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Date Created: 11/01/15
Shigeru Y O Winston C 0 Political Science 221 Midterm Study Guide oshida Japanese Prime Minister 19461947 19491954 Chose to align Japan with the US politically and economically Chose to focus Japan s political attention toward economic development Allowed US to protect Japan Yoshida Doctrine basic guiding principles of the conservative Liberal Democratic Party LDP Japan should be run with good relations with the US and economic competition highlighted Lead to the attempt of the break up of the zaibatsu 1946 Land Reform reduced rural unrest and contributed to a relatively high degree of equalization of wealth in society hurchill Conservative Prime Minister of Britain from 19401945 1951195 5 Channeled nations ethics during rough time Very important gure in British modern government Led Britain to victory in WWII over Nazi Germany Began Britain s special relationship with US during WWII with FDR continues today Karl Marx GermanJewish philosopher couldn t nd a place for himself in German society Convinced he knew the science behind socialization Founding thinker of modern socialism and communism Wrote CommunistMam39festo in 1848 Became involved in various German and French radical movements during the 1830s and 1840s Guiding personality in the Socialist intemational movement in the 1860s Criticized capitalism Capitalism is doomed because it separates winners haves and losers have nots Over time the amount of losers have nots will grow and they will revolt Charles De Gaulle O O O 0 Margaret 0 O O O WWI veteran Called for resistance from Vichy Government by radio in London in 1944 Led the provisional government upon Liberation in 1944 Founding father and rst president of the Fifth Republic in France from 19581969 Thatcher First and only female British Prime Minister Leader of the Conservative Party Stimulated individuals believed there was no such thing as a society During her time trade issues declined dramatically Her philosophy of popular capitalism drew heavily upon US idea of individualism and freemarket economics Wanted to minimize state interference in economy and society Angela Merkel Elected to Bundestag German Parliament Chairman of the Christian Democratic Union CDU Current Chancellor of Germany rst female Chancellor 2005present Political Science 221 Midterm Study Guide 0 President of the European Council and chaired the G8 in 2007 second female to chair rst was Thatcher 0 2 Major issues of he term health care reform and problems concerning future energy development Vladimir I Lenin 0 Founder of the USSR in of ce from 1917 until death in 1924 0 Wrote What Is to Be Done 0 Created Soviet Communist Party 0 Led 1917 October Revolution 0 Created the Bolsheviks means majority 0 Greatly in uenced by Marxism 0 Two largest contributions the theory of the weakest link and the revolutionary Party 0 Insisted of strict professional revolutionary discipline among Marxists Tony Blair 0 Prime Minister of Britain from 19972007 0 Leader of the New Labour Party 1994 0 Introduced new moderated philosophy Third Way 0 3 major reforms 0 Decentralization of power through creation of Scottish and Welsh Parliaments 0 Abolition of hereditary peers in the House of Lords 0 Introduction of a Bill of Rights and Judicial Review Vladimir Putin 0 Current Prime Minister of Russia since 2008 0 Served as the Second President of the Russian Federation 20002008 0 Known for 0 restoring economic stability 0 social stability 0 efforts to restore the power of the Russian state lVIikhail Gorbachev 0 Leader of Communist Party of the Soviet Union 19851991 0 Tried to reverse stagnation of the Brezhnev era by launching a policy of revolutionary restructuring know as Perestroika 0 Open criticism of the past 0 Greater democracy 0 new thinking in foreign policy 0 Resulted in disintegration of the Leninist political institutions and Stalinist economic organization leading to the collapse of the Soviet Union Deng Xiaoping 0 Leader of the Chinese Communist Party from 19791997 Lieutenant to Mao and appointed to the CCPs general secretary Pragmatists opposed Mao s ultra left line Able to regain prominence after Mao s death Gain political ascendancy and directed China toward a structural economy Led Chinese economic reform 0 Opened China to foreign investment and global market 0 Limited private competition Political Science 221 Midterm Study Guide 0 His economic liberalism does not mean that he was prodemocracy as shown by his order to crush prodemocracy movement in Tiananmen Square 0 Credited with developing China into one of the fastest growing economies Chiang Kai Shek 0 Leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party KMT 0 Succeed Dr Sun Yatsen in 1926 0 Led the Northem Expedition to unify China in 1928 0 Led China s resistance war victory over Japan 0 Was defeated by the communists in a civil war 0 Led Nationalist Party to Taiwan where he ruled the Republic of China until his death in 1975 Mao Zedong 0 Leader of the Chinese Communist Party reform 19351976 death 0 Adopted an unorthodox strategy of revolution in China that emphasized the importance of the peasants and land reform and the need to encircle the cites from the countryside 0 Founded the People Republic of China 0 Continues to apply his guerrillawarfare strategy to economic development 0 Launched the Cultural Revolution that threw China into a decade of political chaos worked 0 His policies transformed China from a underdeveloped peasantbased society into a major industrialized world power 0 Held in high regard in China savior of the nation Advantages of backwardness 0 Germany attempt to catch up with Britain 0 Germany was a middle developer 0 Were able to avoid failed past practices 0 Allowed them to borrow the most successful methodsmodels 0 Technological advantage steal the most successful methods of production advancement 0 Gain better understanding of how to design people didn t borrow any political institutions that made Britain successful Semi presidential system 0 Formed in France s Fifth Republic 0 System created by the French that has both a President and a Prime Minister that is elected by the parliament 0 Executive split in two 0 Becoming more popular throughout the world 0 President has most of the power can nominate and veto Prime Minister The Westminster model Parliamentary Model 0 British system of parliamentary sovereignty monarch iLingQueen Prime Ministerial govemment and two parties altemating in power 0 A result of constitutional development 0 Parliament has 2 chamber Political Science 221 Midterm Study Guide 0 House of Lords lesser power elected by peers highest court 0 House of Commons 650 members elect the prime minister 0 2 Party System Labour Party and Conservative Party Perestroika Revolutionary Restructuring 0 Gorbachev s idea for a dramatic campaign for restructuring 0 Consisted of three basic elements 0 Open fro criticism of the past 0 Greater democracy 0 New Thinking in foreign policy 0 Democratization reconstruction change and experimentation with new institutions 0 New Thinking in Foreign Policy regarding tensions with capitalist West and most signi cantly end to Stalin s subordination of countries in the Communist Bloc 0 Intended to enhance communism but ultimately led to the fall of communism in the Soviet Union Constructive no con dence vote 0 In the 1949 German Constitution 0 Instituted because the Weimar Republic was very unstable since a successor did not have to be supported by a majority 0 States that the legislature may dismiss the chancellor only when a majority of the member simultaneously elects a successor 0 A variation of the motion of no con dence which allows a parliament to withdraw con dence from a head of government only if there is a positive majority for a prospective successor The Tiananmen Events 0 1989 0 Students gathered in the largest square in Beijing and listed demands of fundamental political reforms 0 Student movement launched wanting change originally change in education structure 0 They were joined by the working class who had concerns 0 Erected a replica of the Statue of Liberty 0 Demand for Western Liberal Democracy 0 June 4m Deng ordered the square be cleared in a violent massacre that killed between 6001500 individuals 0 Ministry of International Trade amp Industry 0 Prior to government restructuring called METI Ministry of Economy Trade amp Industry 0 Created to revive the Japanese economy after the disaster of WW2 0 Played an important role in the economic development of Japan 0 Used them for administrative guidance because they had various tools in their hands to do so The Weimar Republic Political Science 221 Midterm Study Guide 0 The German state and democratic regime that was formed after the fall of the Second Empire in 1919 and lasted until 1933 It was named for the city where its constitution was written Bitter and polarized partisan competition from the communist Left and the extreme nationalist right wing made it dif cult for the moderate and mostly Social Democratic and Center Party governments to operate Meiji Restoration 0 1868 Revolt that led to the downfall of the Tokugawa clan 0 Restored the power of the emperor 0 Plan to modernize Japan 0 Wanted to industrialize Japan but not Westernize it 0 Not interested in political reform or democratization 0 Important period of institutional and cultural transformation for Japan changes in various sectors of society Cohabitation p n P 0 Originally seen as a possible defect in the Fifth Republic s constitutional order 0 Situation where the President must nominate a Prime Minister who does not hold the same partisan allegiances because the President does not command a majority in the lower house of parliament National Assembly 0 Essentially its electing someone of the opposite party to be the Prime Minister when the lower house of parliament is also the opposition party 0 Can create an effective system of checks and balances or completely stall government 0 Since 1984 France has experienced three periods of cohabitation Both France and Britain were early developers and yet there were interesting differences in their respective trajectories of development Identify and discuss some of those differences While Britain and France were both early developers they differ in how the developed Britain went through a gradual development During this time they had continuity and consistency in the political order of the country While France was the opposite it experienced radical changes and numerous institutional collapses and multiple revolutions France took the approach of replacing old ideas with new ones while Britain made gradual changes to the existing institutional structure why they don t have a consolidated constitution What are the characteristic features of the Japanese model of catching up with the West after the end of World War II US Occupation demilitarized Japan and launched a series of reforms to modernize Japan Monarchy preserved just did not have power Transferred land from elites and redistributed it Economic Advantages Japan had No army so money was spent elsewhere US provided protection US provided technology to stimulate economic development Exchange rats were fixed to make them competitive US provided access to trade ports 9 Political Science 221 Midterm Study Guide Ideological GNP Gross National Product Nationalism No longer able to prove themselves militarily so they would have to prove themselves by expanding their GNP and competiveness in the market Development State Bureaucracy Institutions Conquering world markets was a task given to the state They stimulated certain industries at the expense of others Describe and analyze some of the post war reforms that made possible the transformation of Germany into a liberal democratic state A liberal democratic state is also known as a constitutional republic In other words it is a state in which the head of state and other governing officials are representative of its people and so they must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the government s power over all of its citizens Head of state is elected making it a republic not monarchy In 1848 political reforms were engulfing many European countries In Germany widespread revolutionary activity led to a call for the election of a national assembly of delegates A new constitution was drawn up in order to unify German states Unfortunately their ideal liberalism was rejected and led to the unintended consequences of setting in motion future revolutionary movements Marx soon advocated with other liberal reformers to ght against the government but they failed proving a reform to be impossible without fundamental changes in the economical and social What are the main similarities and differences between developmental strategies embraced by the middle developers Germany and Japan and communist developers Russia Soviet Union and China The variations Japan and Germany took on the grand strategies of development found in those of the early developers Britain and France are direct result of international competition involving military economics and cultural diversities between the middle and earlier countries Japan and Germany represented revolution from above whereas Britain and France developed from below Lower and middle class weaker upper class stronger Upper class with state alliance initiated economic development which was driven by military competition As for Russia and China on the other hand they embraced the use of technology and experiences of the West to further develop their countries Might have something to do with how bug the countries are Not only did both countries industrialize in the 2039h century but both also experienced communist revolutions and have lived with the long term burdens of communist economic and institutional development What are the strengths and weaknesses of the first past the post electoral system compared with proportional representation Which one do you personally favor Britain operates a rstpast thepost electoral system or winnertakeall similar to the US Strengths lProduces clear winners and strong alternating majority parties in the House of commons 2 Produces a strong government with power to implement it legislative program 3works to the advantage of certain parties in a concentrated area Scottish and Welsh 3 Stability 6