Operating Systems I
Operating Systems I IT 120
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imelda Dickinson on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IT 120 at Marshall University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/233282/it-120-marshall-university in Information technology at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Chapter 6 Introduction to Network Operating Systems A computer Operating System OS is the software foundation on which the computer39s applications and services run Similarly a Network Operating System NOS enables communication between multiple devices and the sharing of resources across a network 61 Characteristics ofa Network Operating System 611 Overview of NOS characteristics The function of an Operating System OS is to control a computer39s hardware program execution environment and user interface The OS performs these functions for a single user or a number of users who share the machine serially rather than concurrently An administrator may set up accounts for more than one user but users cannot log on to the system at the same time In contrast Network Operating Systems NOSs distribute their functions over a number of networked computers A NOS depends on the native OS in each individual computer A NOS then adds functions that allow access to shared resources by a number of users concurrently 612 Differences between PCs and a NOS PCs function as clients in a NOS environment By using the functions of the PC39s native Operating System the user is able to access resources that are local to the PC These include applications files and devices such as printers that are directly attached When a PC becomes a client in a NOS environment additional specialized software enables the local user to access nonlocal or remote resources as ifthese resources were part of the local system The NOS enhances the reach ofthe client PC by making remote services available as extensions of the local native operating system 613 Multiuser multitasking and multiprocessor systems In order to support multiple concurrent users and to provide shared access to network services resources and devices NOS servers must run operating systems with characteristics that extend beyond those of client PCs A number of operating systems such as Linux Windows NT2000XP and Novell Netware can integrate the features required to function as a NOS server What are multiuser systems What are multitasking systems What are multiprocessor systems 614 NOS server hardware In a NOS environment many client systems access and share the resources of one or more servers Desktop client systems are equipped with their own memory and peripheral devices like a keyboard monitor and disk drive In order to support local processing the server systems must be equipped to support multiple concurrent users and multiple tasks as clients make demands on the server for remote resources What are the hardware requirements for a NOS What is meant by redundancy 61 140 HP lT Essentials ll v30 Chapter Summaries Copyright 2004 Cisco Systems Inc 615 Choosing a NOS The main features to consider when selecting a NOS include performance management and monitoring tools security scalability and robustnessfault tolerance The following section briefly defines each of these features How does performance affect a NOS What does the management interface provide Why is security important What is scalability What is meant by robustness What is meant by fault tolerance 616 Types of NOSs It is important to know the basics about popular NOS families Many networks now include more than one server type and knowing how to get these diverse systems to interoperate is an important skill for a network administrator What is meant by the 08 language Worksheet 616 Characteristics of a Network Operating System 62 Windows 621 Windows terminology Windows serverbased networks running Windows NT Server or Windows 2000 Server are based on the concept of the domain A domain is a grouping of computers and users that serves as a boundary of administrative authority Windows NT domains and Windows 2000 domains although similar in function interact with one another differently What is a domain controller 622 Windows NT 40 Windows NT Workstation was Microsoft39s first desktop operating system aimed at the corporate market The latest version ofthe NT operating system is NT 40 which has a user interface similar to the one in Windows 95 Prior to the release of NT 40 Microsoft released NT 3x which has the Windows 3x interface Windows NT was designed to provide a more stable environment for missioncritical business than Microsoft39s consumer operating systems The domain structure of Windows NT is entirely different from the domain structure in Windows 2000 Instead of Active Directory Windows NT provides an administrative tool called the User Manager for Domains User Manager for Domains is accessed from the domain controller and is used to create manage and remove domain user accounts What does NT stand for What are the advantages of Windows NT What does the User Manager for Domains allow the administrator to accomplish 62 140 HP lT Essentials ll v30 Chapter Summaries Copyright 2004 Cisco Systems Inc What is a PDC What is the SAM What if the PDC goes down 623 Windows 2000 and XP Operating Systems Windows 2000 is one of Microsoft39s latest operating systems for the corporate desktop Like the Windows 2000 server products it is based on the NT kernel and includes many enhanced features For example Windows 2000 Professional provides a high level of security and stability for missioncritical tasks What is Plug and Play technology What are other advantages of the Windows 2000 Operating System What is the MMC How is MMC accessed What are ADUs What is an OU Worksheet Windows NTl2000XP 624 Windows 2000 and 2003 Server Operating Systems The Windows 2000 family of Operating Systems include Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Advanced Server The specific needs ofthe network will determine the best version of Windows 2000 for the installation What speci c needs will Windows 2000 Professional address What speci c needs will Windows 2000 Server address What speci c needs will Windows 2000 Advanced Server address What speci c needs will Windows NE T Server address 63 Linux 631 History of Linux Linux is an operating system similar to UNIX It runs on many different computers Linux was first released in 1991 by its author Linus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki Since then Linux has grown in popularity as programmers around the world embraced the idea of building a free operating system adding features and fixing problems Linux is popular with the current generation of computer users for the same reasons the early versions of the UNIX operating system enticed fans more than 20 years ago Linux is portable comes with source code so the user can change or customize the software to adapt to their needs and Linux offers many features adopted from other versions of UNIX What is the open source initiative 632 What is UNIX It is important to mention the features and uses of UNIX when discussing Linux The UNIX NOS was developed in 1969 and it has evolved into many varieties The source code for UNIX is open An open source code is 63 140 HP IT Essentials II v30 Chapter Summaries Copyright 2004 Cisco Systems Inc available at no cost to anyone who wants to modify it Additionally UNIX is written in C programming language so businesses academic institutions and even individuals can develop their own versions UNIX operating systems are used on highend workstations such as Silicon Graphics and Sun machines UNIX can run as a commandline operating system or with a Graphical User Interface GUI such as XWindow List some of the popular distributions of UNIX What are the advantages of open source code What are the disadvantages of open source code 633 Linux Operating System Linux is sometimes referred to as quotUNIX Litequot Linux is designed to run on Intelcompatible PCs however it will run on other machines as well Linux brings the advantages of UNIXto home and small business computers List some of the popular distributions of Linux What is LOAF 634 Linux clients Windows clients can access resources and Linux servers The clientserver file system used by most varieties of Linux file servers is a Network File System NFS which was developed by Sun Microsystems Linux can be installed on Windows clients using software such as Solstice Network Client by Sun NFS requires TCPIP or other NFS client software forfile transfer Windows operating systems do not include an NFS client What is Samba What is 8MB Worksheet 634 Linux 64 Determining Software requirements for a Linux NOS 641 Workstation software and programs Most of the software and programs that a user would find on a Linux workstation are designed to help the user get work done A Linux Workstation will not need any of the programs or software that the user would typically find on a Linux system configured as a server If any mail server software or programs were installed on a Linux workstation it would be a mail server which provides local services to sending and receiving e mail What is X Windows System What are the most popular office tools for Linux 642 Server software and programs Software and programs that are installed on a server are done so with the purpose of supplying some sort of service to other computer systems that are attached to it through a network The software and programs that are running on a server are used differently than software and programs that are installed in a workstation Users do not directly use the software or programs that are on the server Typically the server administratorwill be the only user that uses the software and even then it will not be used very 64 140 HP IT Essentials II v30 Chapter Summaries Copyright 2004 Cisco Systems Inc much Instead software and programs that are installed on servers are running constantly in the background on the server When a client computer makes a request the serverwill respond to that request Additional software and programs The previous two sections discussed many of the essential programs and software that are necessary to be installed on either a workstation or a server However there are some programs and software that are essential to add to a Linux system regardless of whether it is configured as a workstation or a server These programs will help a user perform the common user tasks on their workstation but allow an administrator to properly administer a system Verifying software compatibility For the most part when installing software on a Linux system from packages that are included on the CD the packages will work Some packages have a dependency which means that they require other packages to be installed as well in order for it to run correctly All the major distributions have package managers which was discussed in previous chapters that track this and when it notices a package being installed that has dependencies a message will appear providing a user with information on which additional packages will need to be installed Extra measures may need to be taken when packages that are not shipped with the distribution CD are installed It is always good practice to check the manufactures website or in the packages documentation to see what requirements may need to be installed Some of these requirements include supported operating systems supported distributions CPU requirements library requirements and development tools and libraries Chapter 6 Summary This chapter discussed Network Operating Systems Some ofthe important concepts to retain from this chapter include the following Network Operating Systems NOSs distribute their functions over a number of networked computers NOS depends on the native OS in each individual computer and then adds functions so resources can be shared concurrently NOS servers must run operating systems with characteristics that extend beyond those of client PCs In order to support multiple concurrent users and to provide shared access to network services resources and devices NOS services must be multiuser multitasking and support multiple processors Windows serverbased networks running Windows NT Server or Windows 2000 Server are based on the concept ofthe domain A domain is a group of computers and users that serves as a boundary of administrative authority Linux is like a UNIX operating system that comes with source code so the user can change or customize the software to adapt to specific needs The Open Source Initiative provides a trademark for software developers who want to share modify and redistribute their code Installing an Operating System OS especially a Network Operating System NOS can be one of the most complex installation tasks The next chapter details the installation 65 140 HP IT Essentials II v30 Chapter Summaries Copyright 2004 Cisco Systems Inc process from planning to troubleshooting 66 140 HP IT Essentials ll v30 Chapter Summaries Copyright 2004 Cisco Systems Inc Chapter 6 Notes 67 140 HP IT Essentials v30 Chapter Summaries Copyright 2004 Cisco Systems Inc
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