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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Kailyn Hahn on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOF104 at Miami University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/233323/geof104-miami-university in Geography at Miami University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
a to Capital Reef National Park Utah The blsds coloration is due to bimessite s the dominam pigmeming agent Chuck Kime photo WoodChuck Images 1 you hau 1139i39clu ihi39niigh Lhc N ULIHHVCNlCI39H UHiICLl Malix you ini39 hin niiliu39d hliick 11139 i39miilhIihi39iin ii 1 1PC11ampC gmnl llllll l39lhh xli39nkuv U 139 th IIHK ilig 1 ur hnn39 hith iii iuicx on I39UCkN nn th39 kiL NL I39l IHII39 liig 1 1wa uniliiigx iri39 wlhiin ch39 known i don39t 1 117397 Hip1 u hiilli 39 19351 Hexcrl 39Il111i1 is i39nnipmid Inmliy 171 wright pcrccnl i o1 L39 inincmls mlnillusilimimi 39i1 oxiilcx ul nmnguncxc ind iron mnipi ixing lhc i39cnmining ill pcru ni il nllcr ind Rmsumn 197 1979 0139 lhu uxiilu minimix hirncwlc 1Ink 111 21 1nd hcniaiilu I ic 1 mic inan 11111111011Buliiliirlilcu 111111L 139il1 ii39c xirnng pigincniiiig igcnix and give diam 1139111 ilx xiMl39J lCl39hliL hiLk ui i39ul ninl x 139L39PL L3911 C hii llh x Ui 1huc WU Iikh Vik ld inicr IHL kllillL39 dudes ul hrmvn Whun hirncsulc is iihiinilnnl 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hulking 1m NMxlth C1LIL39IIL39L39 ul IIIL39 un 1ii i lurnx uul hill lhc niiiicmingy ul ilic 391l39111i 1 1x independe iil Ihc nick typo nn 39i11Lh il iKII39IHN and 15 not ihc rcxiih gt1 ihc 39C1IIIL 139111139 gt1 l111C YULkN lnslixiil il ix ihuughl lhi1 th39 lays in ilcwi39l mrmxh ii39i39 iCTIVL39Li li uin 111b1391L iLl1 il uHci JHLI Rimnmn l 7li 39i1cl39k d 01 and iniingnncsc II39L lhoughl 10 he Jl39i39ii39d hy hnlh i inii inii mugr 1n gunnil Ihci c 41139 two hi piillicxw 1m lllL llii39iniilinn nl39dcwi39l 113911Ii Unc 111CCL111111 1 min plcicly iiiin39aniu ii 1l39 WHhHHIhliiiUgiGI11iiLlL391Ul IIL39 ili1L 139 propich mechanism u139 ducrl quot11 111i1 whiih is guininiI more and 111011 suppm39iivc C391dk 11c 1139i amp39 hinlugiml iilivily speciliinlli39 lhi 0139 Inicicriu llni39n lllLi Uhci linilcr 1981 Perry lllt Kolh 201111 Vuluiiii It OciulicrScplcmhcr 2001 1191 Figure 2 Layers of octahedrally coordinated manganese and water molecules compose the atomic structure of birnessite shown here Figure 3 Black coatings of desert varnish on sandstone If it can be shown that desert varnish forms only through biological activity then the widespread presence of desert varnish on Mars points to the presence or at least the former presence of life on that planet DiGregorio 2002 Indeed the possibility that desert varnish may be a biomarker has resulted in a recent increase in scienti c interest in this mate rial The role at39 biological activity in the formation ot39desert varnish may be multifaceted and may include the catalysis ol oxide pigments We have long known that many bacteria are able to change the oxidation state of elements such as iron and manganese It is thought that these two elements are transported to rock surl39aces as dissolved mineral spe cies in water Bacteria living among the clay minerals in the varnish oxidize these elements as part of their metabolism Once oxidized the iron and manganese become insoluble and precipitate as oxide minerals Desert varnish is also anthropologically significant Ancient people used stone tools to chip designs through the varnish exposing the lightercolored rock underneath These artistic carvings known as petroglyphs can still be found throughout the American Southwest as well as many other areas g 4 394 ROCKS amp MINERALS Figure 4 Petroglyphs in desert varnish Arches National Park near Moab Utah Photo courtesy of the Moab Area Travel Council Desert varnish is such an important component of the visual makeup of the Southwest landscape that an arti cial desert varnish PERMEON W has even been developed and has been used by local inunicipaliti in the restoration of the natural appearance of rocky cliffs that have been dis turbed by construction ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Kendall Hauer and lason Rcch tor their reviews of this manuscript REFERENCES DiGregorio lit Er 2001 Rotk Varnish as a habitat or extant life on Mars lii lIlSlt ttHlflllS litermils mitt Iiiissttilis iir tisrrtilimltigy IV ed R B Hoover G V Levin R R Paepe and A Y Rozaiiov 110 30 Proceedings of the International Society ol Optical Engineering 4495 Dom R 1 1d T E at l Krinsley T Lin 5 Anderson I Clark T r iill 1992 Manganesetich rock varniin does occur in Antarctica Zheminil it ujltlg 99128998 Dom R t and 39t39 M Oberlandei I981 Microbial origin of desert varnish retire 213134347 1981 Rock variitsi I mgr s in Physruil Geography 639317 oot and W S Broecker 2000 How fast does rock varnish grow s 3 86 5 and V M Kolh 3004 Biologital and organic con stittieiits of desert varnish Revtew and new hypot es In Instruments iiiethurls lll tl iiiissitiiis or tlflt tllll l gy VII ed R Br Hoover and A Y Rozaiiov ZUZ l7 Proceedings of 111C interna tional Stic iely of Optical Engineering 5 l i3 Potter R M and j R Rossnian 1977 Desert varnish The lmpm39r tance of clay minerals Sriciict39 1 l44b tS l97 3The iii 1 varnish Chemical Geno0 Whalley W B 1983 Desvrt varnish ln Chemical sediments tllltl geniiitirplitilogy ed A S ioiidie and K Pye 1977216 San Diego Academic Press D s 0quot E 1 SL lltCl ironoxide mineralogy of desert a 9
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