Adv Inorganic Chemistry I
Adv Inorganic Chemistry I CHM 448
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Houston Kovacek on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 448 at Marshall University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/233290/chm-448-marshall-university in Chemistry at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Aluminum Discovered HC Oersted in 1825 Name From alum used by ancient Greeks and Romans as an astringent and as a mordant in dyeing Sir Humphrey Davy proposed the name aluminum but changed it to aluminium to have it conform to the spelling of other metals This spelling was used in the US until 1925 when the ACS when back to the original spelling The rest of the world uses the ium ending Occurrence It is the most common metallic element in the earth39s crust occurs in many different forms in nature some of which are bauxite cryolite Na3AlF6 micas feldspars vermiculite diaspore AlOZH gibbsite AlOH3 garnet Ca3A12SiO43 beryl Be3AIZSi6018 turquoise A12OH3PO4HZOCu corundum oc A1203 other A1203 with impurities are ruby CrIH topaz FeIH sapphire and oriental emerald Bauxite deposits are common Large reserves are found in Australia Africa Brazil Central America Guinea and Jamaica Isolation Bauxite AlOZHmHZO is dissolved in molten NaOH 1200 C and is precipitated with C02 then dissolved in cryolite at 950 C and electrolyzed Bayer process Cost of 1 gram 1 mole 004 113 Natural Isotopes 27A1 100 Physical and Relatively low melting point Chemical High electrical conductivity Properties Soft Low density Silvery white in color Non magnetic Corrosion resistant Highly malleable and ductile Reactions 2 Al 6 HCl A 2 A1C13 3 H2 2 A1OH3 4A A1203 3 H20 Uses Alloys for building construction transportation containers and packaging electrical power lines cookware etc A135ZrOH115C13239tzO39glycine is the active ingredient in some antiperspirants A1203 is a major component of Portland cement Beryllium Discovered By L N Vauguelin in 1798 as the oxide isolated in 1828 by F Wohler and A B Bussy independently Name From beryl the mineral it was originally isolated from Beryl is derived from the Greek word beryllaus which is the precious stone form of beryl It is also called glucinium from the Greek work glykys for quotsweetquot Beryllium compounds tend to have a sweet taste See note at bottom Occurrence It is relatively non abundant in the Earth39s crust concentrated in pegmatite rocks last part of granite to crystallize Aquamarine and emerald are precious forms of beryl Largest deposits are in South America and South Africa Isolation beryl NaZSiF6 LDC BeFZ BeF2 Mg mooc Be MgF2 Cost for 1 gram 1 mole 254 2289 Natural Isotopes 9Be 100 Physical and High melting point Chemical Silvery white in color Properties Soft Very low density for a metal Relatively non reactive e g polished Be remains shiny indefinitely Chemically different from other Alkaline Earth metals eg rarely forms ionic compounds cold concentrated HNO3 deactivates beryllium Reactions With only one or two exceptions the compounds of beryllium are always covalent Be X2 M BeX2 X F Cl Br I 2 Be 02 ML 2BeO Uses Alloy with copper used in aircraft engines electronics and spacecraft Alloy with nickel used in high temperature springs and spark proof equipment Moderator in nuclear reactors Windows on X ray tubes Nate Beryllium is very toxic BeCl2 is about 6 times more poisonous than NaCN by weight Also the effects may be permanent or may occur years later For example skin burns may remain open indefinitely This is truly nasty stuff This may be because it replaces Mg in some enzymes Boron Discovered Sir Humphrey Davy J L Gay Lussac and LJ Thenard in 1808 Name Borax Carbon source chemical similarity Occurrence Although boron is a rare element in nature it is concentrated in the mineral boraX also called tincal Large deposits of boraX are found in southern California and Turkey Borax N32B 4073910H20 N32 398H20 Isolation i B203 3 Mg gt 2 B 3 MgO 95 98 pure ii Electrolytic reduction of fused borates iii Reduction of volatile boron compounds by H2 Yields high purity boron 999 iv Thermal decomposition of BX3 and BnHm Cost for 1 gram 1 mole 084 908 Natural Isotopes 10B 196 11B 804 Physical and Very hard Chemical Low density Properties High melting point Very low electrical conductivity at room temperature but good at high temperature Chemically inert at room temperature except with F2 Reactions 2NaBH4 2HC1 gt 2NaC1 H2 BZH6 diborane BC13 3 H20 gt 3 HCl BOH3 boric acid BC13 NH3 A BNX arti cial diamond Uses Pyrotechnic ares green color Rocket ignitors Neutron capture in nuclear reactors 10B Antiseptic and re retardant boric acid Cleansing ux boraX Borosilicate glass Pyrex and KimaX 30 35 Arti cial diamonds BN boron nitride 93 on Moh s hardness scale Reinforcing materials boron ber composites Helium Discovered In 1868 Janssen found a new line in the solar spectrum during a solar eclipse JN Lockyer and E Frankland suggested that it arose from a new element and named it helium Sir William Ramsey first isolated helium in 1895 from a uranium containing mineral clevite Helium has the distinction of being the only element not discovered on Earth Name From the Greek word helias or ilias meaning quotthe sun because of the location of its discovery Occurrence It is the second most abundant element in the universe but one of the rarest naturally occurring elements on earth It39s only source here is radioactive decay a particle emission Earth39s gravity is too weak to retain helium so once it breaks into the atmosphere it escapes into space Isolation Distilled from natural gas up to 7 concentration Most helium is produced in the US with other plants in Poland India and the former USSR Cost of 1 gram 1 mole 014 055 Natural Isotopes 3He trace 4He 100 Physical Properties Only known substance that cannot be solidified at atmospheric pressure even at 0 K it can be solidified at higher pressure Only known substance without a triple point Has 2 liquid forms The high temperature form T gt 22 K behaves as a normal liquid Below 22 K HeII exists Under vacuum HeII evaporates but does not bubble Forms films only a few hundred atoms thick over all edges in contact with the liquid The liquid will crawl up vessel walls and out of the container to coat the entire inside of the apparatus This liquid does not appear to be subject to friction and has zero viscosity and entropy Diffuses through many common substances such as glass and rubber making long term storage difficult Colorless odorless gas Uses Provides an inert atmosphere Refrigerant or cryogenics 33 Flow gas in gas chromatography Coolant in some nuclear reactors Substitute for N2 in synthetic breathing gas for deep sea diving reduces chances of developing the bends because of low solubility in the blood Filling balloons The zero point energy the energy the molecule possesses at 0 K is large enough to overcome the intermolecular forces that are necessary for a solid to form Hydrogen Discovered Paracelsus first characterized it in the late 15th century from the reaction between iron and sulfuric acid Its discovery is credited to Henry Cavendish in 1766 although it had been isolated at as early as 1671 by Robert Boyle Name From the Greek hydra and genes meaning quotwater producer by Lavoisier Occurrence It is the most abundant element in the universe and is very abundant on Earth found in water and organic matter Isolation C3H8 g 3 H20 g A 3 C0ggt 7 H2 g A C0ltggt 120997 C02ltggt H2ltggt H20ltggt Cltsgt 4 C0ltggt H2ltggt Cost of 1 gram 1 mole 0021 042 Natural Isotopes 1H 9998 2H 002 3H trace Physical and Colorless odorless gas Chemical Flammable Properties Low solubility in most liquid solvents Lightest of all gases Becomes metallic at high pressure gt 2 megabars Uses Ammonia synthesis Haber process Hydrogenation of fats and oils Production of HCl Methanol synthesis Welding Filling balloons Fuel cells will probably consititute a major use in the future Lithium Discovered JA Arfvedson in 1817 Name From the Greek lithas meaning quotstonequot This was chosen to contrast with sodium and potassium which were originally isolated from plant matter Nate Implicit in Arfvedson39s choice of name was the observation of the chemical similarity between Li and Na K This was 50 years before the periodic table was proposed Occurrence It is relatively non abundant The most important mineral is spodumene LiAlSiZO6 with large deposits in the US Canada Brazil Argentina the former USSR Spain and Congo Isolation39 LiAlSizo we 23 LiZSO4M LiZCO3 L 2 L10 LiCl55KC145 electrolysis at 450 C produces Li metal Cost for 1 gram 1 mole 046 319 Natural Isotopes 6Li 74 7Li 926 Physical and Soft although hardest of the alkali metals Chemical Silvery in color Properties Very low density 05 gcm3 Burns crimson in ame Very electropositive Soluble in mercury amalgam and liquid ammonia Reacts directly with most other elements including N2 Highest elemental oxidation potential Reactions Only alkali metal that reacts with O2 to give the oxide 4Li 02 gt 2Li20 Only alkali metal that reacts with N2 6Li NZ gt 2Li3N Uses Anode in light weight and long life batteries Lithium stearate thickens oil into grease major use Alloy with Al used in aircraft construction Alloy with Mg used as armor plating LiOH used for C02 absorption in submarinesspace craft LiZCO3 treatment for manic depression LiClO is a bleach for commercial laundries and sanitizing swimming pools LiCl and LiBr are used as desiccants in air conditioners Magnesium Discovered It was first recognized as an element by Scottish chemist Joseph Black in 1755 Sir Humphrey Davy isolated it in 1808 Compounds were known since ancient times Name From the Magnesia district of Thessally region of eastern Greece in which magnesian stone talc was found Occurrence Common element usually found as carbonates sulfates and silicates because all are water insoluble minerals dolomite MgCaCO32 magnesite MgCO3 olivine MgFe2SiO4 soapstone talc Mg3Si4010OH2 asbestos Mg3Si205OH4 and micas Minerals are widespread Isolation a Electrolysis of MgCl2 at 750 C b 2MgO CaO FeSiLOoCgt2Mg Fe CaZSiO4 Cost for 1 gram 1 mole 016 389 Natural Isotopes 24Mg 790 25Mg 100 26Mg 110 Physical and Low density Chemical Silvery white in color Properties Very electropositive Soft Oxidation resistant Large oxidation potential Burns with a bright ame Anomalously low melting point Reactions Mg N2 A Mg3N2 Mg actually quotburnsquot in an atmosphere of pure nitrogen Only Li and Mg react directly with N2 2 Mg 02 4A 2 MgO This is the reaction that occurs in a photographic ash bulb MgClZ 2 NaOH H20 MgOH2 2 NaCl Milk ofMagnesia Chlorophyll is a magnesium containing compound Uses Construction alloys light weight useful Incendiary bombs Antacid MgOH2 Milk of Magnesia Cathartic MgSO4 Epson salts named after a town in England Grignard reagent Neon Discovered W Ramsey and MW Travers in 1898 isolated neon by the low temperature distillation of air It was identified by spectroscopic analysis of the sample Name From the Greek meaning quotnewquot Occurrence Relatively rare Majority of it is found in the atmosphere ca 1 part in 65000 but small samples are occluded in igneous rocks Abundant in the universe Isolation From the fractional distillation of air Natural Isotopes 20Ne 91 21Ne 026 22Ne 9 Cost for 1 gram 1 mole 044 871 Physical and Glows red orange in a vacuum discharge tube Chemical Low melting and boiling points Properties lnert but very limited evidence suggests that it may form a compound With F Uses Advertising signs largest use Refrigerant Lasers Sodium Discovered Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807 Name From the source element soda Na2C03 which is found in high content in a plant called Suwwad Arabic The symbol Na from Natrium comes from Neter Hebrew and Nitmm Latin which were ancient names for basic substances They became natran in 15Lh Century Europe Occurrence Widespread and plentiful in nature most common form is NaCl Utah Dead Sea oceans etc also trona NazCO3 salt peter NaNO3 mirabilite Na2S04 borax Isolation Electrolysis of NaClCaCl2 23 at 580 C Cost of 1 gram 1 mole 010 230 Natural Isotopes 23Na 100 Physical and Silvery in color Chemical Soft Properties Burns orange in ame Large oxidation potential Very electropositive Soluble in mercury Reacts directly with most elements Solutions in liquid NH3 conduct electricity Probably by Na NH3xe Dilute solutions are blue and concentrated solns are gold in color Reactions 2Na 02 gt NazO2 Uses Nate 2NaOH C02 gt NazCO3 H20 Soda ash NaOH xs CO2 gt NaHCO3 Baking Soda 4NaPb 4C2H5Cl gt PbC2H54 4NaCl 3 Pb Production of PbC2H54 anti knock gasoline additive still used in other countries Heat exchange liquid in fast breeder reactors NaOCl is used as a bleach NaHCO3 is used as baking soda an antacid in fire extinguishers as a cleaning agent and as toothpaste NaNO3 is used in fertilizer One of the primary uses of salt in the diet is in the production of HCl for your stomach The need for salt was known to the ancients Roman soldiers were issued salt during campaigns which is from where the word salary is derived Xenon Discovered W Ramsey and MW Travers in 1898 by the fractional distillation of air Name From the Greek xenas meaning quotstranger Occurrence It is 50 parts per billion in the atmosphere Isolation From fractional distillation of the air Cost of 1 gram 1 mole 289 378 Natural Isotopes 124Xe 01 126Xe 01 128Xe 19 129Xe 264 130Xe 41 131Xe 212 132Xe 269 134Xe 104 136Xe 89 Physical and Glows blue in an electric discharge Chemical lnert under normal conditions Properties Colorless odorless and tasteless gases Reactions Xe F2 4A XeFx X 2 4 or 6 XeF6 SiO2 gt XeOF4 XeOZF2 XeO3 2XeF2 2H20 gt 2Xe 4HF 02 Uses Manufacture of electron tubes stroboscopic lamps bactericidal lamps and used to excite ruby lasers for generating coherent light Bubble chambers and probes in the atomic energy field
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