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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Micheal McDermott on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GLG111 at Miami University taught by PaulHolm in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/233327/glg111-miami-university in Geology at Miami University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
GLG 111 Pt 2 Obsidian is a volcanic glass 0 Forms due quickly cooling of volcanic lava Sediment Sedimentary Rocks 0 Made up of pebbles sand and mud 0 Found on the top soil of the crust Sediment Loose material derived from the breakdown of preexisting rocks at the surface of the Earth Sedimentary Rocks A body of sediment turned into rock 0 8 of the crust o 75 rocks at the surface are sedimentary rocks Rocks weather at the surface of the earth and cause them to be sedimentary Two Types of Weathering o PhysicalMechanical Weathering 0 Rock and mineral fragments 0 Chemical Weathering o Feldspar acid H20 C02 I Carbonic Acid I Found in rain 0 Ironmagnesium silicates acid 9 Clay minerals lron oxide minerals stuff in solution 0 New minerals mostly clay stuff in solution How to make a sedimentary rock 0 Weathering 9 Erosion 9 Transportation 9 Deposition 9 Lithification o What are the agents between erosion and transportation 0 Water 0 Wind 0 Glaciers o Depositionhas o Layering o Lithification2 o Cementation I CementCalciteQuartZ o CaC03 0 Iron oxide Minerals Classification of Sedimentary Rocks 0 DetritalClastic SedimentsSedimentary Rocks Rock Sediment o Boulders o Pebbles o Gravel 0 Sand mostly quartz o Conglomerate o Sandstone Geology 111 Notes Science A body of knowledge about the natural world Observations Explanations Geology A science or a study of the earth or the solid body of earth Scienti c Method Basic way scientists proceed in researching science Make observations 0 Experiments Formulate hypothesis Make prediction based on hypothesis 0 Ask questions Check prediction 0 New Data Modify hypothesis Peer Review Scienti c Theory An explanation about a certain theory A scienti c theory also covers the whole picture of that certain area of science Usually has been the best and most used theory in that area of science Theories can be changed to include any new observations that don t mesh with the initial theory Structure of the Earth Ealth s average radius is 63 70 km Inner Core Outer Core 9Lower Mantle Upper Mantle Crust l 1210 kml2220 km 1 2400 km 1 The earth is layered due to density Crust Continental Crust Thicker 30 km Max 70 km Oceanic Crust Thinner 8 km 0 Continental rocks are less dense and would weigh less than Oceanic rocks Mantle Lg volume layer Rocky solid rocks are more dense than the rocks of the crust Core Very dense made up of metal mostly iron but with nickel also present as well as other various metals Outer Core 0 Liquid Inner Core 0 Solid Seismic Waves gealthg uakesl Waves vary in speed based on the density of the material they are passing Composition of the Core 0 Average density of the Earth 55 gcm3 MassVolume Meteorites Most meteorites are made of iron and nickel Formation of the Solar System Nebula Hypothesis Nebula is made up of gas hydrogen mostly as well as some helium and dust Young stars are always within a nebula Nebula Hypothesis Somewhere within a nebula something causes the dust and gas to contract on each other and create a star Nuclear Fusion Hydrogen Fusion begins 0 4 atoms bindfuse 4 H 9 He Lots of energy Since Helium weighs less than 4 H the excess weight is attributed to the extra energy that is created due to the fusion 0 Emc E Energy M Mass C Speed oflight o 46 billion years ago the sun was formed due this type of fusion Only 8 elements make up 985 of the earth Iron Fe 346 Oxygen O 295 Silicon Si 152 Magnesium Mg 127 Nickel Ni 24 Sulfur S 19 Carbon Ca 11 Aluminum A1 11 When the sun dies it is because Hydrogen Fusion stops due to the lack of hydrogen The sun will begin again after a period of inactivity and will get bigger It would be so big it would engulf Mercury and Venus and possibly even Earth What comes out of a volcano Lava molten rock Gases 0 Water vapor is the most abundant gas that is released out of a volcano Water vapor is evaporated into the clouds and is released into rain Carbon dioxide is the second most abundant gas that is released Other gases 0 doesn t come out of volcanoes O O 0 Early Atmosphere Hydrosphere is created after thousands of volcanic eruptions that release water vapor and begins to form the ocean o The composition of the ocean hasn t really changed over time and is the same as when the oceans were rst formed Present Atmosphere 70 Nitrogen 29 Oxygen 1 Other Gases Venus is a lot hotter due its atmosphere which is mostly C02 and the pressure of the planet The reason why our planet is not like Venus is because our planet has organisms that produce photosynthesis We also have a biosphere that helps us make us dissimilar to Venus Oldest fossil 35 billion years old and are cyanobacteria blue green algae They are and were capable of doing photosynthesis It is believed that the Biosphere helped alter the composition of the atmosphere Static Earth vs Dynamic Earth Static Earth The distribution of the plates static earth has not signi cantly changed Dynamic Earth Opposite of Static the earth changes constantly 1915 Alfred Weagner wrote The Origin of Continents and Oceans He believed that the world did not look like it did then and that all the continents were all together in one continent called Pangaea o This idea was named Continental Drift Evidence of Continental Drift Fit of the continents together Matching rocks and structures Fossils Fossils were found in multiple continents Ancient climates Similar sediment found in multiple continents due to the movement of glaciers from an Ice Age The rocks created from the movement of a glacier is called a tillite from a glacier till During and after World War 2 new technologies were being developed New data was being acquired during the 1950 s in o Oceanography This was when this science began to rise They used sonar to obtain the topography of the sea oor They made a detailed map of the sea oor and were published in the 1960s The scientists discovered that the sea oor was very rigid and that the sea oor had a very long mountain range underwater 3 km tall and at an average 3 km wide at most 2000 km wide it is 80000 km long It is the largest most continuous geological feature on earth It is known as the Oceanic Ridge System The scientists took temperatures across he ocean and it turns out that around the Oceanic Ridge System the temperature was hot Oceanic Trenches were found in the ocean and they are the deepest parts of the sea Along the trenches there were active volcanoes 0 Rock magnetism Scientists were able to get data from magnetism from thousands of years ago Lithosphere plates They move about 23 cm a year Asthenosphere Mesosphere Around the boundaries of the plates most of the geological events occur around it I Tvpes of l quot39 Plate Boundaries39 Diverging The plates move away Corresponds to the Oceanic ridge system 0 The excess heat the rises in the oceanic ridge system and molten rock moves upwards through the cracks that are created as the plates diverge and ll in the gaps or spew out of volcanoes It cools and forms volcanic rock mostly in the lithosphere 0 Two examples are in the MidAtlantic Ridge and in the East Paci c Rise Just West of California 1 Converging The plates towards each other Three Types OceanicOceanic converging plate boundary 0 Subduction Occurs in Subduction zone and only in Oceanic ridge system Example is the oceanic trenches 2 3 4 Volcanoes are associated with Subduction zones and are always on the side of the plate that is not being subducted Creates volcanic islands Examples of volcanic islands are the Indonesian islands the Philippines Japan and the Caribbean islands OceanicContinental 0 Continental crusts won t be subducted by oceanic plates and the oceanic plate is always subducted Examples are at the Andes Mountains in South America and the Cascade Mountains in North America ContinentalContinental 0 Neither plate can be subducted so instead the two plates collide and thicken and form mountain ranges with no volcanoes Example of this process is the Himalayas Sliding Sidewise The plates grind against each other and move side by side Transform Plate Boundary 0 San Andres fault system 5 Theory of Plate TectonicsThat as plates move earthquakes occur and plate constantly move and the earth is a dynamic earth The newest parts of the plates are in the center of the plate at the ridges while the oldest part is at the boundaries of the plates What drives the plates 6 l Mantle convection 2 Ridge push 3 Slab pull Earth s Magnetic Field Lines of force Declination 7 Inclination Compass needle tells you If you are north or south of the equator Declination tells you the direction to the pole Inclination tells you how far away the pole is Certain types of rocks mainly one common type of lava ow contain a small of magnetic mineral Most common rock is magnetite Apparent Polar Wander Curve for a Continent Theories when introduced 0 Continental Drift o Poles Move 0 Both the poles and the continents move Dipolar Field Earth s magnetic eld is a dipolar eld because it has two poles Crust s Composition Oxygen O 466 Silicon Si 278 Aluminum A1 81 Iron Fe 50 Calcium Ca 36 Sodium Na 28 Potassium P 26 Magnesium Mg 20 Rock A cohesive aggregate of one or more minerals Mineral Naturally occurring inorganic solid element or chemical compound De nite chemical composition Orderly internal structure 0 Crystalline o CCarbon Diamond Graphite Polymorphs Most common rock forming minerals Silicate minerals Most abundant Silica Chemical combination of oxygen and silicon The basic building block of silica 8 Silica Tetrahedron SiO4 Valence O 9 2 Si 9 4 3D framework9 SiOz 9 Quartz Feldspar is the most common mineral in the crust o K Al Sl3 08 9 potassium feldspar 9 pink 0 Na Al Sl3 08 9 Sodium plagioclose feldspar 9 white 0 Ca A12 Siz 08 9 Calcium plagioclase feldspar 9 dark gray Iron magnesium silicate minerals o Si04 Igneous Rocks Formed from the cooling of molten rock material Most common rock of the crust around 67 of the crust 0 Different names of molten rock Lava Seeps onto the earth s surface Magma Still within the earth Average temperature is around 7001200 degrees Celsius Several hundred miles beneath the earth s surface 4080 silica in composition The mineral created from magma is feldspar Types of Molten Rock Silica 40 45 52 66 80 I I I I I Ultramafic Mafic Intermediate Felsic 9 Rock Texture Size shape and orientation of the mineral grains that make up the rocks Characteristic features of igneous rock 0 Texture Random interlocking mosaic of mostly silicate minerals 0 Size of mineral grains Cooling history Very fine grained igneous rocks Rapid cooling Formed by lava Extrusive or Volcanic Igneous rocks Coarse grained igneous rocks Slow cooling Formed by magma Intrusive or Plutonic Igneous Rocks Andes o Andesite IntrusivePlutonic igneous rocks Types of plutonsintrusions 0 Country rock Batholiths A large irregularly shaped rock Stock Smaller irregular rock Tabular shaped is in the example of Dikes Sill Cylindrical Shape Volcanic pipe or volcanic neck Volcanoes What type of stuff comes out of a volcano o Lava o Gases Water vapor 39 C02 0 Pyroclastic debris tephra Comes in varying sizes Large pieces are called blocks square in shape or bombs sphere in shape Small pieces are called cinders Ash Main Eruptive Ocean Ridges amp Mantle Types of Volcanoes Shield Volcano Gentle slope looks like a shield O 0 Base 570 miles Height 12 6 miles Slopes lt 100 Due Mafic uid and mafic rock Would collect basalt if taking a sample Opening at the top is called a crater or caldera if it s bigger Flank eruption O Eruption that occurs on the side of the volcano Mauna Lao Hawaii 0 000 Largest volcano on earth 70 miles wide at base 6 miles tall Starts on the sea oor Strato Volcano 0r Composite Volcano Most abundant type of large volcano Has Pyroclastic and lava ow Coneshaped Slope 1 5300 Mostly intermediate Opening at the top is a crater has to be less than a mile or it s a caldera Base 550 miles Height 12 4 miles Other Features of Volcanic Areas Cinder Cones O 0 Small usually less than 1500 feet high Often found on the sides anks of the large volcano Hot Springs Geysers Fumarole 0 Gas vent Mud Pot or Paint Pot has less viscosity then a mud pot o If mud comes out of the pool and it would form a mud volacano Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions o Lava ow 0 Ash 0 Pyroclastic Flows o Lahars o Volcanic mud ow o Tsunamis 0 Climate Change 0 Temporary Cooling 0 Increases the albedo of the Earth Predicting Explosive Volcanic Eruptions Precursors 0 Small Eruptions 0 Past History 0 Seismic Activity 0 Tiltmeters 0 Monitor Gases Yellowstone Eruptions 22 million years ago 2500 km3 12 million years ago 280 km3 6 million years ago o 1000 km3
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