Operating Systems I
Operating Systems I IT 120
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imelda Dickinson on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IT 120 at Marshall University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/233282/it-120-marshall-university in Information technology at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
11 Operating System Basics 12 Microsoft Windows 13 Unix and Linux on the Desktop 14 Networking Operating System Overview Overview of PC Operating Systems o Doskmp miaooon39putars becam popular In the early 1930 Userso hmPCspmM Wmhmmpufon ng nvariotyofhmJndm wordpmces homn munitma computer gaming Workplace produthy was limited by their inabi ty to sham infon39nation easily with other systems PCs and Computer Networks As desktop computing matured In ma warkpiace compan39ns must localam muummconmmwmso mmmamummmmanmumnnm A mwmmmwwmmmpm mummww Ammummmmmnm m x A m 4 4 L p w u PCs and Computer Networks Web browsing electronic mail email and other Internet related applications are now the focus of home computing To provide these Internet technologies companies such as Microsoft have retooled their desktop operating systems The desktop 08 now includes many of the features and services that were once reserved for the NOS The Kernel 39 Kernel is the most common term for the core of the operating system ltisasmall pbceafoode mat is loaded into mammy when tha computer boats This computer code contains instructions that allow the kernel to manage hadware devices memory allocation system processes and other programs The User Interface The UI is the component of meOS mtmeusarlnmrach with The U 69 like inhrprm Wag user Woks mama dicks or m input fat the W WI A gmphia use nbrfaao GUI a m the user to manipulate sonwam using visual objects such as windows pull down menus pointers and icons The File System In a hierarchiml le system mas she placed In I Wlncmrs and Macintosh OSs use theterrn Tolder and quotsubfolder The File System One common type of file system is File Allocation Table FAT FAT file systems are maintained on the disk by the operating system The table contains a map of files and where they are stored on the disk The FAT references disk clusters which are the basic unit of logical storage on a disk A given file may be stored on several clusters but a cluster can contain data from only one file The OS uses the FAT to find all of the disk clusters where a file is stored The File System There are the three types of FAT le systems The original FAT le system FAT18 FATS FAT16 and FAT32 are an advanced and imde version of the origin FAT le systam C Common Desktop Operating Systems 9 Norman Disk Operating Synthm M3008 h an ohwlchOS that Is dill and no support new business npplie om WWW WQJGMERTRM and W039 ammamo 0310 8C0 SuSE and others UNIX includes HP UX Sun Solaris and othars MSDOS O Microsoft misused as rst 9mm Windaus 10 Windows mesa mum macawumme and or wmmm Mummmmm mumme shesme hhsir newl39moofPOE Micmso bnugmme gmsm 00m and re ned M8008 in 1981 MSDOS is a simple lowoverhead operating system MSDOS is inexpensive MSDOS is stable and reliable MSDOS is easy to learn and use Many programs are available for MS DOS Microsoft Windows 31 o It was not until Windows 30 was released in 1990 that Microsoft whimed its ussr Home as a map tutu In the Imam In 1982 Manson mused an upgtndo to 30 calls Windows upgrade to Tm 31 called Windows This tamin of products is known collectively as Mndows 3x Microsoft Windows 31 Mndowsfor WWW Wma owm wmmmm mmhm Wow Windows 9X E W 16bit code 390 ham compatibility w h Dos and Wndaws 3 mm Windows NT and Windows 2000 August 1993 Windows NT 31 gt September 1994 Windows NT 3 5 gt June 1995 Windows NT 351 1 August 1996 Windows NT4D September 1997 Windows NT 50 Beta gt December 1997 Windows NT 40 Oplion Pack yAugusI 1998 Windows NT 50 Beta 2 b April 1999 Windows 2000 Bela 3 5 July 1999 Windows 2000 Reiease Candidate 1 September 1999 Windows 2000 Release Candidate 2 5 February 2000 Windows 2000 This shows a timeline ofthe Windows operating systems from NT 31 to the release of Windows 2000 Windows XP MndowsXPwasreleased 12001 mdrepresents w rstOSbuTtonNTmatm WWW Manualam meWXPmtyls iw asfolm Wndcva XP Hume Edition quot Windows xv Professional fl Nndows Nemoos sewer Windaws 0 The Windows 9x NT 2000 and XP operating systems all share common clemam In their GUls When using the Windows GUI 391 mm mm Plow u frun the popup menu will M what Mon at Wndows is on the system The vemlon of the OS software will be displayed on the General Tab of the System Properties window Windows CLI All Windows operating systems indude a command line environment that enables the user to enter common MS DOS commands To access the command line in Windows 9x select Run from the Start menu and enter the word command In the Run dialog box Common Mndom CLI commands and resutting actions are displayed Windows Control Panel The VVIfIdOWS Control Panel is a central location for making system con guration changes A a user can perform the followhng key tasks Install and mm Wm M Instll Ind ram software WWW componerls Add madly and delete user accounts Con gure an Internet connection Con gure peripheral devices Unix and Linux on the Desktop 39 Them are dozens 0 different versions of UNIX 39 Much at me Mamet runs on powerful UNIX sysiema v AlhoughUNleuwanymhtedw tmm ham and ismidamd mm moon denbpmems hdudlng the cma m d Lhux have W mm m Origins of Linux 0 By the late 19906 Linux had become a viable alternative to UNIX on servets and Nlndows on the desktop The popularity of Linux on desktop PCs has also contributed to interest in using UNIX distributions such as FreeBSD and Sun Salads on the desktop Versions of Linux can now run on almost any 32bit LinuxUN IX GUI i Both UNIX and Linux are wpable of running GUIs Because there are so many afferent malaria 01 both UNIX and Linux there are men If popular giantnice to choose UNIX and Linux both rely on the XWndwvs Syaem to dsplay the GUI GNOME is not a window manager In fact GNOME can work with several different kinds of window managers LinuxUNIX GUI Although other desktop environments such as K Desktop Environment KDE can be con gured and used with Linux GNOME is rapidly gaining industry acceptance as a quotstandardquot UNIX and Linux GUI Since Linux supports dozens ofwindow managers and g EILZ EQJSEZZQlg39llg39 l ifgj each window manager can be trelaskhansua lulm panel IE WWW way a window will look or act 332in39T 39l72 l 3 lili quot Origins of UNIX v UNIX and Linux were designed to be exible and bla UNIX and Linux support dozens of user mm 39 The mat comma are me textbased Moos allot shells Users type commands that are Interpret by the shalt which in turn relays the use instructions to operating system and other programs Linux and UNIX System Configuration Tools The various versions of UNIX and Linux offer a variety of con guration tools similar to Vl ndows Control Panel Some ofthese tools are textbased for CH environments Some ofthese tools such as linuxconf for Linux or admintool for Solaris can be used in the GUI Admlnlnnl39 HInuK mmquot m r pwa mm mm Common Network Operating Systems The limitations of early desktop OSs led to the development of more powerful NOS software NOSs provide builtin networking components and network services multiuser capability and sophisticated file security and file sharing technologies Common NOSs in use today include Microsoft Windows Novell NetWare Linux Unix Windows and Linux NOS Comparison V ndows has been marketed as a userfriendly graphical interface GUI desktop operating system The roots of Linux begin with UNIX and with that modular design made Linux a very popular choice among system administrators to run their servers Textmode interface functionality Cost Obtaining the OS Ability to run from a CD Available application software and obtaining application software Virus vulnerability Security features Supporting multiple users The ClientServer Model Mos notwark watchmaan manning munHolde warm such ammuwmwwmwmnmwmwnum ummmrd mm Ammmmmummm Medium 39 Hutu1quot n u M L ALA The Client Server Model Any computer can act as a server as long as it is connected to the network and is con gured with the appropriate software Most organizations put all of their key network services on highend computers called servers running NOSs optimized for servicing remote clients 0 Evaluating Customer Resources and Requirements One of the first things that must be taken into consideration when buying or building a new computer are the requirements that are needed to allow the system to efficiently provide the service Determining the customer resources will also help decide on what type of system to build or buy for the customer Evaluating Customer Resources and Requirements A Linux workstation is a system that is typically a standalone computer consisting of one monitor keyboard and mouse Most often a workstation will be configured with a network connection as well Evaluating Customer Resources and Requirements Servers really have no need to the user arienled features like large monitors speakers or somd card Mymdmaomdm mmmnmwum mum Fumbmaonmecswmmve System Interface SCSI dish as opposed to Extended IDE EIDE disks that would be lnstalted In a workstation Evaluating Customer Resources and Requirements Determining the customers resources is an important step in evaluating the requirements that are needed but also that will be available These can include things like existing hardware budgetary constraints and having the proper expertise available Linux provides and excellent means for reusing existing hardware and extending the life of old and othenvise unusable systems Linux has the ability to run without a GUI that can use up all the system resources One way to deal with budget constraints is to decide the proper hardware that is needed and what the user will need to accomplish the job