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Intro Forensic Science

by: Clarissa Rippin

Intro Forensic Science ISC 205

Marketplace > Marshall University > General Science > ISC 205 > Intro Forensic Science
Clarissa Rippin
GPA 3.76


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Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Rippin on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISC 205 at Marshall University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/233270/isc-205-marshall-university in General Science at Marshall University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
Introduction to Forensic Science Introduction 2192008 ISC Course Goals I Students should develop a working knowledge of the scientific method Students should become familiar with computers as tools of scientific investigation Students should develop critical thinking skills Students should be able to assess risks relative to benefits of scientific and technological processes Students should develop the type of clarity in writing that is inherent in scientific expression ISC Course Goals ISC Courses must introduce students to science as a process and be developed around issues that are linked to individual and societal conditions Each issue must involve more than one discipline require readings otherthan from a text and involve a scientific enquiry in answering some sort of question or questions Forensic Science is an excellent ISC course topic My Goal for Course Increase your scientific literacy about forensic science and demystify the technology Prepare you to be good jurors someday able to critically evaluate evidence presented to you by expert witnesses Course Organization Review Syllabus and Schedule Grading Two exams and a final exam worth a total of 50 ofthe grade 15 for each exam and 20forfinal which is cumulative Labworth 30 of grade Attendance participation and pre and postrlab questions will be the basis forthe grade 10Attendance questions and participation in class 10 Report on a Fiction Book Video Computer Game or other Media Source Definition Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws We will emphasize criminal forensics in this class However expert witnesses from science fields abound in civil cases especially malpractice workplace injury cases and car accidents 2192008 Crime Statistics Violent crime is composed of four offenses murder and nonnegligent manslaughter forcible rape robbery and aggravated assault Violent crimes are defined in the Uniform Crime Reporting UCR Program as those offenses which involve force or threat of force An estimated 1417745 violent crimes occurred nationwide in 2006 Participation Question Write your name on the card and lab and turn in question at end of class Vou are asked to give a reaction before you know the right answerrthat is OK Has the violent crime rate increased or decreased in the last 1 years which has the lowest violent crime rate KV Ohio or WV when l share the data with you tell me your overall reaction and why For example have you been a 39 tim crime vlc Crime Statistics There were an estimated 4735 violent crimes per 100000 inhabitants when data for 2005 to 2005 were compared the estimated volume of violent crime increased 19 percent The Sryeartrend 2005 compared with 2002 indicated that violent crime decreased 04 percent Forthe lnrgartrend 2005 compared with 1997 violent crime fell 133 ercen Overall crime is falling dramaticallyfrom a peakin 1981 Overall Crime Trends are Down Were You Surprised Fictional and true stories ofcrime are very popular enainment in United ates quotit is suggested that surplus visibility of violence and crime in popular entertainment has become a key source of popular fear and anxiety about crime Excellent review oftelevision and crime portrayals r ht www alba du s VollDls soulllere df TelevlSlon news emphasizes sensational murders of young peoples eg Natalee Holloway Soulliere DM lzuual PrlmErllmE Murder Presentations of Murder on PopularTElEllslon Justice Programs in Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture Vol10 No1 111 I tniiiiuilmiliriiismaoiutautiiii iiinarmi quotimmune aim TPDHIW l l x diuii n urimrr a i ti ii i mumii in low lHllM sy inniiiiiiiiii 2006 Crime Statistics Aggravated assault accounted forthe majority of violent crimes 607 percent Robbery accounted for 316 percent and forcible rape accounted for 65 percent Murder the least committed violent offense made p 12 percent of violent crimes in 006 In 2006 firearms were used in 679 percent of the Nations murders in 422 percent of the robbery offenses an in 219 percent of the aggravated assaults olent crimeindexhtml Fiction is stranger than truth Crime Data for Universities in WV Three groups have historically been most vulnerable to violent crime Males Blacks Youths Women are more likely to be attacked by intimates Source http wwwfbigovucrcius2006datatable09 html 2192008 2006 Crime Statistics for West Virginia Ohio and Kentucky Nonviolent Crime is much more common 0 Robbery 0 Property crime Vandalism Vehicle hit and run Arson o Burglary o Larcenytheft Motor vehicle theft Ifyou have been a crime victim most likely you are a victim of one of these crimes rather than a violent crime Crime is Serious not Entertainment We will review many real cases in this class since they are the foundation of learningforensic science Some ofthese cases may be gruesome or sensational We will not lose sight of the fact that the individuals who are victims of the crime have suffere We will focus on using evidence to solve crimes and bring the criminals tojustice The quotCSI Effectquot Belief by law enforcement that juries will want lots of evidence to convict juries will want sophisticated and costly analysis techniques police departments cannot provide juries will assume crimes can be solved in one hour by CSI detectives CSI has raised public awareness about the value of forensic evidence and the reputation of forensic scientists an Nmnuullan tn mm mm us mm mm mm m mm quotmmquot quotmm W N nun 2192008 The quotCSI Effectquot On the CS and L840 shows toxicology and DNA tests are instantaneous but actual results can take Blurry photos and video can be greatly magnified and sharpened to clearly reveal the most minute Audio recordings are processed to an unrealistic degree Searches of computer databases offingerprints em lo ee records etc are shown to be almost instantaneous and nearly foolproof The quotCSI Effectquot I Lots of electronically stored information from building blueprints to old newspapers is readily accessible from the police or intelligence officer39s computer while in real life finding such information could take months and many police and state police lack access to computers and databases I Investigators quickly make highly detailed graphic animations often in 3D in a matter of minutes or hours In real life specialists would work on such models for days or w The quotCSI effectquot Criminal experts have noticed an increase in criminal cases in which suspects burn or tamper with evidence eg using bleach to destroy DNA evidence or attempt to carefully clean the crime scene of trace evidence such as hairs and clothing fibers http 39 quot 0060202 news lc02c uniontrib2 tml Case Study Jermaine McKinney I Jermaine McKinney murdered two women Wanda Rollyson 70 and her daughter Rebecca Cliburn 43 in Trumball Country Ohio on December 21 2005 I He planned to rob the women of 50000 with two female accomplices Keyatta Hines and Jazzmine Mclver I While the two women were waiting in the getaway car McKinney shot Rollyson and beat Cliburn with a crowbar Case Study Jermaine McKinney McKinney liked to watch the television show quotCSIquot but he made several mistakes removed his cigarette butts from the house but one was left behind that containe is DNA He used bleac to removetheir ood rom his hands and covered the interior of a etawa carwlth blankets to avoid transferring ood McKinney burned 70 percent to 80 percent of his victims39 bodies but he left behind a lot of bootrmarked bloodstains on the basementfloor He tried to put his bloodrand sweatrsoaked boots in McKelvey Lake on Voungstown39s East Sidethe boots didn39t sinkthrough the ice and were easily retrieved a shorttime Case Study Jermaine McKinney I McKinney 27 was convicted of two counts of rder and sentenced to life in prison without parole eligibility for killing the two women I Mclver 23 and Riley Hines 22 got five and six years respectively fortheir roles in the murders after agreeing to assist in the trial I All began serving their sentences in late 2006 I Family members have also sued the perpetrators in civil court for wrongful death 2192008 The Sherlock Holmes Effect From quotA Study in Scarlet I SirArthur Conan Doyle created a fictional detective lwfnundltll vefuundlt heshoutedtamymmvanlanrunnytawardsuswlthate rtuhelnhlshand l hatelaqu areagent which lsvreupltatedhyhaemaglahln and aynatnvg else nadnedismvered agald atnav vies Sherlock Holmes who used scientific methods to mi iflfyn li eneaiiili llsiliiynyea oantyavseenaitavesvsamantle solve c rimes 3335 33113 353 if faralielinquotifa39ili 3T532v 3El i l lni333 iwaTikin one was a himself and the model for Dr Watson Holmes com Panions 2lquotalii393 il lizliszttimagmasalwaysilazhmm 39 HDlmES aPPliEd nele dEVElDPEd PrinCiPlES SUCh as 333Tigsfiia ifmmmlgimilzlasaeignteaasaenilawtnanewtay vvnataayavtnnkar serology fingerprinting firearm identification and 323mehamdgmm wmm QUEStanEd document examination long bafore thalr iffstti e aizi l squot3mtm zm g mmisms mittlislla lvtplfasgtpfailaa39glleallaquot value was recognized and accepted by real life police ianretneitnealaamagLgrpgmm xygggeygemeiearenvnaieasatnennawwalkngtne tnwna would lndeedl l murmured Criminal sts are continually ninging upon tnat ane paint A marl issvspeeted a a nine mantns pernaps afterlthasheen committed nisiinenar dathesareexamlned and brownisnstainsdismvered upanthem Are theyhlaadstalns armle stains arms gains arnvitstains arwnataretneymatisaavesnan which nas pvuied many an expert and why aeeavsetnere was no reliabletes Now we navetne Sherlock Halmes stest and tnere Will no longer be any amenity investigators The Crime Laboratory Crime Labs vs Crime Scenes I The development of crime laboratories in the United I Forensic scientists are genemlly employees with science States has been characterized by rapi 0 degrees andor significant science backgroundswho examine accompanied y a lack of national and regional and process physical evidence itemsthat were collected at a planning and coordination crime scene and subsequently tmnsported tothe laboratory I About 350 public crime laboratories federal state Where he sc39em39 395 emploved39 mum and city erg L05 Angela and New york City I Crime scene technicians are employees iusually sworn police I In WV there is a single crime lab run by the WV State Officersl Who 3 dislmdled to crime scenes 3quot are l responsible forsecuringand pnotograpningtne scene PDI39CE39 collecting physical evidence and preservingtne evidence until I Marshall University CODIS lab is a DNA lab certified 39 it can be examined at a crime labomtor to do some C355 work I Source httpwwwascldorgvisitorsresourcesphp vlrlan Eauullan in an ntmaunlantn nannnt ann le mnnr The Crime Laboratory Specialization in Crime Laboratories 0 Increasing number ofcrime aboratories is I Within a crime laboratory there are specialized partly due to technicians who handle evidence sent from crime Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s responsible scenes Once placing greater emphasis on Physical Science Units incorporate the principles of scientifically evaluated evidence chemistry physics and geology to identify and compare physical evidence Crime laboratories inundated with drug specimens Biology Units applytne knowledge of biological sciences in due to accelerated drug abuse orderto investigate blood samples body fluids hair and The advent of DNA profiling f39bersamples Firearms Units investigate discharged bullets cartridge cases snotgun shells and ammunition an ntmaunlantn nannnt ann le mm mm zavutan in an Manama awn nim ie min vlrlan Eauullan in a lulumnvrlhn v quotmarm n arm a nnnmnnnnn v urxmalllyr gt4 nun an Mmauulanln remit nim le uni v Specialization in Crime Laboratories Document Units provide skills needed for nandvvriting analysis forgery and other questionedrdocument issues Photogmphic Units apply specialized photogmph39c techniquesforrecordingand exa 39 39 Computer Forensic Units extract preserve and analyze digital evidence Special Forensic Chemistw Units perform Toxicology and Alcohol and DrugAnalysis an cannon in mining physical evidence What are some qualities of a good forensic scientist No criminal record Strong ethical center Confident Strong public speaking skills High aptitude for science and math Strong report writing skills Friendly and pleasant disposition Courteous Tendencyto practice good hygiene Conserimtive or unwilling to take unnecessaw risks Good time management and organizational skills Patience and tolemnce forthe slowerwheels of government Sourcenttpvvvvvvascldorgvisitorsresourcespnp 2192008 Specialization in Crime Laboratories I Other Services by FullService Labs Latent Fingerprint Units process and examine evidence for latent fingerprints Polygraph Units conduct polygmph or lie detectortests Voiceprint Analysis Units attempt to tie a recorded voice to a particular suspect EvidencerCollection Units send speciallytrained personnel tothe crime scene to collect and preserve physical evidence in Nmnuullan tn remit nim le man man Eauullan in Forensic Scientist Skills I A forensic scientist must be skilled in applying the principles and techniques of science to the analysis of the many types of evidence I A forensic scientist may also provide expert court testimony I Forensic scientists also participate in training law n orcement personnel in the proper recognition collection and preservation of physical evidence man man Eauullan in an Nmnuullan tn remit nim le


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