea ws Crust 1 Strain 1 1 Plastic Birittl39eg Whv earthquakes Locations Driving forces Response of rocks elastic plastic brittle all represent release of energy Sudden release of stored elastic ener i39 quotElastic rebound causes earthquake Fault scarp I39 Fault trace 831be uummt t m WWW Figure 164 Their JSCIHEIH 39ml1e1eisthepaintwhoremuckssiiraltijreakalongafaull sar rizrgmir Mal uxquot radiaie from he focus The center ia the point on the iirectly youquot H Sideto side motion Dxrection of Love wave propagation Particle molion 39Hmoomm mmmmmmm Wmoogmgoommmmm mmmooammom Wave propagation A Prxmary wave Dx rection of Raylexgh wagl v propagahon B Secondary wave D Raylexgh wave Figure 165 TN I Mr 4 nmc mlkm cu I 0 Am hmtwr39 391 m HMIHHIUH H E H11 L HUGH mu 3H 15 0mm mu m msmm 15 Hg 039 hhnkv lhc mm mm vherp w y39 mummy Min w W mm Mum a 39 F arhdu mumn m uwmwr A mhwl39 HM IUDDCSFC ICOLM 12quot 39 e w w I a m was mm M m ean w a uan m Km mmclion 0 wave vrrm dannn Wave behavior Primarv P waves 39 miles second 4 com pare to F15 O5 Secondary S vvave s n 124 miles second A m rest 3 Ground moves up equu ed t m rep Weaght slaw395 me level whi Ie the uni move C Gmund moves down Difference in P and S wave arrival times gives distance of 1000 miles to epicenter But which direction gives distance of 1000 miles to epicenter Difference in P and Swave arrival times at second station gives distance of 500 miles to epicenter Circle with radius Of 1000 miles Circle with radius of 500 miles Three stations give exact location of epicenter Circle with radius of 1000 miles Circle with radius of 500 miles Sunace Seismogram from stanon A Tvme of earthquake i nun34gt Su ace S F selsmogram tram stauon B 5 and Surrace debs unmease mm d siam minute lnlerVal mu dISIanCe m an ea 0 39 urrw P and F S 1610 a e epicenter bewsmon m a Louan g an n and Swnv a r a dmg to umtan 20 in John chcmen v hag an mlevva of 3 mumms so d 2 an mchm of up rmnuib a Is a dlstance iboul Ive sia on The Vocation m we cam r rrom we epmemer uuver Bnush Columbia Wham me War cm aw earthquake Them amtefrnmpnch and Lima is I e rmmcd from 55 meg the 39 we Esrva h we 16 Eachd nd Measuring size strength of quakes Calculating Richter Magnitude log A log 8 At 292 Wichter magnitude I framprlitude in millimeters frm 5 separation time in seconds from seismogram quotup rzglu l39l39ue Mtflraw Hlill mnpamei lnc E emussinn required for repl nducin m nr di l y nergy release equwalenu pounds of exploswe Earthquakes Energy equivalents H 120000000000DO E j a n Great earthquake n gt I I39 1 quot00 00039000390m near telal destruclson Um quotm39 39quotdm s a Ewsl Kmarta ElUFmCrl massme I033 0f me New Madnd MED11312 Maia earthquake severe economxc Impacl 393399 3 33 f 3 Charlm n SQ 29 39 5 40000002000 Strong earthquake Kola4 Japan USE5 damage 5 bllllonsl r lomndge cnll i twjl H 39 b L II39JS Tll39n39l 110mm lllm r less of Me f 200 Moderate eanlwquakel M Pmpem damagg Long Ialand Nr HEBll l3l World 5 largest nuclear lesl I UESHJ 12039Qm39o gloo Mcunl S HcIens crewman a 120000000 2000 l 400000 Light earlhquake M mge lI39mad some progeny damage lZJL39lDU 120000 Minor earthquake lell by humans Large llghln w boll 100000 Oklahoma Cny bamblng l 000 l39slorld dea Center collapse lwloderaze ial39umrng boll 10003quot 120 Rarely fell by humans Number of earthquakes per year worldwide u that HUS L39Znnsorn um L ww iruscdu39l Earthquake effects Primary Ground motion Buiding collapse Secondary Tsunami 39 Landslide Explosion Fire Liquefaction Liquefaction of soft soils Buildings are intact but lack support Japan 1964 vugmigm in Ilu 1 1 quotmutingh a helcUrmvaH39mnpmlc Inc Pcmummmqmmu m m m Inpm 39np 39 H Um lct39iraw Hill Companies In Pent nn required formpr luclaon m 1122pm NORTHEAST TRENCH 7 SOUTHEAST WALL SOUTHWEST 57x MuE s w A 2 METERS E hum mm Bullelin Isnu39dugicu Sncien al m acnca 2W3 n g1 23 if The Mcl imwllnll 39mupames Inc Permission requu ecl l rlr reproduction or display lt21 chance of M gt8 on SA fault in u 30 years 39 l 139 RI 68 years based on 2 EQs in 68 years 62 Chance of lquot1 quot quot 1 1906 68 1974 M gt 67 in 39 l f 30 years 0quot Hayward Fault 1906 San Francisco M 825 1 39 60 chance of Ygi ward M 75 83 on SA Fault in 30 years 1989 Loma Prieta M 72 85 chance of creeping f 1 M gt 7 on 39 i faults parallel to r 1857 Ft Tejon M 78 SA Fault 26 44 39 39 RI 105 years Los Angeles 1994 Northr39dge M 6397 based on 14 EQs in 1500 years 1857 105 1962 l mm lLl Geological Survey
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