Social Psychology PSY 302
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Gabe Keeling on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 302 at Marshall University taught by Wendy Williams in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/233275/psy-302-marshall-university in Psychlogy at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Review Questions for lSt exam PSY 302 My friend says to me that s a great idea Because of the way she says it I know she is being sarcastic Which of the following explains how I know that she does not hink it is a good idea a J 39 attribution error b eye contact c emblems d selfservin bias According to theorist Harold Kelley s Covariation Model when making gets a D on You are interested in the relationship between violent TV shows and levels of aggression in kids You ask parents to report the number of hours of violent TV programs their kids watched this week and to report how many acts of aggression they have demonstrated in the last week You do not intervene in any way This is n example of a A causal study c An exper1mental stud d An illusory correlation Review Questions for lSt exam 302 One to an essay increases for the spring Despite her education and the fact the she required Rahul to write the essay research on the fundamental attribution error suggests that the a was to essay not cannot 7 A soccer scores a For rest season she goes out of her way to have sushi for breakfast before each game This a error Jasmine s doctor gives her a choice between two different kinds of birth control pills One has a 97 success rate and the other has a 3 failure rate Although she knows that they are the same Jasmine still picks the pills that have a 97 success ate Her decision demonstrates which effect a illusory correlation b selfserving bias c availability heuristic A I attribution error Many people believe that traveling by airplane is more dangerous than traveling by car when in fact the reverse is true fatal car accidents far outnumber plane crashes By basing their judgment on whatever comes to mind easiest people have fallen rey to a the re resentativeness heuristic c an illusory correlation d the anchor and adjustment heuristic PSY 302 Exam 1 2911 Dr Wendy Williams Social psych is di erent in that It deals with individual societal and interpersonal levels of analysis and its commitment to the scienti c method It s an empirical science based on data systemic methods used to get information on social life then theories tested on why people behave the way they do Interpersonal is the main difference deals with person39s current social situation 3 Big Theories motivational emotions rooted in psychoanalytic Freud needs amp motives affect attitudes perceptions and behaviors o o cognitive thoughts rooted in gestalt Kohler Koffka Lewin perception amp thoughts of situation affects behavior whole dynamics 0 learning behavior rooted in behaviorism Pavlov Skinner current behavior in uenced by past learning 4 Bigish Theories decisionmaking social cognition weigh costs amp bene ts for the best option pros amp cons o interdependence groups focus on behavior of 2 people with each other ex group negotiations o sociocultural diverse social background in uence thoughtsfeelingsbehaviors o evolutionaryanimal behavior theory applied to human behavior random sample sample that represents the population of interest experimental design Participants are randomly assigned to 2 or more conditions There is an intervention needed for the experiment 0 independent variable the cause the only thing different between groups it s manipulated ex nicotine gum temperature 0 dependent variable the effect what you re measuring and hoping will be different between groups ex cravings aggression o operational de nition how you de ne your variables speci c about how we measure variables ex new amp old gum how aggressive 0 random assigpment every participant has equal chance of being in any condition ensures diversity correlational studies Asks if there is a relationship between 2 or more factors no in uence simply observe amp record Allows us to study things we cannot control ex falling in love happiness rt ice cream Bene cial because it s cheap and with fast results Two ways to conduct observation simply watch and record cannot interfere in any way surveys ask about behavior after the fact cannot interfere in any way reverse causality cannot know direction of the relationship we don t know which causes which ex poverty amp depression third variable another unmeasured variable that may explain the relationship between two variables ex hair amp ice cream could be rt weather external validity extent to which your results generalize to other populations amp other settings high in eld low in lab dt inc distractions internal validity extent to which cause amp effect conclusions can be drawn low in eld high in lab dt dec distractions 4 goals of social psvchologv research 1 description provide speci c systematic descriptions of behavior 2 causal analysis cause amp effect relationships 0 3 theory building take 1 amp 2 to build theories why we see relationships 0 4 application to social problems to better situations and help internal attributions dispositional all causes which are intemalspecific to the individual ex moods attitudes personality traits and abilities external attributions situational all causes external to the individual ex pressure from others money nature of the social situation Why do we make attributions knowledgemaste individuals have the need to form a coherent understanding of the world to gain certainty ex being lazy makes you poor 0 0 control individuals feel the need to control their environment allows response ex don t be lazy so you won t be poor I we use several factors to determine whether behavior corresponds to disposition tells about the type of person you are worseundesired tells more social desirability consistent with social norms want undesired freely chosesituationally constrained want freely chosen social roles does it fit with their social role look for NOT part of social role v v quot My 39 7 l we seek 3 types of information to determine whether to make an internal or external attribution consensus do others act the same way in the same situation highsame lowl person consistent has this behavior occurred before across time distinctiveness does the behavior vary across situations highdistinctive lownot combo leading to attributing to intemal low high low combo leading to attributing to extemal high high high augmenting principle tendency to make a stronger attribution to a cause if that cause occurs in the presence of a factor that would normally have prevented it from happening more likely to assume connection if it played a part in the cause happening less factors discounting principle tendency to make a weaker attribution to a cause if other potential causes are also present less likely to assume connection if lots of factors quot 239 we are more likely to attribute others behavior to a general disposition than to situations always go with internal o Castro study Pro or Anti essays dispositional gt situational Why do we make this error 39 perceptual salience what we perceive wanting dispositions 39 misunderstanding situations underestimate power of the situation Hurricane Katrina 39 having a dispositional world view to explain people s behavior situational factors 0 o when we have time not likely to make when rational when we know the person because we know them when we expect to have contact with the person in the future accurate about our behavior when situational information is especially salient sticks out less likely o cultural factors 39 Miller study of Hindu amp American children Hindias a situation Americanas a person Actorobserver effect we have the tendency to explain the others behavior in terms of dispositional attributions but our own behavior in terms of situational attributions ex If we see someone trip we laugh amp think they39re clumsy internal If we trip we look to see what caused it external Why access to different information amp different perspectives selfserving attributional bias tendency to take credit for success and to deny responsibility for failure Bias in the sports page Nonverbal behavior basic channels 0 facial expressions 0 eye contact 0 body language posture movement distance gestures 1emblems o touch 0 paralanguage variations in speech tone emphasis rhythm pitch etc Lying detected at 5050 chance experts are only slightly better at it secret service only 0 microexpressions o interchannel discrepancies if the nonverbals don39t match the verbal 0 eye contact either too much or too little dilated pupils inc blinking o exaggerated facial expressions huge smile hysterical crying Dual Processing Model heuristic thougl1t automatic involves a mental shortcut or rule of thumb not paying attn no e brt needed ex forget driving home but it clearly happened systematic thougl1t controlled involves careful scrutiny of the problemissue focused paying attention serious thought consciousness deliberative schemas an organized structured set of cognitions used to organize the world compared to similar situations generalize ex good leader exempla an example of a category that embodies the significant attributes of the category or the ideal of the category particular schema the ideal people who embody characteristics ex Martin Luther King Ghandi JFK advantages helps us process information aids recallinc memory of exact speeds up processing adds information aids interpretation contains affect both positive amp negative feelingsemotions ex describing laundry 0 o liabilities resistant to change subtypes is a category of people who don t confirm the schema ex Sally the engineer she39s different from the rest lead to errors amp biases when are they used 0 outcome dependency less likely take time to check schemas of good students accountabilitythe need to be accurate less likely grade depends on it so we want it to be right time pressure more likely limited time to pick Gathering Information Stage of Social Inference Prior expectations affecting what we expect to see is often what we believe in 39 proIsraeli vs proArab both think their own group is better amp is being attacked by the other Biases in information affect 39 vs 39 39 prison guard studv negativity bias impressions are more in uenced by negative traits than positive especially people based ex political ads people remember the information rather than the source illusog correlation thought that 2 things are related but no relationship ex lucky number or underwear wearing a jersey for football games sitting in the same seat needing gum for tests selffulfilling prophecy tendency for people s expectations to create reality ex Great Depression people thought the banks were failing their withdrawal of money in response is what caused the banks to fail o Bloomers stud children took an IQ test researchers told teachers that certain students were going to increase their IQ by lO30pts over the year these kids did better and confirmed this thought since they received special treatmentmaterials more motivation were continuously called upon so prepared to answer correctly 1 perceiver39s expectations 2 perceiver39s behavior toward target 3 target39s behavior toward perceiver representativeness heuristic tendency to classify something as belonging to a certain category to the extent that it is similar to a typical case from that category a standard is placed for categories ex cardinal vs ostrich for birds apple vs kiwi for fruit a lady dressed as a witch must be a witch because she looks like one Holy Grail availability heuristic tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily instances come to mind related to publicity amp media deaths caused by homicide considered significant dt news coverage heart disease isn39t as covered but is more deadly anchor amp adjustment heuristic tendency to use a numbervalue as a starting point to which we make adjustments works best when we don t know the real value ex Amazon River distance infomercial prices selfconcept our overall beliefs about ourselves ex the whole library selfschema helps me understand myself ex single book kind giving funny selfawareness theopy selffocusing cues help bring out attention to ourselves ex Halloween study kids saw themselves taking more candy so they stopped selfknowledge pager study people are rarely thinking about their self selfperception theog attitudes are uncertain we infer by observing our behavior when situations occur ONLY when we aren t sure use same process of attributional analysis as use for others 0 2 factor theog of emotions we feel symptoms and seek appropriate explanation for them rt the situation environment o re ected appraisals how others treat us we see ourselves as others see us 0 social comparisons we learn about our abilities amp attitudes by comparing to others ex contributing money 39 upward mentor hero professor to see what we want to be 39 downward someone below to feel better 39 horizontal same position to t it social identity group unity
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