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ad atters39 View Edgy amp Enlightened Literature Art amp Music in the Age of Dementia Poetry Prose q Anything Goes Reading Series kmkkmkkk Friday February 1 2008 7 9 pm KGB Bar 85 East 4 Street NYc between Bowery amp 211d A ve subway F V to 2nd A ve eXI39t f A ve amp Houston Presenting onlinejournal publisherseditors in the D6 nel 1030 1145 am Feb 15 Clinton Suite Hilton 2nd Floor abitable Ianets and IaCK oles a in the andin yber niVerseo the New Literary medi the FabuVousist RjKKi Ducornet W Rikki Ducomet author of seven novels including the prize winning GazelleTbe jade Caninet and The Fan Maeer s Inquisition In 2004 she received the Lannan Literary Award for Fiction A third collection of short fictions has been published by The Dalkey Archive Her drawings lithographs and paintings have been exhibited widely Eric Melbye publisher of Xegne and an associate professor of EnglishCreative Writing at Miami University Middletown His novel Trn has just been published by Flame Books his coeedited anthology Under Our Xein Literature of Breast Canter was published in 2006 The Illuminati Press Ionathan Penton publisher of Unliee X tories which has been publishing transgressive literature since 1998 and film music visual art cultural essays and chapbooks since 2004 He worked on Big Bridge for five years Jonathan39s own poetry chapbooks are Last Chap 2004 Blood and Xalsa and Painting Rnst 2006 and Prosthetie Gods 2008 Tamara Kaye Sellman publisher of Perijoey and the director of MRCentralnet a global network focused on magical realism Her work has appeared widely in the US Canada Mexico the UK and Malaysia most recently in Terrain The Hiss Qaarterl Long Xtog Xbort and Cantaraville II She39s received two Pushcart Prize nominations Carol Novack publishereditor ofMad Hatters Review author ofa poetry chapbook collaborative films and CD s Whatnots may or will be found in Anteriean Letters 2 7 Contnientay Fietion International First Intensiy Diagram Gargoyle LIT N otre Danie Review journal oerpq eriInental Fietion Xegne et al See her mg for furthers Charles P Ries poetry editor of Word Riot His poetry short have appeared throughout the small press and he has accumulated several Pushcart nominations Charles is a founding member of the Lake Shore Surf Club the oldest fresh water surfing club on the Great Lakes Find more at httpq wwwliteratirietg Ries reviews and stories Anmarie Trimble publisher ofBorn Magazine is an assistant professor at Portland State University where she teaches in the interdisciplinary University Studies program Previously she was editor for Second Story Interactive Studios Her poetry has appeared in Blaee Warrior Review Field Contemporag Poetg and Poetim and other publications Publications by the authors will be offered for sale by Mobile Libris Forfnrtber i7y o email madhattersreviewgmailcorn type READINGS in the subject line MAD HATTERS39 REVIEW Edgy amp Enlightened Literature Art amp Music in the Age of Dementia htt2 wwwmadhattersreviewcom KEEP THE MAD HATTERS ALIVE MAKE ATAX DEDUCTIBLE DONATION https WW I nm site contribute donate 580 Mvamv Unwevsuu 39I Imam 3 Q In mm mm Waller Havighursl a ec39nl Cumniuns Miami Unilushy Lihnxies Jams Rag Cuumiun Imam OVERVIEW OF THE COLLECTION TIde JamesReIsanllecunn Dales 196072008 Medan c mmndme newspaper Ehppmg phr ngaph maman mammal and mIscellmea Quanmy l7 cubIc a anmn Clnsed stacks COLLECTION SUMMARY PROVENANCE OF THE COLLECTION Oxfan Ohm JAMES REISSBIOGRAHPICAL INFORMATION H2 r I mum I mm mdpmssm nf R vah HI L mm ms was alsn a be leenOxntd OII andNew YnIk CIlynn aweeklybass WM WNW pastry Sam Rim Jam A m ung Alum Jam Rm Jam Rm 150a 2008 Lag www minim camAbauzhrml SCOPE AND CONTENTS OF THE COLLECTION This collection starts with correspondence and includes letters from colleagues and fellow writers which offer valuable information on writing and publishing from finding work and applying for grants to the writing process and getting published Colleagues and former students sometimes included copies of their work in their correspondence for Reiss to read over and critique while Reiss did the same with his new work Reiss also wrote and received many congratulatory letters in response to new poems or books recently published The collection also includes a large amount of correspondence from publishers whether they were rejecting accepting or soliciting work and offers information on the publishing process The correspondence also contains letters of a more personal nature including holiday cards post cards and letters to and from family These family letters covering a range of topics from visits to health and family disputes provide insight and background into Reiss s more autobiographical poems Letters from friends and colleagues sometimes contain a combination of both personal and professional matters James Reiss s correspondents include Rita Dove John Irving and Philip Schultz among many others The collection also includes correspondence and papers from Reiss s time as a Professor of English at Miami University and covers a wide range of subjects from class schedules and course loads to setting up and teaching workshops materials covered in class and the creation of a Miami University Press poetry series The bulk of the collection is made up of manuscript materials As a writer James Reiss had a specific system for filing his work Both working copies and final versions of the poems were kept in folders separated by year ranging from 19692007 Many of the poems have the corresponding month and day noted The poems both handwritten and typed were o en composed on the back of other poems student work and even correspondence The working copies together with the final versions give valuable insight into Reiss s working style as a writer Sometimes he would make several photocopies of a poem and then make changes and corrections by hand Other times he would take an entire piece of paper to simply rework a single line of a poem over and over till he got it right He would also change or repquose rejected titles Many times a line that was cut from one poem would end up in another Interspersed with the poems are journal entries and notes Many of these discuss Reiss s writing and feelings family matters daily life publishing and Reiss s career Often the journal entries served as a type of warmup or automatic writing that Reiss would use at the beginning of a writing session and can include what Reiss was hoping to accomplish with his writing and how he felt about his work The collection also includes a small amount of miscellaneous unpublished writings not included in Reiss s year by year filing system including introductions written by Reiss juvenilia short stories plays visual poetry and drawings Also included in the collection is Reiss s lineediting work on the translations from Hebrew of his estranged brother s poetry The collection contains published material as well Reviews both written by and about Reiss and articles written by and about Reiss are included within the collection along with a scrapbook of newspaper clippings collected by Reiss The collection also includes photographs consisting of family and friends colleagues book and retirement parties travel and publicity headshots The rest of the collection is made up of miscellaneous materials and includes items such as pamphlets from Mami University financial receipts and paystubs from publishers announcements writings by others the journals of Reiss s mother and father awards and plaques and even a lock of Reiss s first wife s hair ORGANIZATION OF THE COLLECTION Note for series II subseries I and II The original order of Reiss s filing system was maintained when possible For the years 1969 1983 versions of the same poem were grouped together for easier access while keeping the overall original order of the rest of the papers For the years 1984 and later Reiss had begun to group his poems together himself therefore the original order established by Reiss was maintained completely The year with which the poems and notes are labeled corresponds directly to the yearly folder in which Reiss filed the poem not necessarily when the poem was written Versions of the same poem are sometimes found in multiple years Series I Correspondence Series II Manuscript Material SubSeries I PoemsStories SubSeries II NotesJournals SubSeries III Misc Series Ill Published Material SubSeries I Tear sheetsClippings SubSeries II BooksJournals Series IV Miscellanea Series V Photographs ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION Access This collection is open under the rules and regulations of the Walter Havighurst Special Collections Marni University Libraries Preferred Citation Researchers are requested to cite the James Reiss Collection and The Walter Havighurst Special Collections Miami University Libraries in all footnote and bibliographic references Processed By Ashley Jones 2008 Property Rights The Walter Havighurst Special Collections Marni University Libraries owns the property rights to this collection Copyrights Reproduction of materials in the collection is subject to the restrictions of copyright law To use any materials not yet in the public domain the researcher must obtain permission from the copyright holder DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION Note to Researchers To request materials please note both the box and folder numbers shown below Series I Correspondence job opportunities and family reminiscences and birth announcement contacts arrangements critiques and Includes examples of Allen s work Includes letters both 1988 Rita Dove Yosef examples of Ben 5 work and copy of letter addressed to BenYosef Yosef Reiss s BenYosefs and translations BenYosef s health and death 5 poetry poem new poems copy matters Includes examples of Cox s work and letters both sent and received 1988 student 1986 essays Fox s work response Includes letter to New Yorker Magazine written by Lee asking for Reiss s address and Letter addressed to Lee written by Reiss Includes to on a copy a opportunities family writing Includes letters both written and 1998 poetry s personal matters Includes examples of Pierson s 1978 s re que st poetry matters Reiss s mother Includes letter to Cecilia written by her sister Lil 5 example of Shoemaker s work and letter addressed to Shoemaker written by 1983 Reiss some matters 0 onte st Series II Manuscript material SubSeries I PoemsStories Afric a new rooms resumes c ontents you see Meadows the Deep Free Farm house in Maine in autumn return to my someone me grew up east of Wet Blankets a woman grows up to your nose your room at counters on a anyone my was not grass never years you moment two movement seen on a years you a power movement screen mean you are 21 among uS you See a an avenue you to go a way to go a you ever sex so stare 5 years you are at moment 21 onto wall posters and housing projects as many your on parapet me years you a mosque to across a men to come to party out your on my steps even now years you Perpetrating Irregular Line sweep you your a master we retreat to as as over am a corner a sweat next room storm 5 arrangem ents S SO mean across town garage over onto an acre 21 sneeze at spasm onto screen S manners to go out a canoe no more we come we stung you on upper we saw scre en a has same first line but is substantially different mass meat your ear across garage an acre accent was SO SII39OS con poem us 0139 SO some stre et ten a man cancer put a too at Words From Our Resident should do the talking but leave it to Heather of Phil trees were s passage on my scrappy war my steps secretary m 6 ant to as our tour cottage was once a of the Film Wilight Zone everyone wants to believe in the supernatural an an orange set a vase on a to ever you my same as oman goes son goes to wore 0 get you re you want more was US ye SIS s we walk through the Great Hall with your staff card pinned to your pastry us a tworoom apartment oases a tone poem gave me my on Advent of Jim s Book every summer grew an orange an easy an acre grass gas Pump you were on cape over a grapes cypress grove creature prevent me evergreens as a root as sprang out on campus us past grew over an azure ago a and dreamed the clang of hammers chipping stone would make his summer was once years oranges corner green 0 our us Lord of Ravenna From His return to Ravenna we hired mules in a flybuzzing stable Ambassador s Assistant conquest yew tree espresso my years way someone zoo seat on top you conquest yew tree a museum you us past errace at cypress grove SO on a steep arroyo room S noon you you went to you say ve aware news accompany greasy trees was once a across saw sun east the airport said Look the Judean Hills surprised I knew their c osm onaut 0 an person a every year my poems can must some must wo notes on your tones over came to center once rose on a man too our astronauts a soggy square a man eager to not to out too way an 0V erse as can cure 0139 a tenem ent 0V ergrown once was a sage 0139 grow even ev ery enormous canoes wear to o a up to a passageway Student Asking for 332 character between the door and inner sanctum Where a gray face gazes car camera monuments me you 1396 you no room streets a young woman was to one partner are partners we a as a a what about two men on the edge of a plain speaking Zulu waiting for as was an yuno e 650 my across stage commences at raucous over groves every goose 0 you pronounce you re a the State Las Vegas New Yorker Party my up ata geese 13910 5 green gave up my spouse s from the shower when I came for my interview told me no geese no commences at raucous a COVC over groves not a never stopped crawling up and down the staircase behind your ou out to not rest a young man arm Schnabels amp Salles even black cats from back alleys saunter in went on to trounce my a s green conference room to discuss the demise of the years our opponents how could we own up to the names of our war dead canoes no ma am not one was a woman are cow eats S ICCCSS on paper over a summ er we swam a evergreen went out to near an as our SCV en Fam ous an organ a Donne s as a Young sixteenth century side street part ve penny ante for All Debts Public and crown as a ona sang sung steers appearance trees across a recess at once a s hooky thinks squeeze this trigger if I pump a dozen rounds into this name ve 13910 near an person person a paper over a can a 21 her husband of sixty years hiding behind a newspaper as a strange was oxen For All Debts poem 5 an same you use seesaw 0139 as our apartm ent aretz as our zone on an ocean towers over my as many years as partner an was never my except for one he sent me 1 years after it was mailed amp returned to s one In ata m eans our past orange som eone 011139 were SO a woman near an years a paper squares comes my your went to spaces passengers a then twice a lZguage shotgun And then he was set on sum up a even every rug to Wall at Castle Village Has sang sung of the Apostle James s aspens a press SubSeries II N otesJ ournal Entries C an express SubSeries III Miscellaneous Writings Steve Orlen Ira Dickey Hugh Seidman Elder Olson Rita Dove Robert Levy Series Ill Published Writings newspaper Series IV Miscellanea Series V Photographs What do the following sampling scenarios have in common 9 gt V According to a market research rm 52 of all residential telephone numbers in Los Angeles are unlisted A telephone sales rm uses random digit dialing equipment that dials residential numbers at random regardless of whether or not they are listed in the telephone directory The rm calls 500 numbers in Los Angeles What are the chances that at least half the numbers called are unlisted An opinion poll asks a sample of 200 adults whether they favor giving parents of schoolage children vouchers that can be exchanged for education at any public or private school of their choice Each school would be paid by the government on the basis of how many vouchers it collected Suppose in fact that 45 of the population favors this idea What is the probability that the sample indicates that a majority of the population favors the idea A production process is known to historically produce 6 defectives in the f e of an 39 39 r In quality control produced items are periodically sampled off of the production line to assess the status of the process Suppose that a random sample of 20 items are pulled off the line for inspection and that 3 of them are defective Can you confidently conclude that the process is out of control A strand of 50 Christmas tree lights is wired in series so that if one light fails the entire strand fails Each light has a probability of 002 of failing in a 3 year period Individual lights fail independently of each other What is the probability that the strand fails in the next three years Ifyou need 100 Christmas tree lights is it smarter to buy two 50light strands or one 100light strand You are taking a 10 question multiplechoice test where for each question you must choose one ofthree possible choices 70 is the minimum passing grade ie getting at least 7 of the 10 questions correct Ifyou randomly guess at each of the questions what is the chance you pass DRAFT Iran as an Emerging Market Opportunities and Threats Tagi Saga nej ad Professor of International Business Loyola College in Maryland Baltimore MD 21210 410 6172450 SAGAFINEJAD LOYOLA EDU URL httpwwwevergreenloyolaedusaga nejad Presented at the Academy of Business and Administrative Studies ABAS Budapest Hungary July 5 1998 DRAFT July 5 1998 I What are BEMs Common Characteristics Jeffrey Garten dean of the school of management at Yale and one of the best known scholars in this eld identi ed ten developing countries as critical to the world economy and to US interests He called them Big Emerging Markets a phrase coined by the State Department The socalled ABig Ten are according to Garten lt lt In the Western hemisphere Argentina Brazil and Mexico In Central EuropeEurasia Poland and Turkey In Asia India Chinese Economic Area China and Taiwan and Indonesia plus its ASEAN trading neighbors Thailand Malaysia Singapore In African South Africa Common characteristics of emerging markets according to Garten include the following Each is a powerhouse in its region by virtue of size including large population resource base and market They are bursting onto the world economy seeking economic growth market share latest technology and demanding their share of the global economic pie They are critical participants in the major political economic and social drama taking place on the world scene They are the worlds fastest expanding markets responsible for much of the explosive growth in world trade They are all trying to liberalize and rationalize their economies including balanced budgets and privatization In its World Economic Outlook of May 1997 subtitiled AGlobalization Opportunities and Challenges the International Monetary Fund measures the success of transitional econimies ie the former communist countries by threee criteria Opennes to trade credit rating and FDI per capita It presents a sobering analysis of trade liberalization integration into the world nancial system and concludes that ATransition economies face the proespect of achievingquite high growth rates providedthey persevere with policies of macreoeconimic stabilization and trsuctural reforms including opening up to the world economy Increasing trade and intemaitonal nancial ows will be essential to bring about the growth that will allow tese countries to realize their aspirations IMF 1997 p 111 And the European Uniion in its most recent round of initiatives intended to lead to a a more fully integrated European Union estabhlished the Maastrich vcriterai in 199 For its members These are lt Low in ation not to exceed the lowest three memebrs by 27 lt Low Govemmem de cit not to exceed 3 of GDP lt These are dramatic steps tough criteria dynamics and characteristics How does Iran t the description outlined above II Iran An Emerging Market In this section we brie y describe the modern history and experience of Iran with J 39 the J39 39 quot which were brought about after the Revolution and the 1 tortuous evolution toward moderation and economic rationality during the last few years a Background Iran before the revolution Irans experience with modern economic growth dates back to the 19th century The discovery of oil and the gradual spread of modernization throughout the nonWestern world had its impact on Iran Yet after World War II the economy was still primarily backward agrarian feudalistic and rural Oil revenues which flowed in ts and starts during the ensuing forty years remained the main source of foreign exchange and government revenues Five consecutive five year development plans were meant to transform Iran into an increasingly modern industrial urban and literate if not politically democratic society By the time of the revolution there had been enough interaction between Iranian economy and the rest 0 the world to create a ratchet effect Many light industries including automotive consumer goods and food processing as well as heavy industries such as steel and machine tools had begun Some of these were spearheaded by the Government under the Alead sector and Agrowth poles arguments Some were joint ventures with US European and other foreign firms The experience with technology transfer was on the whole a positive one in the sense that these technology transfer experiences created a Aratchet effectE some becoming diffused into the industrial fabric and leaving a lasting imprint Despite the positive impact the experience was not a shining example of successful international technology transfer See my article 19 and thesis 1979 b How Iran ts into the model If we were to apply the standard criteria by which one would classify a country as an emerging market to include Iran in such a group would be a major stretch c Case Studies 1 Kooroshi data 2 IDRO 3 IMI The Bonyads Imam Khomeini Petrochemical plant Mobarekeh Steel 8094 Executives attending IMI Strategic Management and Executive MBA programs 8 IAP Iran Auto Parts Mashad 111 Conclusion Propositions Irans century old eXpereince with industrialization has cumulatively resulted in an economy posed for takeoff A SWOT Analysis Strenghts past history and eXpereicne with industrialization ratchet effect human resources Large population educated lobabor force Large internal market EXisiting rms IDRO ISO9000 recipients Mobarekeh and IAP as exampples natural resources oil and gas Geographic location Betwen east and west plus Central Asia Weaknesses Lack of consensus on a development parqdigm and foreign policy Inadequate physican and communications infrastructuire Closed economy Power center not accoutable to central government AReality problem Opportunites Continued expansion of the global economy Central Asia Honeymoon popssibilities Oil revenue upswing As oil proces plummet those favoring strong govemmetn intervention distortions and the priviliedege class gain upper hand IV References Jahangir Amuzegar 1995 Irans Economy Under the Islamic Republic London and New York IB Tauris amp Co Ltd 1993 William J Baumol Richard R Nelson and Edward N Wolf editors Convergence of Productivity CrossNational Studies and Historical Evidence New York Oxford University Proess 1994 J effery Garten THE BIG TEN The Big Emerging Markets and How they will Change our Lives New York Basic Books 1997 Tagi Saga nej ad quotTechnology Transfer Pricing Practices A Statistical Case Study of Iranquot The American Asian Review Vol XI No 1 Spring 1993 pp 11242 Robert T Wade Governing the Market Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization Princeton Princeton University Press 1990 Peter Waldman ATurning Back As Economy Worsens Government Reverts to Hard Linea Wall Street Journal June 28 1994 The World Bank World Development Report I 997 Washington The World Bank 1997 The World Bank World Development Indicators I997 States and Markets CD ROM edition 1997 Tables Table Development Diamond Source World Bank World Development Indicators I 997 CDROM edition World Bank 1997 Table External Debt Source World Bank World Development Indicators 1997 CDROM edition World Bank 1997 Table Structure of Merchandise Imports Source World Bank World Development Indicators 1997 CDROM edition World Bank 1997 Table Trade Policies Source World Bank World Development Indicators 1997 CDROM edition World Bank 1997 Table Balance of Payments Data Source World Bank World Development Indicators 1997 CDROM edition World Bank 1997 DEVELOPING INDIVIDUALS ORGANIZATIONS AND SYSTEMS THROUGH PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT KEY TO SUCCESS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM Presented at The ABAS Meeting Barcelona Spain July 13 1999 By Joan Wagner Zinober PhD MBA Center for the Professions 1501 Bayshore Boulevard Tampa Florida 33606 USA Phone 813 251 7 0885 email joanzinaolcom DEVELOPING INDIVIDUALS ORGANIZATIONS AND SYSTEMS THROUGH PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT KEY TO SUCCESS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM By Joan Wagner Zinober PhD MBA Center for the Professions 1501 Bayshore Boulevard Tampa Florida 33606 USA Phone 813 251 7 0885 email joanzinaolcom The New Millennium Change and Information As we move into the new millennium we are witnessing dramatic increases in the cost of labor while simultaneously being confronted with a workforce that is woefully unprepared for the ever increasing complexity of the new world of work With the nonrstop avalanche of information and the continuously advancing technology for instantaneous dissemination of that information the rate of change is accelerating while cycle and lead times decrease Rather than waiting days or weeks for information to arrive it attacks us electronically demanding a response at what sometimes seems like blinding speed As Ryback Putting Emotional Intelligence to WorkSuccessful Leadership is More than IQ ButterworthrHeinemannWoburn Massachusetts 1998 points out In the past decision points could be measured in months if not in years Nowadays they re measured in weeks if not in days And in some sectors we have already reached decision points measured in hours or minutes Others have described this period of emergence into the new millennium as permanent white water an information explosion a rapid fire world of global competition and the eye of a cyclone In such an environment the ability to quickly and effectively modify behavior based on feedback and situational demands is critical for effectiveness This is indeed the essence of learning 7 at the individual the organizational and the system levels And in the new millennium it may well be a critical variable that distinguishes between success and failure 21St Century Success Reguires Learning Unlearning and Relearning Futurist Alvin Toffler said The illiterate of the 21St century will not be those who can not read or write but those who can not learn unlearn and relearn In a multir national environment such issues of learning unlearning and relearning may surface as often as one travels from one company office to another or meets colleagues customers or clients from other countries or backgrounds To use a fairly simple example of the need for rapid adaptation in something as simple as greeting people in one day you could be shaking hands greeting an American greeting a Paraguayan with an embrace greeting a Japanese colleague with a bow kissing a Belgian client on the cheek 3 times and saying Shalom to an Israeli In each situation performing the effective behavior required dropping an old behavior and performing a new one In a high tech information economy there is a great need for skilled workers who are willing to stay with the company and to continue to learn unlearn and relearn in order to remain state of the art or even to keep pace with whatever industry they are in Like other countries the American economy is in need of highly skilled workers Yet many of those looking forjobs do not have the requisite skills American corporations have found that many college graduates simply do not have the basic skills for thejobs being offered Competition for the best and the brightest is keen To compound the problem loyalty both from company to employee and Vice versa has become an endangered species if not totally extinct As a result companies that invest huge amounts of money and resources to train workers not infrequently find they have trained them to move on to biggerjobs and better salaries at other organizations And workers who have devoted many years to a company may suddenly find themselves laid off when the company decides to downsize Study after study has shown that many of the key organizational characteristics that engender employee support productivity retention and loyalty are those that promote individual as well as organizational growth and development Becoming a Worthy Organization Attracting and Retaining the Workforce Needed for the 21St Century by Miller FA Katz J and Gans R OD Practitioner Vol 30 No 3 1998 Yet despite this while American businesses spend a great deal of money on training for the most part our organizations do not do an effectivejob of optimizing their human capital One of the major reasons for this is that individuals organizations and systems are frequently not managed in a way that leads to a continuous cycle of growth and development Training is often not targeted to systematically identified individual or even organizational needs and feedback if given at all is not done in a way that encourages appropriate modification of behavior It is difficult to imagine how individuals organizations or systems could successfully negotiate the challenging cycle of learning unlearning and relearning absent feedback Would you trust the pilot of the plane carrying your entire family if hisher training had been limited to reading a book about how to fly a plane The book knowledge might be there but the invaluable learning andjudgement that comes from doing and receiving feedback would be missing Would you choose to entrust your entire family to a plane that had no navigational feedback instruments Clearly the ability to reach a goal requires among other things clear and consistent feedback The increasing use of electronic communication has not only not decreased the need for feedback but it has made it more important than ever While electronic communication may be rapid and may seem much more efficient when offices companies and individuals communicate electronically and by this I mean primarily ermail something is always missing 7 affect An electronic communication that is absent voice and body language cues is simply not a substitute for being there And even if you are using voice mail and videoconferencing employee satisfaction and the quality of worklife are too easy to mask from a distance Numerous studies have shown that organizations with high employee satisfaction and high quality of life outperform those where employees are unhappy Relationships are often a large 2 component of quality of worklife but as workers become more physically remote from one another and are tied together only through technology building and maintaining quality relationships becomes more difficult What s Wrong with Performance Appraisal In some industries feedback to the worker is relatively quick A waiter in a restaurant gets a good tip or a bad tip A performer gets a standing ovation or polite brief unenthusiastic applause A person hired to make telephone sales either makes her daily quota or doesn t However in all these cases while feedback was present it may not have been useful because it wasn t focused and therefore could not suggest the direction if change in behavior That is it said you did well or You did poorly but did not tell the worker what part of the behavior was desirable and what was not or why In addition to the worker the organization needs feedback in order to grow develop and manage its people well For example if the restaurant owner did not receive complaints she might not know she had a poor waiter who was getting bad tips If the owner did know then perhaps the waiter could be trained and developed so as to create a success story rather than a cycle of repeated demoralizing failures Many people equate feedback with performance appraisal There has been much debate in the literature on the relative merits of performance appraisal Deming lists evaluation of performance merit rating and annual review as one of his Seven Deadly Sins Unfortunately many of those who attempt to provide feedback do so in the format of an annual performance appraisal rather than as an ongoing developmental tool In most work environments feedback to workers supervisors CEO s or the organization itself is neither immediate nor constructive The lack of a good feedback system makes it much more difficult to optimize performance and productivity Generally traditional performance appraisal has not been done in a way that has been optimally helpful Some of the arguments against traditional performance appraisal and some of the reasons performance appraisal systems fail are a If financial rewards are related to the evaluation dishonesty and game playing can be expected b Performance appraisal as traditionally used encourages people to use the system rather than to work with it or try to improve it or themselves c Performance appraisal is often a onetime event with little or no followrup therefore resulting in little or no positive change d When multiple evaluators evaluate different people it is very difficult to ensure they are using the same standards thereby creating inequities and inconsistencies This can make those being evaluated feel resentful By itself performance appraisal is a tool that looks backwards rather than forward Therefore it may not address ways of improving behavior but rather may focus on the negatives of behavior without helping people to move toward positive behavior D V f Lack of training of those doing the evaluation may lead to inaccurate evaluations delivered in an insensitive manner Inaccurate evaluations are obviously not helpful and insensitively handled evaluations may hurt or anger people causing them to negate the potentially useful feedback It could also cause them to quit to engage in behavior designed to sabotage the supervisor or the organization or in the US at least to file a law suit The system is perceived as punitive rather than as growth enhancing The system is perceived as unfair since what is evaluated is not related to necessary critical skills for thejob or to the expressed values of the organization 3 19 It is therefore little wonder that performance appraisal is one of those things that many employees supervisors and organizations avoid On those occasions and in those places where it is used its inappropriate use often has the opposite effect for which it was designed That is rather than motivate people and encourage positive productive behavior poorly conceived or executed performance appraisal systems often demoralize and dermotivate ln organizations where there is not a systematic constructive approach to the management of performance it is not unusual for supervisors to be found artificially inflating performance appraisal scores Some of the reasons for this are a Untrained supervisors often would rather avoid conflict than deal with it b EmpathySympathy for employees personal problems c To promote a poor employee up amp out 7 that is they hope a really good evaluation may result in a promotion causing the employee to no longer work in that department and freeing the supervisor from having to deal with the problem employee d To encourage an employee who performed poorly at beginning of year but improved This encourages people to do whatever they want throughout the year but then to be on their best behavior during the month preceding the evaluation e To attempt to ensure the boss unit receives high raisesbonuses amp looks good to the rest of the company f To assure subordinates get as big a share of the pie as possible so they are contented and do not cause problems for the supervisor g To avoid letting others know that there are problems in the unitdepartment 7 after all if everyone gets a good rating they figure others will decide the unit must be operating well The association between performance appraisal and feedback can create a situation where the capacity of the individual and the organization to learn unlearn and relearn has beenjeopardized Yet even the greatest detractors of performance appraisal would be likely to agree that feedback when delivered in a timely and effective manner is an essential part of real learning and development Feedback Used Correctly Is a Powerful Success Agent Survival and success for individuals organizations and systems is directly related to the ability to learn unlearn and relearn 7 what I will refer to as adaptive growth and development Achieving such adaptive growth and development requires a number of things first and foremost of which is feedback and the ability to react to it in productive ways Despite the potential problems with performance appraisal systems gone awry if feedback is essential for growth and development it seems somewhat selfrdestructive for individuals and organizations to avoid the practice of feedback just because they have had a negative experience with performance appraisal The most usefulhelpful feedback systems are those where the behaviors and results being evaluated are directly tied to the values and goals of the organization This means that for performance appraisal to be optimally effective the organization must first have a clear knowledge of its values and goals and be able to articulate them in a way that makes them easily understood and appreciated across all levels of employees Over time organizations tend to get whatever behaviors they reward For example the organization may articulate that it values competence teamwork and customer and service but when raises and bonuses are awarded they are based on individual sales alone Eventually regardless of the organization s rhetoric this type of reward pattern could actually discourage the very behavior desired The organization could end up with employees who compete rather than collaborate with each other and who are willing to victimize customers in order to make a sale In such an environment ultimately the poor client service the lack of teamwork andor the unpleasant work environment will come back to hurt the organization Although performance feedback is important and valuable it does not ensure that everyone in the organization will be a top performer Even when well designed and executed performance appraisal alone can not be optimally effective unless it is combined with performance management About Performance quot Performance management is the application of performance feedback and other behavior modification techniques to shape behavior in desired directions It includes coaching mentoring feedback positive reinforcement role modeling counseling recognitionrewards for top performance incentives AND performance appraisal Unlike performance appraisal however which is episodic effective performance management is ongoing and continuous Kathleen Guinn in a 1987 article in TRAINING Magazine Performance ManagementNot Just An Annual Appraisal compared performance appraisal and performance management 7 The difference between the two is analogous to two different but equally important activities in the world of business and finance financial management and the annual audit The annual audit benefits managers by providing a snapshot of its financial situation that can be studied analyzed and evaluated However the audit itself is not part of the daily process of managing the organization s financial performance Thus performance management is an ongoing year7round process one part of which is performance appraisal With the audit analogy in mind it is easy to understand why an annual appraisal is not by itself likely to substantially modify behavior on an ongoing basis Altering long7standing behavior patterns and entrenched habits is difficult work It does not flow automatically from the fact that feedback has been given People need help in unlearning old behaviors that have become an integral part of how they do things They also need help in learning new skills and behaviors that will make them optimally effective performers Feedback ie appraisal is only a beginning 7 the rest of growing an optimally effective performer lies in performance management Ten years after Guinn s article appeared in TRAINING Magazine Monci Williams published an article in The Harvard Management Update February 1997 entitled Performance Appraisal is Dead Long Live Performance Management Reaffirming the position taken by Guinn ten years earlier he added In leading edge systems companies don t just talk about lofty missions or strategic aims They define the specific behaviors that embody these goals communicate them to employees and appraise their performance on those behaviors appraisal is not the end but a kind of beginning Williams goes on to explain that improving employee performance and hence corporate performance involves a two way process that is ongoing and includes feedback coaching goal7setting planned development and training and identification of both individual and workforce skill deficits Leading edge companiesfirms don t just train and develop to meet present needs 7 they anticipate what skills will be needed in the future and begin to develop them now i Some Kevs To Iiirrpssful Performance Feedback Just as it would not be reasonable to expect to get to a particular location if the pilot or captain of the ship had no navigational information it is not reasonable to expect a person to develop in any particular direction absent performance feedback However feedback in the form of an annual appraisal simply won t cut it any more than a single reading of the instrument panel at any one point in time could effectively enable a pilot to fly from New York to Los Angeles Feedback is needed at many points along the way and is especially valuable when one is veering off course Clarifying Expectations 7 Most people want to do a goodjob Generally if a good hire has been made the person has the ability to do thejob well So why then are supervisors so often disappointed in the performance of their subordinates One 6 reason is that many supervisors fail to adequately communicate what a goodjob looks like and make the assumption that somehow the subordinate does and should know such things Often this is an erroneous assumption Whenever an assignment is given especially to a new or relatively new employee it should come with a full set of clearly articulated expectations as to the nature of the desired product time frames and instructions on what to do if the assignment is not going well or is injeopardy of being late or poorly done Expectations communicated should be high enough to be motivating but not so high as to be demoralizing RecognitionRewards 7 As any Psychology 101 student knows behaviors that are rewarded tend to be repeated and those that are either punished or ignored tend to drop out of a person s repertoire It follows then that organizations need to be especially careful to recognize and reward those behaviors that are consistent with organizational values and goals Similarly those behaviors that are inconsistent with the organization s values or impede progress toward organizational goals should be punished or ignored but certainly not rewarded Focus On Behavior Not Personalities 7 From time to time almost all employees will need to be given some negative feedback In doing so it is important to preserve the employee s self esteem and motivation It is the behavior that is bad not the employee A person can do something badly or inappropriately and still be a good person A dumb behavior does not a dumb employee make If the manager and others start thinking of the employee as stupid and treating him as such the self7 fulfilling prophesy is likely to take over as self7confidence is eroded and defensive behavior is initiated Expect Excellence And Communicate To Others That You Have Confidence In Them The Self7fulfilling prophesy can generate positive behaviorjust as it can generate negative behavior When people are self7confident and know that their managers and supervisors believe in them and trust them to do an excellentjob they generally rise to the occasion Coaching and Developing Others 7 Effective coaching is an ongoing process whereby the person being coached not only learns new skills and becomes more effective but also gains the ability to further develop himselfherself in the absence of the coach A good coach will also assist in creating a learning environment 7 one where the person being coached is given the resources necessary to enhance hisher skills where intelligent and responsible risk7taking is notjust tolerated but encouraged where barriers to self7improvement are eliminated and wherejob assignments are designed to create a learning experience The literature of emotional intelligence as presented by such authors as Daniel Goleman David Ryback Hendrie Weisinger as well as the writings of Stephen Covey are replete with references to the need to listen understand empathize and be able to see things from the perspective of others As Covey says lfl were to summarize the single most important principle I have learned in the field of interpersonal 7 relations it would be this Seek first to understand then to be understood The 7 Habits of Highly Effective PeoplezPowerful Lessons in Personal Change Simon and Shuster Inc New York 1989 For example you are unlikely to be able to meet the needs of your customers your subordinates your colleagues or your bosses if you have not listened to them enough to know what they are Daniel Goleman author of Emotional Intelligence Why it Can Matter More than IQ Bantam BookszNew York 1997and Working with Emotional Intelligence Bantam BookszNew York 1998 points out In its original sense in systems theory feedback meant the exchange of data about how one part of a system is working with the understanding that one part affects all others in the system so that any part heading off course could be changed for the better In a company everyone is part of the system and so feedback is the lifeblood of the organization 7 the exchange of information that lets people know if thejob they are doing is going well or needs to be finertuned upgraded or redirected entirely Without feedback people are in the dark they have no idea how they stand with their boss with their peers or in terms of what is expected of them and any problems will only get worse as time passes Similarly without feedback organizations and systems are operating like unguided missiles Like individuals organizations can benefit from feedback from their employees their customers and even their suppliers Key indicators that are reviewed on a regular basis can be helpful as can surveys of staff and customers Like with individuals the areas in which feedback is sought should be related to the goals and values of the organization For individuals feedback should also be clearly related to the individual s goals and the demand characteristics of thejob itself Guidelines for Delivering Feedback It seems logical that the greater the amount and rate of change the greater the need for feedback Yesterday s feedback and information may no longer be useful when the rules of the playing field have changed and the nature of the behaviors needed for success has been altered Some guidelines adapted and extended from the work of Harry Levinson of the Levinson Institute at Harvard for the nature and delivery of feedback whether to individuals organizations or systems are 1 Feedback should be specific General feedback does not help a person know what or how to change to be more effective Telling people they did a badjob is demoralizing and not instructive The same logic holds true for praise In order for someone to intentionally repeat a good behavior heshe needs to knowjust what that behavior is To avoid repeating negative behaviors the person must understandjust what the negative behavior is that should be altered J Good feedback does not just pose a problem but also offers a solution or an approach to rectifying the problem behavior A discussion of alternative possible solutions may be in order if the person organization or system had not been aware of the relevant deficiencies or had not previously considered alternative ways of doing things in this area 3 Feedback should occur in a time frame proximate to the event or behavior under consideration Long time delays between the event and the feedback tend to dilute any positive impact the feedback might have To have a significant impact on performance feedback should occur regularly and not be an isolate event occurring one to four times a year on a predetermined schedule 4 ldeally feedback Whether positive or negative should be given face to face and in private Such communication via email voicermail or memos makes it difficult for the recipient to get clarification or to ask questions It also makes the feedback seem impersonal and by so doing may either dilute its impact or alienate the receiver of the feedback 5 Feedback should be delivered with empathy and sensitivity It is important to remember that the goal of the feedback is to positively impact behavior and to help the individual the organization or the system grow and develop Feedback delivered in a hostile negative or uncaring manner is likely to generate resentment and hostility As Monci J Williams Performance Appraisal is Dead Long Live Performance Management Harvard Management Update February 1997 points out Companies achieve results not by poring over numbers but by poring over the people who do the things that make the numbers What they are JOAN WAGNER ZINOBER Blh Joan Zinober holds a PhD in Psychology and a Masters in Business Administration A licensed Eychologis he has serEkl on the Etulty oCEEEdl liErsityDthe EliErsity OED outh lBrida andlBrida D tate EliErsity A consultant and management trainer Br oEr eighteen yearsD she has had Hem ranging eEErience in management leadershiDdeElthent training and organiEation deElthent D he series as a Board Member oDthe D ociety oElPsychologists in Management s a member oEEe American and lBrida Psychological Associations and is an Associate Member ODE American Bar Association D ABAD AdditionallyElshe seiEtl on ABAD s Practice Management dershiDActiE ies Board and E M ce An eEErienced author and editor she has serEtl as com editor oDDEe ltering D Bills lletter and is currently coElzditor oKthe D Practice DeElthent and MarD eting mettedBEthe Practice Management Election oDLhe ABA D he is also a member oEthe lBrida BarD s ProEssional Dtres ality ODE EmmitteeEEe urist Emmittee oDthe Mractice Management Election o lhe ABA andEe ED El er Dr Zinober has designed and conducted 5er shoE Br managers and suElrEEorsD administratorngoErnment em yeelea rstoctorsDand business Ebll on leadershiD communicationthiringllonlElct managementfn notiEl ing em yeesEmEbE g management and suErEEory sD illstanaging in a changing enElonment and Er rmance aJE aisal D he has Eb illed oneD onEbne EEdbacEnd deElthent to managers and em ecutiEs D n her Edlii lh clientsthe has conducted Ebb analysesDEthten D ob descri ons and designed Er rmance eEluation systems Dr Zinober has Etilitated Dinning and team building retreats As an organiEation deElthent consultan he has deEloEkl and im mented numerous instruments to assess clien dIllstomer satisEttionDmanagementEladershiDsD illsDemlElyee satisEctionD arm Dice e acy nd ser e eEbtiEhess Dr Zinober has serEtl as a consultant to the Etional D nstitute oEMental EalthEto the DD DeErtment oEEalth and Bman D erEBesBlo businesses and goErnmental agenciesBlo hos lals and health care deliEry organiD ationsDand to laEHIlmsDaccounting lms and medical Eactices She has been adEhnct Etulty Br El Ehter Br EatiE tdershiD s EldershiKDeElthent Program er hg as a stalZilndiEleual EEdbacQErD Additionallsthe has edited a boo nd Elblished numerous articles in medical management EburnalsEllegal management Eburnals agaD ines ElettersBlccounting management D ournals and other EbEssional D ournals Dhe receiEtl ABA Wractice Management D ection recognition Br outstanding Elting Elr articles address Erious asElcts oEleadershiDD uality oDiE and human relations in EbEssional Eactices and include such Eried toEBs as Eactice goErnanceD Er rmance aJEaisal and deElthen loachingEresolEElg con IlctsRlient satisEttion surElysD managing and motiEting em yees he Elue oDEactice retreatsEhiring and selecting emlElyees and EbEssionalsEleading and managing in a changing en onment and loyalty D he has been Duoted by other authors on toms such as hiring a Eactice administratorDlnanagement by KID ing aroundDErErmance alflaisal and the imBrtance oElalues clariEBation Eth training and 10 eEErience in both Eychology and businessBshe brings a uniD ue set oDsD ills to the Ebcess OD organiEational assessment and diagnosis Dr Zinober is President OKEhter Br the ProEssionsEh consulting Him in nrida HE A that sEtialiD es in organiEhtional diagnosisD Er rmance aJEaisaID team buildingD leadershii anagement consulting and training nter Br hiring motionEand Ersonal EEdbach indi i ual managersEleadersDand eD ecutiEs D he may be reached at Mayshore BouleErdf nE EridaD mm A oneD Um I SIZED mailDIEban nEoLcom n J39 in Performance quot Perfnrmanre Annraisal AC Croft Inc Effective Performance Appraisals Made Easy Costa Mesa AC Croft Inc 1989 714 75171883 Alexander Hamilton Institute Performance Appraisals The Latest Legal Nightmare Revised Edition Maywood NJ Alexander Hamilton Institute 1989 800 TRYr AHIl American Compensation Association quotSelected References Competenciesquot ACA Journal Summer 1996 pp 78783 American Compensation Association quotThe Role of Competencies in an Integrated HR Strategyquot ACA Journal Summer 1996 pp 6721 American Society for Training and Development quotCoaching and Feedbackquot Infor Line June 1990 Baird Lloyd and Beatty Richard and Schneier Craig Eric The Performance Appraisal Sourcebook Amherst Human Resource Development Press 1982 413 25373488 Baird Lloyd and Beatty Richard and Schneier Craig Eric The Performance Management Sourcebook Amherst Human Resource Development Press 1987 413 25373488 Beckner D HighhouseS and JT Hazer quotEffects of Upward Accountability and Rating Purpose on PeerrRater Inflation and Delay A Field Experimentquot Journal of Organizational Behavior 19 pp209r214 1998 Benedict ME and EL Levine quotDelay and Distortion Tacit Influences on Performance Appraisal Effectivenessquot Journal of Applied Psychology 73 pp507r 5 14 1988 Brennan E James Performance Management Workbook Englewood Cliffs NJ Prentice Hall 1989 Bretz R G Mildovich and W Read quotThe Current State of Performance Appraisal Research and Practice Concerns Directions and Implicationsquot Journal of Management 18 no2 1992 pp 321352 Bruns William JJr Performance Measurement Evaluation and Incentives Boston Harvard Business School Press 1992 617 49576700 Byham William C quotAssessment Centers for Spotting Future Managersquot Harvard Business Review JulyAugust 1970 pp 20734 12 Carroll SJ and CE Schneir Performance Appraisal and Review Systems The Indentification Measurement and Development of Performance in Organizations Glenview IL Scott Foresman 1982 Carson KP L Cardy and GH Dobbins quotPerformance Appraisal as Effective Management or Deadly Management Two Initial Empirical Investigationsquot Group and Organizational Studies 16 no2 1991 pp 143159 Cleveland JN KR Murphy and RE Williams quotMultiple Uses of Performance Appraisalquot Journal of Applied Psychology 74 no1 1989 pp 130135 Daniels Aubrey C PhD and Theodire A Rosen PhD Performance Management Improving Quality and Productivity Through Positive Reinforcement Tucker GAPerformance Management Publications 1986 404 49375080 Drucker P H Smiddy and RG Greenwood quotManagement by Objectivesquot Academy of Management 6 no 1 1981 pp 6720 Dubois David D PhD CompetencyrBased Performance Improvement A Strategy for Organizational Change Amherst HRD Press 1993 Engelmann Curtis H and Robert C Roesch Managing Individual Performance Scottsdale American Compensation Association 1996 602 95179191 Greenberg J quotDeterminants of Perceived Fairness of Performance Evaluationsquot Journal of Applied Psychology 71 no2 1986 pp 340342 Grote Dick The Complete Guide To Performance Appraisal New York AMACOM 1996 Hall JL BZ Posner and JW Harder quotPerformance Appraisal Systems Matching Practice with Theoryquot Group and Organization Studies 14 no 1 1989 pp 517 69 Harvard Business Review Appraising Performance Appraisal Boston Harvard Business Review 1991 617 49576192 Kirkpatrick Donald L How to Improve Performance Through Appraisal and Coaching New York AMACOM 1982 Lee Chris quotPerformance Appraisal Can We 39Manage39 Away the Cursequot Training May 1996 pp 44759 Longenecker Clinton O and Frederick R Post quotEffective and Legally Defensible Performance Appraisalsquot Journal of Compensation and Benefits MayJune 1996 pp 41746 Lublin Joann S quotIt39s ShaperUp Time for Performance Reviewsquot Wall Street Journal October 3 1994 pp B1B12 Middlebrook John F quotHow To Manage Individual Performancequot Training amp Development September 1996 pp 45748 Nichols Fred quotDon39t Redesign Your Company39s Performance Appraisal System Scrap ltlquot Corporate University Review MayJune 1997 pp54759 Ricciardi Philip quotSimplify Your Approach to Performance Measurementquot HR Magazine March 1996 pp 987106 Sashkin M quotAppraising Appraisal Ten Lessons From Research for Practicequot Organizational Dynamics 9 no3 pp 37750 1981 Schaffer Robert H quotDemand better Results and Get Themquot Harvard Business Review MarchApril 1991 pp 142149 Schaffer Robert H and Harvey A Thomson quotSuccessful Change Programs Begin With Resultsquot Harvard Business Review JanuaryFebruary 1992 pp80789 Schneier Craig Eric The Performance Measurement Management and Appraisal Sourcebook Amherst Human Resource Development Press 1990 413 2537 3488 Smither James W Performance Appraisal State of the Art in Practice San Francisco JosseyrBass 1998415 43371740 Selected References quotPerformance Appraisal and Compensation Managementquot ACA Journal Summer 1994 pp 90793 A comprehensive listing of articles relating to performance management Society for Human Resource Management Performance Appraisals A Collection of Samples Second Edition Alexandria SHRM 1996 Swan William S PhD How to do a Superior Performance Appraisal New York John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1991 Teal Thomas quotThe Human Side of Managementquot Harvard Business Review Novembeerecember 1996 pp 3544 Thompson Paul H and Gene W Dalton quotPerformance Appraisal Managers Bewarequot Harvard Business Review JanuaryFebruary 1970 pp 9098 Training Magazine Motivating and Managing Performance Minneapolis Lakewood Books 1990 612 33370471 WaldmanD quotImprove Performance by Appraisalquot Human Resources Magazine pp66r69 July 1990 WaldmanD and S Graves quotProcess Performance Appraisal Systems A Working Substitute to Individual Performance Appraisalquot Total Quality Management 5 1919267280 1994 Weiss Tracey B PhD and Franklin Hartle Performance Management Breakthroughs in Achieving Strategy Through People Boca Raton St Lucie Press 1997 561 99470555 Willyerd Karie A quotBalancing Your Evaluation Actquot Training March 1997 pp 527 58 Wyatt Data Services Exhibit Book of Performance Management Programs Rochelle Park ECS 1993 Performance Measures AmacomManaging Team Performance Evaluation Measurement Rewards New YorkAMACOM 1997 Austin Robert D Measuring and Managing Performance in Organizations New York Dorset House 1996 800 34276657 Baird Lloyd and Beatty Richard and Schneier Craig Eric The Productivity Sourcebook Amherst Human Resource Development Press 1987 413 2537 3488 Benson Carolyn Vogel quotMeasuring Performancequot American Academy of Physician Assistants April 15 1997 pp 17 Brannick Michael T Team Performance Assessment and Measurement Theory Methods and Applications Hillsdale NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc 1997 201 66674 1 10 Brown Mark Graham Keeping Score Using the Right Metrics to Drive World Class Performance New York Quality Resources 1996 800 24778519 Case John quotOpening the Booksquot Harvard Business Review MarchApril 1997 pp 1 18712 7 Cheatham David W and James S Hillgren PhD Understanding Performance Measures Scottsdale American Compensation Association 1996 602 9517 9191 Cross Kelvin F and Richard Lynch Measure Up Yardsticks for Continuous Improvement Cambridge Blackwell 1991 Dixon J Robb Alfred J Nanni and Thomas E Vollman The New Performance Challenge Measuring Operations for WorldrClass Competition Homewood IL Dow Joneerrwin 1990 Eccles Robert G quotThe Performance Measurement Manifestoquot Harvard Business Review JanuaryFebruary 1991 pp 137 Halachmi A quotFrom Performance Appraisal to Performance Targetingquot Public Personnel Management 22 no2 1986 pp 323344 Halloran Michael J quotCEO Compensation and Performance Measurementquot American Compensation Association 1997 pp 82785 Hamson Ned quotTo Measure or Not to Measurequot Association for Quality and Participation NovDec 1997 pp 38745 Harbour Jerry L PhD The Basics of Performance Measurement New York Quality Resources 1997 800 24778519 Hayes Bob E Measuring Customer Satisfaction Milwaukee ASQC Quality Press 1992 Holloway Jacky Performance Measurement and Evaluation London Sage Publishing 1995 Kaplan Robert S and David P Norton The Balanced Scorecard Boston Harvard Business School Press 1996 617 49576700 Kaufman Roger Guidebook for Performance Improvement Working With Individuals amp Organizations San Francisco Jossey Bass 1996 Kinlaw Dennis C Continuous Improvement and Measurement for Total Quality A Team Based Approach San Diego Pfeiffer amp Company 1992 Landy Frank Performance Measurement and Theory Hillsdale NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc 1983 201 66674110 Marquardt Eric P quotAligning Strategy and Performance with the Balanced Scorecard An Interview with David P Norton PhDquot ACA Journal Autumn 1997 pp 18727 Maskell Brian H Performance Measurement for World Class Manufacturing CambridgeProductivity Press Inc 1 991 617 49775146 16 McKonkie ML quotA Clarification of the Goal Setting and Appraisal Processes in MBOquot Academy of Management Review 4 no 1 pp 29740 1979 Phillips Jack J Handbook of Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods Improving Human Performance Series Houston Gulf Publishing 1997 Plachy Roger J and Sandra J Resulterriented Job Descriptions New York AMACOM 1993 Roach Stephen quotThe Hollow Ring of the Productivity Revivalquot Harvard Business Review Novembeerecember 1996 pp 81789 Sloma Richard S How To Measure Managerial Performance New York Macmillan 1980 The Montague Institute quot12 Ways To Measure Intellectual Capitalquot Training amp Development December 1997 p27 Team Performance ManagementPerformance Appraisal Abernathy William quotBalanced Scorecards Make Teamwork a Realityquot Association for Quality and Participation NovDec 1997 pp 58759 American Compensation Association Broadcast Series Team Based Performance Management ACA 1996 602 95179191 Chang Richard Y Gloria E Bader and Audrey E Bloom Measuring Team Performance lrvine CARichard Chang Associates Inc 1994 714 75678096 Drexler Allan B and Russ Forrester quotTeamworkrNot Necessarily the Answerquot HR Magazine January 1998 pp 55758 Fischetti Mark quotTeam Doctors Report to ERquot Fast Company FebMarch 1998 pp 170177 Harvard Business Review Making Teams Work Boston Harvard Business Review product 49535 617 49671449 Katzenbach Jon R quotThe Myth of the Top Management Teamquot Harvard Business Review NovemberDecember 1997 pp83791Holpp Lawrence quotTeams It39s All in the Planningquot Training and Development April 1997 pp 4447 Meyer Christopher quotHow the Right Measures Help Teams Excelquot Harvard Business Review MayJune 1994 pp 957103 Mohrman Allan M Jr Susan ResnickrWest and Edward E Lawler Ill Designing Performance Appraisal Systems San Francisco JosseyrBass 1989 17 Neuborne Ellen quotWhy Teams Fail Companies Save but Workers Payquot USA Today February 25 1997 pp 1B72B Plachy Roger J and Sandra J Performance Management Getting Results from Your Performance Planning and Appraisal System New York AMACOM 1988 Townsend Anthony M Samuel M DeMarie and Anthony R Hendrickson quotAre You Ready for Virtual Teamsquot HRMagazine September 1996 pp 123126 Vines Linda Stockman quotMake Lonngerm Temporary Workers Part of the Teamquot HRMagazine April 1997 pp 6570 Pay for PerformanceCompensation Barry John W and Porter Henry Effective Sales Incentive Compensation New York McGraw Hill 1983 Belcher John G Jr Resulterriented Variable Pay System New York AMACOM 1996 Cameron Judy PhD and W David Pierce PhD quotRewards Interest and Performance An Evaluation of Experimental Findingsquot ACA Journal Winter 1997 pp 6715 Chingos Peter T Paying for Performance A Guide to Compensation Management Wiley 1997 Gleckman Howard quotBonus Pay Buzzword or Bonanzaquot Business Week November 14 1994 pp 62764 Green Robert PhD quotEffective Variable Compensation Plansquot ACA Journal Spring 1997 pp 3239 Gross Steven E and Jacqueline L Johnson quotIntegrating Pay and HR Management for Maximum Team Performance at Unisysquot ACA Journal Summer 1997 pp 66775 Lawler Edward E 111 PhD quotPaying People Not Jobs Reward Systems in the New Logic Corporationquot ACA News May 1997 pp 24726 Lawler Edward E III Strategic Pay Aligning Organizational Strategies and Pay Systems San Francisco JosseyrBass 1990 Laymon R Glenn quotBuilding a Business Focus Through CompetencyrBased Payquot Journal of Compensation and Benefits JulyAugust 1996 pp 34739 LeBlanc Peter quotMass Customization A Rewards Mosaic for the Futurequot ACA Journal Spring 1997 pp 16731 McCoy Thomas J Compensation and Motivation Maximizing Employee Performance With Behavioraerased Incentive Plans New York AMACOM 1992 Prince JB and E Lawler III quotDoes Salary Discussion Hurt the Developmental Performance Appraisalquot Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 37 no3 pp 357375 1986 Schuster Jay R and Patricia K Zingheim The New Pay Linking Employee and Organizational Performance New York Lexington Books 1992 Sibson Robert Compensation New York AMACOM 1990 Tudor Thomas r Robert R Trumble and Lamont A Flowers quotPerformance Appraisals and PayrforrPerformance Plansquot Journal of Compensation and Benefits NovemberDecember 1996 pp 4146 Wilson Thomas B Innovative Reward Systems for the Changing Workplace New York McGraw Hill 1995 Rewards and Recognition Coletti Jerome A and Mary S Fiss quotRewards Practices for Customer Teamsquot ACA Journal Autumn 1996 pp 22730 Deeprose Donna How To Recognize and Reward Employees New York AMACOM 1994 DeMatteo Jacquelyn Michael C Rush Eric Sundstrom Lillian T Eby quotFactors Related to the Successful Implementation of TeamrBased Rewardsquot ACA Journal Winter 1997 pp 16727 Heneman Robert and Courtney von Hippel Don Eskew David Greenberger quotAlternative Rewards in Unionized Environmentsquot ACA Journal Summer 1997 pp 42755 Kerr Steven Ultimate Rewards What Really Motivates People To Achieve Boston Harvard Business School Press 1997 Nelson Bob quotDoes One Reward Fit Allquot Workforce February 1997 pp 67770 Nelson Bob 1001 Ways To Reward Employees New York Workman Publishing Company Inc 1994 Team Compensation Gedvilas Cathy quotRecognizing and Rewarding Team Performance at Motorolaquot American Compensation Association February 1997 pp 779 Gross Steven E Compensation For Teams How to Design and Implement Teamr Based Reward Programs New York AMACOM 1995 Novak James quotProceed With Caution When Paying Teamsquot HRMagazine April 1997 pp 73778 Schuster Jay R PhD and Patricia K Zingheim PhD quotBest Practices for Smallr Team Payquot ACA Journal Spring 1997 pp 40749 360 Degree Feedback Edwards Mark R and Ann J Ewen 360 DegreeFeedback The Powerful New Model for Employee Assessment and Performance Improvement New York AMACOM 1996 Lepsinger Richard and Anntoinette D Lucia The Art and Science of 360 Degree Feedback Pfeiffer 1997 Lepsinger Richard and Anntoinette D Lucia quot360 Degree Feedback and Performance Appraisalquot Training September 1997 pp 6270 Quality and Performance Appraisal Deming WE Out of the Crisis Cambridge MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study 1986 Ghorpade J and MM Chen quotCreating QualityrDriven Performance Appraisal Systemsquot The Academy of Management Executive 9 no1 1995 pp 32741 Scholtes PR An Elaboration on Deming39s Teachings on Performance Appraisal Madison Joiner Associates 1987 Weaver W Timothy quotLinking Performance Reviews to Productivity and Qualityquot HRMagazine November 1996 pp 9398 Training Return on Investment Phillips Jack J Measuring Return on Investment Volume 1 Alexandria VA American Society for Training and Development 1994 703 68378100 20 Human Resources Elshult Suzanne quotHR and the Bottom Linequot Association for Quality and Participation NovDec 1997 pp 18725 Fitzrenz Jac How To measure Human Resource Management New York McGraW Hill 1995 Galpin Timothy J and Patrick Murray quotConnect Human Resource Strategy to the Business Planquot HR Magazine March 1997 pp 997104 Sleezer Catherine M Improving Human Resource Development Through Measurement Alexandria VA American Society for Training and Development 1989 703 68378100 Society for Human Resource Management Reengineering the HR Function Alexandria SHRM 1994 Stern Gerry and Yvett Borcia Stern39s SourceFinderThe Master Directory to Human Resource and Business Management Information and Resources Culver City CA Michael Daniels Publishers 1998 httpWWWhrconsultantcomorderingorderinghtml Vough Clair F and Bernard Asbell Productivity A Practical Program for Improving Efficiency New York AMACOM 1979 21