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Date Created: 11/01/15
Test 1 First 3 chapters Look at online resources Look at questions in back of book 50 questions 100pts Truefalse BRING CALCULATOR Know Macro vs Micro nutrients 0 Macro nutrients our body needs a lot of Carbs Protein and Fats 0 Micro nutrients needed in small amounts Vitamins and minerals Fat soluble vs water soluble vitamins 0 Fat soluble not soluble in water but in fat stored in the body AD E and K 0 Water soluble not soluble in fat but in water not stored in boy excess is excreted in urine C and B 4 element of healthy diet 0 Adequacy provides enough energy nutrients and fiber to maintain health 0 Balance provides proper proportions of nutrients o Moderation eating the right amounts to maintain a healthy weight 0 Variety eating a lot of different foods everyday Know components of healthy diet Dietary Guidelines 0 Dietary guidelines set of principles developed by the us department of agriculture to assist Americans in designing a healthful diet and lifestyle My pyramid site and what component represent 0 Person adults 30 mins of physical activity a day kids 60 mins 3 day 0 Orange Grains Eat 3 oz of whole grains 3 day 0 Green Vegetables Vary Veggies eat more dark green orange and beans 0 Red Fruits Variety go easy on fruit juices 0 Yellow Oils get from nuts not fats o Blue Milk go low fat or fat free 0 Purple Meat and beans Go lean or low fat and bake it broil it or grill it 0 Promote activity moderation personalization proportionality variety and gradual improvement Hunger vs appetite o Hunger Physiologic drive for food that occurs when the body senses we need to eat 0 Appetite desire to consume specific foods Pathway of digestion know enzymes present and effects on macros if pathway interrupted o Chewing begins Saliva starts breaking down carbs 0 Food moves down esophagus 0 Once in stomach HCL and pepsin begin digesting protein 0 Food is now Chyme and moves into small intestine where most nutrients absorbed o Gallbladder stores bile and sends some to small intestine to help break down fat 0 Pancreas secretes enzymes into small intestine to help break down carbs Amylase fats Lipase and proteins Proteases 0 Large intestine helps to excrete waste 1224 hrs AI Adequate Intake recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observations and experiments on healthy people EER Estimated Energy Requirement Average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult EAR Estimated Average Requirement Average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular group DRI Dietary Reference Intake A set of nutritional values for healthy people RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance Average daily nutrient intake that meets nutrition requirements of 97 of healthy individuals UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of health effects to almost all individuals in a particular group Nutrient and energy density 0 Nutrient Density the relative amount of nutrients per amount of energy of calories 0 High Beans Rice 0 Medium Lasagna o Low Sugar Pop Food Label and components Notes Statement of Identity Common name of food Net Content quantity of food in entire package Ingredient List ingredients must be listed by their common name in descending order by weight Name and address of food manufacturer in case consumer wants to contact Nutrition info contains nutrition data serving size caloriescalories from fat list of nutrients percent daily values footnote dv based on 2000 cal diet Not required but may contain various claims relating to nutrients and health 6 classes of nutrients carbs protein fat vitamins minerals water Carbs fats proteins and vitamins are organic Minerals and water are inorganic 1 g 4kca Carbs 4565 Protein 1035 Fat 2035 Micros break down macros Minerals are never broken down ex calcium from milk we drink is the same calcium in our bones Nutrition is the scientific study of food and how food nourishes the body and influences health Stomach is about 6 fl 02 or 5A cup when empty but can expand to 32 fl 02 or 4 cups Discretionary calories add energy but do not provide nutrients Typical American diet requires an increased intake of fruits vegetables whole grains and milk Asain Diet contains more starch Less heart disease is seen with the Asian and Mediterranean diet Concern with high fat content of Mexican diet 2 types of digestion Mechanical and chemical Water and vitamins absorbed in large intestine Nutrients in meat Protein niacin thiamin vitamin b6 b12 iron Nutrients in grains folate niacin riboflavin thiamin iron magnesium Nutrients vegetables Vitamin A C K E Magnesium Potassium Fruits Vitamin A C Potassium and Fiber Oils Vitamin E Fatty Acids Kcalories Milk Protein Riboflavin Vitamin b12 Calcium Potassium V V Proteins Proteins Large complex molecules found in the cells of living things 0 Differ from lipids and carbs in that DNA dictates the structure of each molecule and they contain nitrogen 0 Most made from combos of same 20 amino acids however body contains 10000 50000 unique proteins Amino Acids Nitrogencontaining molecules that combine to form proteins 0 Consist of 1 Amine group 2 Acid Group 3 Hydrogen Atom 4 Side chain Makes it unique 0 Contain carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and sometimes sulfur Essential amino acid Amino acid not produced by body and must be obtained through food 0 About 9 of 20 amino acids are essential Nonessential Amino Acid Amino acids that can be made in body 0 Transamination process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another acid group and side chain how nonessentials are made How proteins are made o Peptide bonds unique types of chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group of another in order to manufacture dipeptides and all larger peptide bonds I Water released as byproduct I 2 acids Dipeptide I 3 acids Tripeptide I 4 9 Oligopeptide I 10 or more Polypeptide 0 As proteins are manufactured messenger RNA copies the genetic info from DNA and carries it to ribosomes and cytoplasm Transcription 0 Once at ribosome translation occurs genetic info is translated into growing chain of amino acids that bond together to make a specific protein 0 Protein Turnover Proteins made from new synthesis as well as degeneration of old proteins Protein Structure 0 I Primary Structure sequential order of amino acids I Secondary Structure Protein s spiral structure I Tertiary Structure unique threedimensional shape that secondary structure folds into 0 Determines protein s function in body I Quaternary Structure two polypeptides bond 0 Can be globular or fibrous I Denaturation when proteins change shape and lose function 0 Limiting amino acid acid missing or in smallest supply when generating new protein I Without proper combination and quantity of amino acids protein synthesis will slow to the point where protein cannot be generated I Also need adequate energy levels 0 Incomplete protein foods that do not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient amounts to support growth and health 0 Complete protein Contains all 9 essential amino acids I Egg whites ground beef chicken fish milk soy bean 0 Mutual Supplementation process of combining two or more incomplete protein sources to make a complete protein I Complementary proteins two or more foods that together contain all 9 essential amino acids necessary for a complete protein Not necessary to have at same meal 0 Proteins contribute to Cell growth repair and maintenance 0 Enzymes proteins that speed up chemical reactions without being changed by the chemical reaction themselves I Facilitate special cell reactions 0 Hormones substances that act as chemical messengers in the body 0 Electrolytes charged particles that assist in maintaining fluid balance I Proteins in cells blood and space around cells help to maintain proper fluid balance 0 Edema disorder where fluids build up in the tissue space around body and give a swollen appearance I Sodium and potassium are two common examples of electrolytes 0 Transport proteins help transport substances throughout body and across cell membranes 0 Pump sodium out of cell and potassium back in 0 pH acidbase balance of blood I Acidosis blood is too acidic I Alkalosis blood is too basic 0 Proteins act as buffers help maintain proper balance by attaching to or releasing hydrogen ions release when blood is acidic attach when basic 0 Antibodies special proteins that are critical components of the immune system 0 Proteins can be used as energy when we do not take in enough carbs and fat I Deamination process where nitrogen is removed from amino acid and excreted through kidneys in urine Body can use remaining components of amino acid for energy or build them into carbohydrate gt Protein Digestion 1 Mouth Proteins in food are crushed by chewing and moistened by saliva V V V V V V V V gt E Stomach Proteins are denatured by HCL Pepsin is activated and breaks proteins into single amino acids and smaller polypeptides E Small Intestine Proteases are secreted to digest polypeptides Cells in the walls of sm intestine complete the breakdown of polypeptides into single amino acids 4 Liver Amino acids transferred to liver and sent to cells as needed Protein Digestibilitycorrected amino acid score PDCAAS measurement of protein quality that considers the balance of amino acids as well as the digestibility of the protein in the food Protein ef ciency ratio assesses protein quality by comparing weight gained in a lab animal consuming the test protein with an animal consuming a reference protein Net Protein Utilization compares the amount of nitrogen retained in our bodies with amount of nitrogen consumed Nitrogen Balance used to determine a person s protein needs 0 Compare amount of nitrogen taken in Vs nitrogen excreted in urine and feces I Positive Balance When a person takes in more than they are excreting 0 Pregnant women growing children steroids I Negative Balance When a person excretes more than they are taking in 0 Sick ppl Burn Victims I Nitrogen Balance Amount consumed amount excreted 0 Normal healthy adults RDA for Protein is 8g kg of body weight per day 0 For bodybuilders 182 g o Endurance athletes 15 175g Health risks of high protein diet High Cholesterol Possible Bone loss increase risk for kidney disease Vegetarianism practice of restricting diet to food substances of plant origin including veggies fruits grains and nuts 0 May reduce risk of obesity type 2 diabetes heart disease some cancers kidney disease 0 May lack BlZ vitamin D riboflavin iron calcium and Zinc Protein Diseases 0 Protein energy malnutrition inadequate intake of protein I Marasmus results from grossly inadequate intake of protein Skin and bones I Kwashiorkor typically seen in developing countries swollen stomachs O Sickle Cell Anemia genetic disorder which cause red blood cells to be crescent shaped rather than globular o Cystic Fibrosis genetic disorder which causes alteration in chloride transport and produces sticky mucus which leads to lifethreatening respiratory and digestive problems Electrolytes Fluid A substance composed of molecules that move past one another freely o Intracellular Fluid fluid held within the walls of the body cells accounts for about 23 of an adults body fluid 0 Extracellular uid fluid outside of the body s cells I Tissue Fluid fows between cells that make up a particular tissue or organ I Intravascular fluid plasma gt Electrolytes A substance that disassociates in solution into positively and negatively charged ions and is thus capable of carrying an electrical charge 0 Ion any electrically charged particle 0 Types of electrolytes I Sodium Positive extracellular I Potassium Positive intracellular I Chloride Negative extracellular I Phosphorus Negative intracellular gt Functions of uids 0 Solvent dissolves and mixes with stuff 0 Blood volume amount of fluid in blood when up blood pressure goes up when down blood pressure goes down 0 Maintain body temp o Lubricate and protect tissues gt Osmosis movement of water through a semipermeable membrane 0 Water moves from areas of low electrolytes to areas of high 0 Depolarization sodium enters cell and makes it slightly more positive or less negative 0 Action potential when enough sodium enters cell and triggers an electrical impulse o Repolarization pump sodium out of cell and return cell to negative state gt Thirst mechanism causes you to desire fluids controlled in hypothalamus o Triggered by I Increased salt content in blood I Reduction of blood volume and pressure I Dryness of tissue of mouth and throat 0 Once triggered kidneys reduce urine flow and return water to blood and constricts blood vessels to retain water Also draws fluid from saliva in mouth gt Three sources of uid Beverages food and metabolic water 0 Metabolic water produced when carbs fats and proteins are broken down account for 1014 of daily suppy gt Sensible water loss water loss that is noticeable o Urine sweat gt Insensible water loss water loss we don t perceive o In feces o Evaporation through skin 0 Breathing 0 Consumption of diuretics increase fluid loss via urine gt DRI for men 37 litersday V V VV DRI for women 27 littersday Sodium assists with the transmission of nerve signals and aids muscle contractions 0 AI 15 g 0 UL 23 g o Hypernatremia abnormally high blood sodium levels 0 Hyponatremia low blood sodium levels Potassium Regulates contraction of muscles and transmission of nerve impulses major constituent of living things 0 AI 47 g o Hyperkalemia high blood potassium levels 0 Hypokalemia low blood potassium levels Chloride helps with maintenance of fluid balance 0 AI 23g 0 UL 36 g 0 Hypertension prolonged high salt intake Phosphorus maintain proper fluid balance and helps with bone formation 0 Al 700 mg 0 UL 4 g o Phytic acid plant storage of phosphorus 0 High phosphorus intake can lead to muscle spasms and convulsions Dehydration depletion of body fluid that results when fluid excretion exceeds fluid intake Heat Stroke potentially fatal response to high temps characterized by failure of the body s heatregulating mechanisms Over hydration dilution of body fluid results when water intake is excessive Hypertension chronic condition characterized by above average blood pressure readings o Systolic pressure exerted in arteries at moment heart contracts 0 Diastolic pressure in arteries between contractions Antioxidants o Antioxidants a compound that has the ability to prevent or repair the damage caused by oxidation 0 Oxidation A chemical reaction in which molecules of a substance are broken down into their component atoms During oxidation the atoms lose electrons I The loss of electrons causes an unpaired electron to remain in the atom s outer shell Usually pairs with another unpaired electron Exchange Reaction however when it doesn t a free radical is formed 0 Free Radical A highly unstable atom with unpaired electron in its outermost shell 0 Most free radicals formed when the oxygen we breathe combines with hydrogen made by digesting food releasing an electron which binds with more oxygen we breathe 0 Also formed when I Immune system produces inflammation to fight allergens or infections I Exposure to air pollution UV rays Tobacco Smoke 0 Free Radicals are dangerous due to their willingness to quotstealquot electrons from stable cells causing more free radicals which can damage and destroy cells I Significant sites for damage 0 Cell Membrane o LDL s 0 DNA I Diseases caused by free radicals 0 Cancer 0 Heart Disease 0 Diabetes 0 Arthritis 0 Alzheimer s and Parkinson s o Antioxidants stabilize free radicals in 3 ways I 1 Antioxidant Vitamins donate electrons or hydrogen atoms to free radicals to stabilize them and reduce the damage caused by oxidation I 2 Antioxidant minerals function with antioxidant enzyme systems called cofactors to convert free radicals to less harmful products that can be excreted o Superoxide dismutase converts to hydrogen peroxide 0 Catalase removes hydrogen peroxide from our bodies by converting to water and oxygen 0 Glutathione peroxidase also removes hydrogen peroxide from our bodies and stops the production of free radicals in lipids O O I 3 Phytochemicals also donate electrons to stabilize free radicals Found in plant chemicals Vitamin E I Tocotrienol Inactive form of vitamin E in body I Tocopherol Active Form I Fat Soluble I Stored in adipose tissue and in cell membranes I Primary Functions Protects cell membranes from oxidation Protects polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA from oxidation Protects vitamin A from oxidation Protects white blood cells and enhances immune function Improves absorption of A Found in nut and vegetable oils Men 515mg Women 515mg UL 1000mg I Toxicity Blood Clotting Hemorrhage stroke Intestinal discomfort I Deficiency Vitamin C Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Anemia Impairment of nerve transmission Muscle weakness Leg Cramps I Water Soluble I Two types Ascorbic and Dehydroascorbic I Body excretes excess so we must consume on a regular basis I Function Antioxidant in Extracellular fluid and lungs Regenerates oxidized E Reduces formation of Nitrosamines in stomach Assist with collagen hormone neurotransmitters and DNA synthesis 0 Collagen Protein found in all connective tissue of the body I Aids in healing of bruises and wounds Enhances immune function o BetaCa rotene Men 590mg per day Women 575mg Smokers 5 35 mg more UL 2000 mg I Fat soluble provitamin for A Provitamin An inactive form of a vitamin that the body can convert to active from o 2 units of betacarotene 1 vitamin A Functions Protects cell membranes and LDL s from oxidation Enhances immune system Protects skin from UV rays Protects eyes from oxidation damage I RDA 0 None I Toxicity o Yellowingofskin I Deficiency 0 Unknown 0 VitaminA I FatSoluble I Threeforms Retinol Retinal Retinoic acid I Function I RDA Adjust in changes to light Protects color vision Cell Differentiation Sperm Reproduction Healthy bone growth Men 900ugday Women 700 ug UL 3000ug I Toxicity Birth defects in fetus Blurred vision Loss of appetite Hair loss o Abdominal pain I Deficiency 0 Night Blindness 0 Permanent blindness o Impaired immunity 0 Inability to reproduce o Stunted growth 0 Selenium I Trace Mineral I Found in organ meats pork and seafood I Function 0 Pa rt of Glutathione peroxidase o Spares vitamin E from oxidation 0 Assists in production of thyroid hormone o Assists in immune function 0 Men 55 ugday 0 Women 55 ug 0 UL 400 ug I Toxicity o Brittle hair and nails 0 Skin Rashes o Vomiting nausea o Weakness o Cirrhosis of liver Deficiency o eshan Disease heart disorder 0 ashinBeck disease form of arthritis 0 Impaired immune function 0 Risk of viral infection 0 Infertility 0 Depression 0 Muscle pain 0 Copper zinc manganese and iron play key roles in blood health and energy metabolism 0 Cancer a group of diseases characterized by cells that reproduce spontaneously and independently and may invade other tissues and organs 0 Tumors Any newly formed mass of undifferentiated cells not all cancerous 0 Three Phases of cancer I Initiation Cell s DNA is mutated I Promotion Altered dell is stimulated to divide uninhibited I Progression Cancerous cells grow out of control and invade surrounding tissues 0 Five modifiable risk factors I Tobacco use I Unhealthful Diet I Infectious Agents I Ultraviolet Radiation I Physical Inactivity Bone Health 0 Bones are both rigid and flexible o 65 of bone tissue is made up of minerals to provide hardness o 35 made up of organic substances to provide flexibility I Collagen protein that forms strong fibers in bone and connective tissue 0 Two types of bone tissue I Cortical Dense bone tissue which makes up the outer surface of all bones as well as the entirety of most small bones of the body 0 80 of skeleton I Trabecular bone Porous bone tissue found in the ends of long bones spinal vertebrae inside flat bones and inside pelvis bones o 20 of skeleton o Faster turn over time 0 Bone Growth Determines bone size I Begins in womb and contuse to early adulthood 0 Bone Modeling Determines bone shape I Bones can increase in thickness at any time due to weight training or being overweight 0 Bone Remodeling twostep process in which bone tissue is recycled I Breakdown 0 Resorption surface of bone is broken down by osteoclasts o Osteoclasts secrete enzymes and acids that dig grooves into bone matrix I Formation of new bone 0 Osteoblasts llBone builders cells that prompt the formation of new bone matrix by laying down the collagen containing component of bone which is then mineralized 0 Dual energy xray absorptiometry DXA DEXA most accurate tool for measuring bone density I TScore The number assigned to a certain patients bone density 0 Between 1 and 1 are good 0 Below 25 means osteoporosis 0 Calcium Major mineral Function 0 Primary component of bone and teeth structure 0 Maintains optimal acidbase balance 0 Supports muscle contraction and relaxation o Regulates blood pressure and clotting 0 Al men and women 1950 1000 mg 0 Over 50 1200 mg 0 UL 25 g Toxicity 0 Potential mineral imbalances o Interference with iron zinc and magnesium absorption 0 Shock 0 Kidney failure 0 Fatigue and mental confusion Deficiency o Osteoporosis 0 Bone fractures o Convulsions and muscle spasms 0 Heart failure 0 Vitamin D Fat Soluble vitamin Inactive form is Calcitriol Absorb most through sun exposure Foods fortified with it such as milk Function 0 Regulates blood calcium levels 0 Maintains bone health 0 Cell differentiation RDA 0 Al Men and women 1950 5 ug 0 5070 10ug 0 Over 70 15ug 0 UL 50ug Toxicity o Hypercalcemia o Weakness and loss of appetite 0 Excessive urine 0 Extreme thirst 0 Calcium deposits in kidney liver and heart Deficiency o Rickets o Osteomalacia o Osteoporosis 0 Vitamin K Fat Soluble vitamin Found in green leafy vegetables and oils Phylloquinone found in plants Menaquinone produced by bacteria in the Ig intestine Function 0 Coenzyme during production of proteins that assist in blood coagulation and metabolism 0 Coenzyme organic compound that combines with inactive enzyme to form an active enzyme RDA 0 Al Men 120ug 0 Women 90ug Toxicity 0 None Deficiency 0 Reduced ability to form blood clots 0 Effect on bone health is controversial o Phosphorous Major mineral Found in milk meats and eggs Function 0 Part of Hydroxyapatite crystals mineral complexes of bone 0 Maintains fluid balance 0 Primary component ofATP 0 Component of DNA RNA cell membranes and lipoproteins 0 Men and Women 700mg 0 UL 4g Toxicity 0 Muscle spasms and convulsions Deficiency o Dizziness bone pain muscle weakness and damage 0 Magnesium Major Mineral Total body content is about 25 g O 0 5060 in bones rest in soft tissue Found in green leafy veggies whole grains nuts seafood and some dairy products Function 0 Essential component of bone tissue 0 Influence formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and bone growth 0 Cofactor for more than 300 enzymes 0 Cofactor any organic or inorganic compound that combines with an enzyme to make it active 0 Supports muscle contraction and blood clotting 0 Men 1930 400mg 0 Over 30 420 mg 0 Women 1930 310 mg 0 Over 30 320 mg 0 UL 350 mg Toxicity 0 None from diet 0 From supplements diarrhea nausea cramps dehydration cardiac arrest and death Deficiency o Hypomagnesaemia o Cramps o Seizures o Weakness and confusion 0 Chronic diseases such as heart disease high BP type 2 diabetes Fluoride Trace mineral Found in dental products and fortified water Function 0 Maintain health of teeth and bones o Protects teeth from cavities o Stimulates new bone growth 0 Al Men 4 mg 0 Women 3mg 0 UL 10mg Toxicity 0 Teeth Fluorosis staining and pitting of teeth 0 Skeletal fluorosis joint pain and stiffness and even crippling o Osteoporosis of extremities Deficiency o Tooth decay 0 Lower bone density 0 Osteoporosis Affects 1 in 3 women and 1 in 8 men Bone loss after 30 is 35 a year After menopause bone loss is 3 for the first 5 yrs Women suffer more than men because 0 Less one density 0 Hormonal change after menopause 0 Live longer No cure Treatments 0 Antiresorptive medicines slow or stop bone resorption without affecting bone formation 0 Hormone replacement therapy Know simple and complex carbs Enzymes responsible for breakdown Preferred energy sources for body fat vs protein vs carb How glucose changes due to hormonal responses What happens when carb digestion goes wrong Disease States Know different types of lipids and examples of each Saturated fat vs poly and know of each Trans fats Cholesterol Essential Fatty acids what they are and why they are important NO HIGHLIGHT SECTIONS CARESv o Carbs contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen 0 We get carbs primarily through plant foods 0 Plants make glucose through photosynthesis 0 Simple Carbs 0 Contain 1 or 2 molecules 0 Monosaccharaides I Consist of a single sugar molecule I Contain 6 carbon atoms 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms I Glucose 0 Most Abundant in diet and body 0 Usually attaches to other sugars to form disaccharides and complex carbs 0 Preferred source of energy for the brain 0 Very important energy source for cells I Fructose o Sweetest natural sugar found in fruits and vegetables 0 High fructose corn syrup I Galactose 0 Does not occur alone in foods 0 Joins with glucose to create lactose o Disaccharides o Consist of two molecules joined together 0 Lactose I Consists of Galactose and Glucose I Found in milk human breast milk contains more than cows 0 Maltose o Consists of two molecules of glucose 0 Usually bound together with other molecules and is absorbed as a by product of digestion 0 Found in alcohol but is removed after fermentation process I Sucrose o Composed of one glucose and one fructose molecule 0 Sweetest disaccharide 0 Found in honey sugar syrups fruits gt Complex carbs o All complex carbs are polysaccharides 0 Usually consist of long chains of glucose I Starch 0 Plants store glucose as polysaccharides in the form of starch 0 We cannot digest complex starch molecules so instead we must break them down into monosaccharide glucose 0 Resistant starches starches we can t digest intestines produce butyrate I Glycogen 0 Storage form of glucose in animals and humans 0 Very little exists in food not a dietary source of carb I Fiber 0 Dietary fiber I The nondigestible parts of plants that form the support structures of the leaves stems and seeds 0 Functional Fiber I Consists of nondigestible forms of carbs that are extracted from plants or manufactured in the laboratory and have known health benefits I Used in fiber supplements 0 Total Fiber 0 The sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber I Soluble o Dissolve in water Viscous form gel when dissolved Fermentable easily digested by bacteria in colon Found in citrus fruits berries oat products and beans Lower blood cholesterol and blood glucose levels Pectin found in cell walls and tissues used to thicken foods Gums isolated from seeds used as food additives to thicken OOOOOO Mucilages used as food stabilizers examples psyllium and carrageenan I Insoluble fibers 0 Do not dissolve in water not viscous not digested in colon 0 Promote regular bowel movements 0 Found in whole grains 0 Lignins noncarb forms of fiber found in woody parts of plants and carrots and seeds of fruits and berries o Cellulose found in whole grains fruits veggies can be extracted from wood pulp or cotton used as an agent for anticaking thickening or texturizing o Hemicelluloses found in plant cell walls primary component of cereal fibers some classified as soluble o Carbs provided 4 kcal of energygram o Carbs are main source of energy during high intensity exercise because body can quickly breakdown glucose even with little oxygen 0 Fat is used mainly as energy during low intensity periods of time o Ketosis when body seeks an alternative source of fuel and breaks down fat I Suppresses appetite and causes dehydration I Ketoacidosis when blood becomes acidic from ketosis o Gluconeogenesis when body makes own glucose from protein 0 Fiber o Reduces risk of colon cancer Prevents hemorrhoids Reduces risk for diverticulosis Reduce risk of heart disease 000 Enhance weight loss 0 Lowers risk of type 2 diabetes gt Carbohydrate Digestion 0 Primary goal is to break down polysaccharides and disaccharides into monosaccharaides that can then be converted into glucose o 1 Mouth Salivary Amylase begins to digest particles into disaccharide maltose Once in stomach digestion of carbs cease due to acidity o 2 Small Intestine Pancreatic Amylase secreted by pancreas and continues to digest remaining 0 starch and maltose 0 Additional enzymes found in microvilli and mucosal cells break down disaccharides into monosaccharaides I Maltose broken down into Glucose by Maltase I Sucrose broken into glucose and fructose by Sucrase I Lactose broken into Glucose and Galactose by Lactase o All monosaccharaides are absorbed into mucosal cells lining small intestine where they then enter the blood stream 3 Liver o Monosaccharaides in the blood stream travel to the liver I Fructose and Galactose are converted into Glucose I If Glucose is needed immediately the liver releases Glucose into the blood stream where it can travel to cells and provide energy I If no immediate need Glucose is stored as Glycogen in the liver 0 Enzymes in liver can combine glucose into glycogen or break glycogen down into glucose depending on body needs 0 Liver can store 70g 280 kcal or glycogen o Muscles can store 120g 480 kcal of glycogen 0 Body draws on these supplies between meals to regulate blood glucose levels and support cell needs 0 Carb loading or Glycogen Loading used by high endurance athletes to increase muscle storage of glycogen from 2 to 4 time s normal amount 4 Large IntestineColon O O O 0 Fiber cannot be digested Passes to Large intestine where bacteria break down previously undigested carbs and produce gas and fatty acids These fatty acids are used for energy by cells in large intestine Remaining fiber adds bulk to stools and is excreted Glucose in Blood 0 Glucose cannot enter cell without help of insulin Insulin hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas and stimulates special molecules located in cell membrane to allow glucose to pass through 0 When you haven t eaten over a period of time your blood glucose level drops 0 O Pancreas begins to make and secret Glucagon which causes liver to convert Glycogen into glucose to be used as energy Glucagon also helps liver to stimulate Gluconeogenesis Glycemic Index 0 Glycemic index refers to the potential of foods to raise blood glucose levels I High index causes sudden large increase in blood glucose I Low index cause low to moderate fluctuations in blood glucose I Values assigned in comparison to pure glucose index of 100 o Glycemic load amount of carb in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of that particular carb 0 May be a better way to predict effects of food on blood glucose levels I Easiest way to eat lower glycemic index meals without counting is to consume foods such as beans and lentils fresh veggies and whole wheat bread I Lower index associated with reduced risk of certain diseases RDA for carbs is 130gday amount needed to only supply brain AMDR for carb is 4565 of total energy intake Dietary Guidelines for Americans only recommend choosing fiber rich fruits veggies and whole grain products Added Sugars sugars and syrups added to foods during processing or preparation Simple Sugars do play a role in causing tooth decay No link between sugar and hyperactivity in children 0 No tolerable upper intake level for sugar Higher intakes of sugars associated with increases in triglycerides and LDL s Bad Cholesterol and decrease HDL s Good Cholesterol and causes increased risks for heart disease High sugar diets do not cause diabetes but may play a role in obesity Adequate intake of fiber per day is 25g for women and 38g for men 14g of fiber for every 1000 kcal 0 Average Americans eat only 12 to 18 g each day 0 Too much fiber can be harmful as well Alternative Sweeteners o Nutritive sweeteners sweeteners such as sucrose fructose sugar alcohols honey and brown sugar that provide energy 0 Alternative Sweeteners Nonnutritive Sweeteners manufactured sweeteners that provide little or no energy 0 Acceptable Daily Intake ADI estimate made by FDA of the amount of nonnutritive sweetener that someone can consume each day over a lifetime with no adverse effects I ADI for Sucralose acesulfameK and aspartame are 5 15 and 50 mg per kg of body weight Saccharin Sweet n low Originally thought to cause cancer 0 AcesulfameK Sunette and Sweet One Calorie free 200 x sweeter than sugar used in 0 cooking 0 Aspartame Equal and NutraSweet 180 times sweeter than sucrose composed of amino acids phenylalanine and aspartic acid does not cause Alzheimers should not be consumed b those with Phenylketonuria PKU o Sucralose Splenda 600 times sweeter than sucrose used in cooking does not cause cancer Alitame composed of two amino acids and is stable when heated Dtagatose made from lactose and equals sweetness of sucrose but with half the O 0 energy 0 Diabetes chronic disease in which the body can no longer regulate glucose 0 Type 1 body cannot produce enough insulin I Treated with daily insulin injections 0 Type 2 progressive disorder where body cells become less responsive to insulin 0 Most cases triggered by obesity 0 Normally seen in adults 0 Treaded with weight loss healthful eating regular exercise oral medications or daily insulin injections I Impaired Fasting Glucose Glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to diagnose type 2 diabetes 0 Prediabetes o Hypoglycemia condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels 0 Reactive occurs when pancreas secretes too much insulin after high carb meal I Treated with smaller more frequent meals 0 Fasting when body continues to produce too much insulin even when someone has not eaten o Lactose Intolerance 0 Body does not produce sufficient amounts of lactase and cannot digest lactose I Usually occurs in not Caucasians I Symptoms include bloating cramping diarrhea and nausea Lipids o Lipids are insoluble in water 0 Three types of fats commonly found in food o 1 Triglycerides molecule consisting of three fatty acids attached to a threecarbon glycerol backbone I Fatty Acid long chains of carbon atoms bound to each other as well as to hydrogen atoms I Glycerol alcohol composed of three carbon atoms I Triglycerides characterized by chain length level of saturation and shape 0 Chain Length of carbons they contain 0 Shortchain usually less than 6 o Mediumchain 6 to 12 O O Longchain 14 or more Chain length determines method ofdigestion Short and medium digested quicker o Saturation O O O O 0 Shape O O I Diet Concerns Saturated fatty acid SFA have no carbons joined together with a double bond generally solid at room temp coconut oil butter whole milk beef Monounsaturated fatty acids M UFA have two carbons in the chain bound to each other with one double bond generally liquid at room temp olive oil canola oil cashew nuts Polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA have more than one double bond in the chain liquid at room temp cottonseed canola corn sunflower oils Animal fats provide 4060 of energy from saturated fats Plant fats provide 8090 of energy from mono and polyunsaturated fats Most oils are combinations of fats Saturated Straight Unsaturated not straight I Cis both hydrogen atoms on same side of double bond occur in nature I Trans hydrogen atoms attached diagonally opposite sides of double bond most made through food processing Hydrogenation process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to make them more saturated I Partially hydrogenated if only some of double bonds are broken I Process also creates trans fatty acids 0 Diets high in saturated fatty acids negatively impact blood lipid levels and increase risk for heart disease 0 Both trans and saturated fatty acids lower good cholesterol and raise bad I Essential Fatty Acids 0 Must be consumed in diet because they are not made in our bodies 0 Two types O Linoleic Acid I Also called Omega6 fatty acid I Found in veggies and nut oils I Needed for cell membrane structure and required for lipoproteins to transport fats in blood 0 AlphaLinoleic Acid I Also called Omega 3 fatty acid I Found in leafy green veggies flaxseed and flaxseed oil soy walnuts and fish products Eicosapentaenoic acid metabolic derivatives of alphalinolenic acid necessary for synthesis of regular compounds In body I Docosahexaenoic acid metabolic derivatives of alphalinolenic acid necessary for synthesis of regular compounds In body 0 Both improve vascular function and reduce risk for cardiac disease I Phospholipids consist of two fatty acids and a glycerol backbone with another compound that contains phosphate soluble in water help transport fat in blood stream nonessential I Sterols type of lipid found in foods and the body that has a ring structure 0 Cholesterol found in fatty part ofanimal products non essential o Fats provide Energy I Fat provides 9 kcal per gram I At rest fats provide 3070 of energy used I The longer you exercise the more fat used for energy 0 Adrenaline stimulates breakdown of fats and decreases insulin levels which inhibit fat breakdown I Fat is only macronutrient stored for long periods of time in body I Dietary fat enables transport of fat soluble vitamins A D E and K I Fats are a critical part of the cell membrane control what gets in or out regulate binding maintain integrity I Adipose tissue pads body and protects organs also insulates to maintain body heat I Fat makes food taste good 0 Fat makes you feel fuller I For every gram of fat you receive 25 times the amount of energy than in same amount of protein or carb I Fat takes longer to digest I Compact in size 0 Fats are susceptible to oxidation which reduces shelf life 0 Digestion of fats I Fat reaches stomach intact I Stomach mixes and breaks fat into small droplets and pass into small intestine I Gallbladder releases bile into SI I Bile breaks fat into smaller droplets I Pancreas secretes enzymes which break down triglycerides into 2 free fatty acids and one monoglyceride I Micelle spherical compound made up of bile and phospholipids that transport free fatty acids and monoglycerides to mucosal cells for digestion Fatty acids are then reformulated into triglycerides and packaged into lipoproteins fat cluster on the inside surrounded with phospholipids and proteins 0 Chylomicron lipoprotein produced in mucosal cell I Fat paired with lipoprotein finally make it to blood stream 0 Three ways fat is used I 1 Immediately used as energy I 2 used to make lipidcontaining compounds in body I 3 Stored in muscle or adipose tissue as a triglyceride for later use 0 Lipoprotein lipase enzyme that sits on the outside of the cells and breaks apart triglycerides so that fatty acids can be removed of taken up by the cell 0 How much fat to eat I Normal people 2035 I Athletes 2025 I Those on reduced fat diets less than 20 may do more harm than good because they limit many essential nutrients I Linoleic acid 510 I Alphalinoleic 0612 I Saturated fat less than 710 I Trans fat absolute minimum Visible fats fats we know are added to our food butter cream etc Invisible fats fats hidden in processed foods baked goods meat fast food Fat replacers don t work 0000 Diseases I Cardiovascular disease accounts for 30 of all deaths 0 Overweight physical inactivity smoking high blood pressure type 2 diabetes mellitus and high blood cholesterol increase risks 0 To estimate your risk you need to know your blood pressure and blood lipid levels 0 Cholesterol intake should be less than 300mg per day 0 Fat choices may affect risks of prostate cancer