Notes of March 22 and 24; Roman Republic and Empire
Notes of March 22 and 24; Roman Republic and Empire ARTH 1305
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Max Grossman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see History of Art I in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
March 22 2016 ROMAN REPUBLIC Last thing we saw was the AMPHITHEATER which could accommodate 20,000 people, it wasn’t exactly at a hill (Romans didn’t need hills specifically like Greeks, they could just construct the theaters) ATRIUM OF HOUSE OF THE VETTII It is at the Late Republic that this house is built It was damaged by the volcano eruption at Pompeii and had to be constructed again Atrium is the entrance of the house, the courtyard that receives you once entering a home Impluvium is the pool designed for gathering rain water Peristyle is the courtyard (most intimate place at the house) which was surrounded by columns Domes is home in Latin Vettii brothers were once slaves, but they were freed; they succeeded in commerce and they became wealthy out of economic market at Rome; this house is the one they built for themselves TYPICAL HOME (MODEL) Fauces is the entrance of the home Cubiculum is the room/bedroom, ordinary storage room Triclinium is the dinner room, designed for special meals A typical home was designed to be the private refugee of its owner; since Rome was a city, it was noisy and Romans really valued their private world (home) Usually entrance would be guarded with 2 slaves on the front door Much like in the godfather, home was also a place for business (you would invite your clients to negotiate) If you managed to get to the peristyle, this meant you were valued by the owner of the house because he would let you in into his private world (the more you entered, the more private it became). Most of the times the further you penetrate into the house was dependable on your status (high ranks would go further than low classes) Pater familias is defined as the father of each family. Family and clients depended on him. They would be followed by large trains of lawyers, judges, senates, etc. on their way to work Clients would be presented one at the time, higher ranks first, always dressed, they would kneel and kiss the hand of the pater familias FIRST STYLE OF PAINTING Pompeii’s paintings have survived Style 1 is for the earliest paintings, style 2 are for the painting not so old…this goes on until style 4 paintings which are the ones at the period of the volcano This painting has stoco on its surface It is painted to make the blocks look real (they are false) Surface painted with stones and marble Skill learned from Greeks DYONISIAC MYSTERY Style 2 painting Depicts god of wine and fun It is an invention of Rome Using perspective, the artist manages to depict a 3d world All 3 walls manage to create this effect by being one painting At the lap of Dyonisos there is a women and at his right there is his assistant Women used to go to the place where this painting was and have sex, ritual to marry Dionysos GARDENSCAPE Livia used to live at Primaporta before marrying Augustus (first emperor of Rome) Just like Dyonisos, this is a 3 wall painting This painting invites the viewer to participate in it Atmospheric perspective is a technique mastered by Greeks, where you paint as if it were a background (distant from the focused object of the painting) Trees in this picture are real, they all can be identified with names ROMAN EMPIRE Period in which Rome is again a monarchy; begins when Octavius (later called Augustus, first emperor of Rome) defeats Marc Anthony (Cleopatra suicides because of this). Augustus adopts Julius Caesar (his grandnephew) as his direct son. Learn JulioClaudian emperors DIFFERENT TITLES TO AUGUSTUS Augustus means the great one Imperator: control of military force Pontefex Maximus: head of state (highest) Although he had these sophisticated titles, he would always appear to the Roman people such a beloved, respected, modest, honest man; he would silence his enemies quietly. He mastered political propaganda, he would always send messages to Roman Empire of the greatness of the empire (he used coins and portraits for his propaganda). He served 2025 years at the military (which later, he managed for the army to maintain the peace [pax romana] at Rome), it was the most powerful army at the time. Barbarians: Germans, people who used to destroy piece by piece their enemies Under Augustus, Roman Empire extended widely (from Egypt to Arabia Saudi) Population was 1 to 2 million people (largest at the time) Augustus would send geologists in search for marble and would command the construction of other temples such as Capitoline (most antique of all main buildings) AUGUSTUS AS GENERAL He is seen here as the imperator (great propaganda) Portraits like this would be made and distributed to all parts in Rome giving the idea of the imperator watching you Most preserved copy Emperor intentionally depicted himself as idealized because he wanted to come back to the idea that government people are perfect and intelligent, strong and powerful; he depicts himself as a young, strong and powerful man Julius Caesar claimed to be the son of Venus; this is because Augustus converted himself in god (son of Venus as well); if the father of Julius Caesar (Augustus) is son of Venus, therefore Julius Caesar is also son of Venus In this ssculpture, he appears barefoot (like a god) and the child beside him is Cupid (son of Venus) He is subtly suggesting he is a god with these two characteristics; his arm is extended in adlocutio mode (he is addressing the audience). This can be compared to Doryphoros (similarities are not a coincidence) Cuirass was the main propaganda in this statue; he has two sphinx depicted on his shoulders (triumph over Marc Anthony and conquest over Egypt), at his torso he the four borders of Roman Empire (Spain, Gaul. Egypt, and Parthia), at the approach of his neck he has the skygod at the middle of the necklace of cuirass, below that he has dawn and dust (eternity over Augustus reign), then he has the Apollo arch (continual eternity), below this arch there is a cornucopia (prosperity and abundance); at the mere center of the cuirass we have a barbarian against a roman giving the standard to the roman general (where Rome recovered peace without a war). PAX ROMANA PONTIFEX MAXIMUS When toga is over face it means the person was about to make a sacrifice Man of faith Patera is the thing over his extended arm PORTRAIT BUST OF LIVIA Augustus had a previous marriage before marrying Livia They both had a daughter named Julia Livia raised a total of 13 kids Idealized image The artist tried to make a reference of Juno, Venus or Hera (all goddesses with great qualities made to depict Livia image) Coiffure is the hairstyle of Livia at this portrait (curls=nodus) ARA PACIS AUGUSTAE Altar inside a box structure It lasted 4 years to complete work Monumental frieze above Celebrates peace brought by Augustus Imperial family is depicted (so visitors could know you were important and belonged to an important dynasty) 4 panels separated Vergil is the greatest writer of Rome, equals Homer of Greeks Aeneas was a poem dedicated to Augustus FEMALE PERSONIFICATION Everything is growing around the woman at the center, Tellus (goddess of earth, represents prosperity and abundance, which is why everything around her grows) Babies symbols ability to procreate Tellus is telling women have to have more children At the right of Tellus, it has a sea creature and a breeze blowing to the Mediterraean; at her left, there is a bird and wind (associated with abundance) It is naturalistic image Made of solid marble Made for the message of Romans are as great as Greeks, Romans have too important intellectuals and important constructions and buildings and we too are a culture worth to know IMPERIAL FOR A From left to right at the Power Point 1. Roman forum 2. Forum 3. Forum of Augustus Julius Caesaar built his own forum but never got to finished it; Augustus finished Caesar’s forum and built his own, projecting important linage (since both are sons from Venus). Augustus temple is dedicated to Mars Utor (god of war and revenge). Greek influence of Augustus forum: eight columns at front, Corinthian temple Etruscan influence of Augustus forum: podium instead of stylobate, only one approach (frontal), and it has a wide porch Linage is projected with statues, from Venus all the way to Augustus and Caesar, it is dedicated to Mars because Augustus revenged death of Caesar (his son). In fact, the temple was dedicated to Mars, Caesar and Venus. Expensive project Carrara marble was the material used for construction of columns MAISON CARREE Corinthian at its order Pseudoperipteral is a peristyle confined with cella, with engaged columns Dedicated to imperial family and Rome Originally painted in bright colors Interesting because emperors are depicted, one characteristic you wouldn’t under any circumstance do PONT DU GARD Acueduct 13 miles long Mainly function is transport water, it served 100 g to every habitant It is selfsupported Rome had eleven acueducts in total Still functioning today Romans provided water infrastructure with their inventions Rome’s secret of the long lasting empire was the turnout of the conquered people, made them feel like they belong (gauls were proud habitants) JULIUSCLAUDIUS BUST OF NERO Face of tyranny, paranoid, disorganization, party, waste of money of Rome His parties lasted a week Spent empire’s money He was ordered to commit suicides He condemned Rome in 69 AD to a great fine, tens of thousands were homeless He built a villa at the center of Rome (golden house) Colossus was the 120 ft statue, the most expensive in human history (decorated entrance of his palace) OCTAGONAL Made of concrete Barrel vaults on the sides Upper floor didn’t survive There is a transition from octagon to circle at oculus Severus and Celer were the architects and engineers of the golden house Civil War erupts after Nero’s death; after this, there are several sucesors to Vespasian (first of Flavians who ruled for 10 years) At this era, we see a return to veristic in men, women prefer idealized images of themselves COLOSSEUM Its real name is Favian Amphitheater Named Colosseum after the Coloseus statue that is beside this building (Nero’s statue) 45 000 people accommodated here Gladiators and slaves were forced to fight to death (against themselves or sometimes against animals) Place of public executions Titus elaborated 100 days of games here Made of concrete and tufa Travetine exterior is the exterior reberted of this stone Has a basement below arena (slaves were there and also gladiators) Like any amphitheater, people were sitted by rank