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Date Created: 11/01/15
Political Science Notes As of 99l09 Politics Involves a situation in which involves solving a problem or instituting a new policy 0 Can t create a policy without money Conflict comes from the winners and loser of policy changes 0 Winners benefit from new policy changes and usually don t benefit from the policy currently in place viceve rsa for Losers Harold Lasswell llPolitics is who gets what and why Capitalist System is based off what few people can specialize in and will be paid tremendously for this Politics exist at the 0 Individual Level Between two individuals 0 Small Group Level Between two small groups 0 Community Level 0 National Level 0 International Level 0 O 0000 Different then other levels because this level is under anarchy and the UN does not control the whole world I Governments make and enforce laws World Trade Organization WTO has a little leverage over other countries by imposing trade levies but still it does not have absolute power over them Militaries also influence world politics Sovereignty Every member of the UN has the right to make their own laws without interference from any other countries Subordination Everyone is beneath the law Law at the international level uses coordination Coordination Law has to be agreed on by all involved Potential for catastrophe is the last difference between national and international politics I Even small breakdowns can engulf the whole world into catastrophe 0 Example When Franz Ferdinand was assassinated World War One erupted J David Singer suggested that one 1st step to write the levels of analysis 0 Identify a cause and cut it out and get rid of it at the Individual level 0 Country level There is a problem in society that causes this disruption 0 Systemic Level The argument is against the way the world works causes the problem 0 British caused many MiddleEastern countries and can be possibly be blamed for modern day warfare 0 Systemic Solution Go to the UN and get a resolution passed and have the UN proceed I Example 0 George HW Bush thought that Saddam Hussein was the problem in the Middle East individual level but instead Bush used a systemic solution This was the wrong course of action because it only reinforced Hussein s power Human Nature Essential characteristic passed by all people that motivates them to do what they do 0 Human nature has been talked about for centuries 0 Same for everybody 0 Thomas Hobbes and John Locke disagreed about Human Nature 0 Hobbes wrote llLeviathan Locke wrote llOf Civil Government 0 Hobbes thought people with no restraints would become nasty and would commit crimes against each other I Hobbes believed that we needed a powerful government a central government so that no one will challenge it and they would police the country 0 Locke disagreed with Hobbes and believed that people were not evil and that people will work harder for luxuries I Locke believed in a weaker government and that they should take a step back from the people they govern 0 Americans prefer Locke s idea of decentralized government 0 llHuman nature is not worth anything at all J David Singer Personality Individual characters that regulates and motivate behavior 0 Products of genetics and environment 0 Personality can be used since it differs explaining behavior Abnormal Personality Your behavior is socially unacceptable o Stalin is an example of abnormal personality Right as he gained office he began to get rid of his enemies one was Trotsky the head of the Red Army He also turned on tens of thousands of fellow Communists and millions of Russian peasants He would have his army take all the food from the peasants and have then starved to death He also killed all his high ranking officers in the Red Army which would later lead to inexperienced leadership during World War Two Hitler is also another example of AP Psycho Analyst is used to determine if a person is crazy 0 A person with AP would rarely submit themselves to a psychiatric treatment 0 Culture could be a problem and not mental illness and their personality was formed by their culture Affect How does the person go about their work Two variables 0 Active 0 Negative Active Passive AP PP AN PN An active positive leader is considered a perfect leader according to Barber because the leader is willing to solve all problems heshe is faced One example of an active positive president is Franklin D Roosevelt An active negative leader is a person who works really hard but hates what they do That person according to Barber believes that the person is being driven by some sort of event from their past An active negative person would only fixate on one solution and keep supporting a failed solution to a problem Barber said that Richard Nixon is an example of an active negative president 0 Richard also had his own enemy list of his biggest rivals A passive positive person is a person who is always happy but really didn t work hard at his job Barber says that Ronald Reagan was an example of this A passive negative leader is a person who doesn t care about their work and also unhappy with it William G Harding is an example of this This scheme ended up not working because2 o The categories are worthless if it is not a consensus on which a category a person belongs to A person really can t describe a person unless you actually figure out their real 0 personality I George Wallace a famous segregationist started his career as a liberal intersegregationist Country level of analysis is based upon what type of society a country has Once that type of society is found out then can be put into place 0 The country makes the difference Major problem at the individual level is that it s a takes a lot to actually tell what the persons real defense mechanisms are Country Level of Analysis At the country level of analysis you want a scheme that will include all the countries in the world 0 Only couple different groups of countries 0 All countries must be included Great Powers Scheme is based on that there are a couple of countries in the world that influence the rest of the world at some point 0 Portuguese Spanish and Dutch in the 16 h century 0 French and British after that 0 Japan Germany Russia and Japan in the mid1900s 0 Russia and US during the Cold War There are two different schemes of Great Powers The first one is the defensive scheme that the country will aggressively expand in order not to be taken over by another Great Power The other scheme is an aggressive offense 0 The invasion of Belgium in World War Two was an example of aggressive offense from the German stand point and a defensive from the French and British stand point 0 British tried to expand aggressively in order to show the rest of the world that they were a power in the world even though they had no natural resources 0 The Great Powers are constantly thinking about their enemiesrivals how they can get enough resources and how to expand their empire even more 0 Also known as the size scheme and that only the Great Powers influence the world and small countries are always victims 0 This is not a full proof scheme because small countries can still influence international politics I Such as Saudi Arabia they control a major part of the oil trade and create advances in oil production and are still a major influence in oil trade 0 Also not a good theme because after WW2 all the Great Powers were destroyed besides US I Britain France and Germany were completely destroyed I Russia wasn t the strongest power to start and the Germans destroyed mostly everything after withdrawing from Russia I Japan was bombed by the US by fire bombs and the two atomic bombs and most of the Japanese cities were destroyed o By the 1970s most of the Great Power colonies were independent I After their independence the smaller countries have begun to be major players in world politics and started a new scheme the development scheme Development Scheme The smaller countries began to demand for a change in the UN to favor smaller countries instead of only favoring the larger countries 0 UN was created to maintain peace throughout the whole world and they had to all agree on how to maintain and uphold peace 0 This didn t work out because Russia and China were both Communist and that threatened the US 0 As the new smaller countries began to join the smaller countries began to want more help from the U N for by the New International Economic Order 0 Help in trade with other countries I Price supports 0 Government would pay farmers to continue farming I Trade guarantees o The US feared that these small countries would turn Communist if the UN didn t accept the NIEO I They thought if the small counties went Communist the US would lose priceless resources to the Russians o Bretton Woods System was an economic system that was set up two programs were created I International Monetary Fund 0 They were dealt to maintain and report the values of all currencies of the world 0 No longer maintain the exchange rate and allows the international market se its own exchange rate 0 They also were created to loan countries money that spent way too much money and needs money 0 Countries who borrowed money must listen to the IMF and complete changes in policy so they don t have to borrow money again I World Bank International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 0 Was created in 1944 0 Can borrow from the World Bank if your country was destroyed from natural disasters or other countries 0 They also helped the development of smaller countries who need money to develop I Lend Lease programs were given to all the Allies in and after WW2 including France Britain and Russia 0 All the countries that attended had to agree on these programs since the US had been helping them in WW2 Hard Currency ls used by strong developed countries and is respected by most and is widely accepted by the world community 0 Euro and the US Dollar 0 To combat the loss of hard currency from a country the IMF would advise a higher tax on purchases on excessively bought goods oil and luxury goods Revolutionary Scheme The idea that 0 Revolution A violent restructuring of a society 0 Revolutionaries think that there is nothing in their present society that they need to come and that complete restructuring is needed 0 They believe that they first need to take of the government 0 Restructuring of the educational system needs to be changed or the old government will be remade I Shoot kill or exile the teachers so they can t teach old values to the children 0 Change in religion 0 Change in the market I In Cambodia the Khmer Rouge demanded the people in the cities had to work in the farms because they believed that the agricultural economy began to stagnate 0 Two Types of Revolution 0 Coup D tat The belief that one group wants another group to stop running the government but don t have the support of the people I The military usually helps and during a night the military will overrun the government and take control Usually is very bloodless when this happens 0 The government leaders usually take hundreds of millions of dollars as they leave 0 The Coup D tat leaders usually only want power to get money and usually only change the leaders of the country but there are no other reforms o Colonial Revolt When people are governed by outsiders and they finally are tired of this they decided to revolt against the foreign government I One example is the American Revolution 0 Foreign policy in a revolutionary scheme is usually exported to other countries while they try to protect their revolution 0 Sometimes revolutionaries believe that the only way there revolution will succeed if other countries go into revolution 0 Trotsky said that the only way that revolution can be spread is by creating propaganda and shipping it out to other countries I There is not a lot to worry about when propaganda is sent to other countries because propaganda doesn t cross borders of society well 0 Some revolutionaries give their arms to other revolutionaries in other countries so that they can start their own revolution 0 Terrorism is also another way in promoting revolution by attacking countries that would stand against them I Terrorists are usually never successful I Three reasons for committing terrorism 0 National selfdetermination terrorism 0 Hamas 0 Religious terrorism 0 AIQaeda o Hezbollah o Revolutionaryterrorism o Protecting the revolution is done by making sure that the internal enemies cannot gain power back in the country I Exile the enemies of the government from the country 0 Fidel Castro exiled most enemies to Florida I Kill lem o Soviet Union killed many of the nonCommunists and other non Red Party members including peasants I Reeducate everyone 0 Khmer Rouge educated the children of the country in the ideas of their party 0 When a true revolution occurs revolutionaries get rid of any moderates because moderates have doubts about the revolution Status Quote Countries vs Real Countries Status Quote Country Countries that enjoy their current situation and don t want a change in the international system Does not mean for domestic affairs 0 Fairly dominant countries are status quote countries Revisionist Country Not happy with the current international system 0 Sometimes will become aggressive 0 Four Reasons for a Revisionist Country Ordered by most likely to commit violence 0 Territorial o Statusintheworld I Get into dangerous activity 0 Ideology I ExampleMarxism 0 Issue I Economic o Tradelssues Environmental lssue Territorial Revisionist Three reasons 0 Imperialism o Regaining lost territory 0 War or legal disputes 0 National SelfDeterminationlf you think that you form a distinct group of individuals then you believe you should govern yourself 0 Usually ends up into civil war or violence terrorism 0 This reason is the most prevalent in the world today occurs mostly in large developing countries Status Revisionist That every country wants to be respected and that they should be given an equal amount of respect as the rest of the world 0 The desire for respect is wanted by all countries and they will pressure the international community they can do this by 0 Strengthen their army I Army of at least 100000 I Modern Battleship has started to fade out Nuclear Weapons 0 Two countries developed them for just a status increase 0 France under Charles De Gaulle 0 Iran when they first developed them 0 Economic Arena I Example 0 Japan Second largest economy 0 Changed over from military to economics in the 1950 s 0 Their advancement in information technology in the 1980 s made people in the US to fear that Japan could withhold advances and could decide when the US would go to war This however never happened and US regained ground on Japan 0 Large Empire Imperialism I France Britain and Germany all took part in this I Lasted till the 1960 s I After WW2 France tried to regain dominance of former provinces in Indochina France went to war against the Vietminh and other patriot parties in Laos and Cambodia in 1946 After loss to Indochina they then went to war with Algeria and believed that it was a part of France 0 Launching a war I Anwar Sadat Egyptian leader believed that the Israelis and no respect to the Muslim world He wanted to end the hostilities between Israel and both the Muslim world and Egypt Israel didn t take Egypt seriously and so Sadat secretly ordered the army to prepare for war and in October 1973 the Egyptians attack during Yom Kippur The Egyptians had help from the Syrians and took Israelis by surprise The US helped Israel by giving the ammunition and spare parts and began counterattacks and stop and reverse of all the gains of the Arabs This war ended and in 1978 peace formed between the two Ideological Revisionism o Marxism o Attempt to pass on religion 0 One example today could be Islam fundamentalist I Hard to point out because of national selfdetermination I Al Qaeda s attack on 911 could be an example of Ideological revisionism and the attempt to sway Saudi Arabia Issue RevisionismSome type of economic problem and countries in the international world want a change in policies because it causes problems in your country 0 November 1960 OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries was formed by Venezuela because the countries of Venezuela Saudi Arabia Iran Kuwait and Iraq were being taken advantage by the quotseven sisters oil companies BP Shell Gulf Mobile Texaco Chevron and Exxon 0 These oil companies were vertical integrated companies This means that they have the means to search for their own oil pump it into their own tankstankers bring it to their own refineries and then they send it to their own gas stations I This makes it near impossible for a new gas company to form Oil producing companies begin to stop producing other goods when they start pumping oil Venezuela looked back to the Texas Railroad commission to form the idea of OPEC Trade issues OPEC would regulate the production of oil as well as the price of a barrel of oil OPEC didn t work in the 1960s because of the abundance of oil during that time but by the late 1960s oil demand rose due to car usage by teenagers in the US and cars in the US began to demand more gas and OPEC gained power over the llSeven Sisters The October War between Israel and Egypt occurred and when the US helps Israel the Arab countries banned the sale of oil to the US and the Netherlands The llSeven Sisters had to enforce the ban of oil towards the US and they had to reroute all oil from all countries 0 US would get Nigerian and Venezuelan oil and the rest of the world would receive Arab oil 0 Prices shot up from 180 a barrel to around 15 a barrel When the Israelis captured the Egyptian army the US renegotiated the end of the ban of oil to the US by the Arab countries for the release of the Egyptian army 0 US citizens decided not to pay for gas guzzlers and allowed the expansion ofJapanese car dealers in the US due to lack of reformation of American car makers In the 1980s there was a trend to get away from OPEC by updating the insulation of houses furnaces and fuel efficient vehicles and this allowed the drop of the price of oil 0 This caused OPEC to only pump an excess amount of oil when the price is high and pump less when there is a low demand 0 Most Favored Nation That the US would give Japan the same rights and benefits as the US s most favorite trading partner Political Science Pa rt Two Traditional International System 0 Historically defined global relationships as realists o Realism perceives actors within the international system as not bound by external constraints Understanding Realism in the Traditional System 0 How actorsstates use perceptions to define their security the use of force types of conflict and the role of the military 0 Nuclear weapons in North Korea and Iran I Forces political action other countries US demanded North Korea to stop nuclear weapon development and US would give North Korea economic support so North Korea would win either way 0 Beliefs formed through perceptions by actors shape the structure of the international system and how states use the system and other actors to act in their own selfinterest Realist Actors are driven by 0 The elimination of insecurity and protection from other actors 0 Military protection as well as economic protection 0 SelfInterest is the driving force behind all state behavior 0 Belief that the international system is amoral state goals matter more than morality 0 President of Sudan is only cared about the implementation of their policy instead the lives of his people in Darfur 0 Understandings of a hierarchical and stratified structure in which actors are constantly engaged in conflict with one another Traditional International System Foreign Policy 0 Patterns of interactions among actors shape the formation of policy objectives which further state interests and goals The Dynamics of Foreign Policy 0 Domestically determined needs 0 The perception of the behaviors displayed by other actors 0 Their perceptions of the motivations and intentions of other actors The reshuffling of foreign policy imperatives and the restructuring of international order is based on the actions of other states The state is considered the main actor within the international system 0 State to state interactions 0 Diplomacy o Collective Entities o IMF UN World Bank 0 MultinationalCorporations o CocaCola WalMart and McDonalds There is no supranational actor international world government 0 No entity enforces rules that dictate the actions of states 0 European Union 0 States in the system still retain their sovereignty 0 Supreme authority over a given territory 0 Enforcement mechanisms such as economic sanctions are considered compulsory 0 States agree to international sanctions to punish actor s behavior International Anarchy o Is understood as the absence of formal institutions and the decentralization of power and authority Restraints are placed on the actions of actors emerge from two primary sources 0 Domestic sources 0 Public Opinion 0 Natural and material resources 0 Geography 0 Culture 0 External Sources 0 The influence of actors in the international system 0 Seeks to prevent the rise of a hegemonic power The presence of international conflicts and security is also prevalent in an anarchic system Realists believe that conflict is an inevitable consequence of anarchy The presence of constant violence and the threats of potential violence leaves no state safe within the system The scarcity of resources freedom of actors within the system and their responsiveness to internal and external constraints can create or mitigate the prospects of conflict and security 0 Hans MorganthauquotStates are either recovering or preparing for war The Security Dilemma o Defines the system under anarchy as one in which actors anticipate actions by the other to create its own security leading to uncertainty and insecurities on both sides 0 Tit for tat I The development of the space programs in both Russia and the US is an example of this 0 Actors are able to enjoy true security if it can make all other actors accept an insecure existence 0 Impossible scenario based on international anarchy SelfInterest and Self Help 0 Is a necessary consequence of the system as cooperation among actors is difficult International Agreements are coordinated interests among actors o Adherence is only enforceable if those actors affected by the defection of another actor take action 0 Economic sanctions 0 Economic Aid 0 Diplomatic expulsions 0 International shaming 0 Actors utilize both selfinterest and selfhelp to their benefit in international organizations but also use their resources to back up international agreements The pursuit of selfinterests can lead to miscalculation 0 States have too ascertained how to role of geography resources and scarcity play a role in how states perceive their foreign policy and national security interests International Morality o SelfInterest and anarchy ignores issues of international morality o Humanitarianlntervention o The lack of authority and sovereignty in the international system fail to apply moral standards held for individual actions within states to the global environment Standards regarding International Morality are often determined by the balance of power among states 0 Strong states versus weak states Failed negotiations among states often lead to the intensification of conflicts with little regard to their impact on the environment or the loss of human life Things to remember 0 The international system consists of many entities living side by side in an anarchic world with few constraints 0 Security in the system is not always achievable or obtained and peace is fragile based on competition among actors 0 States in a realist world are always suspicious of the motivation of one another 0 Selfinterests of actors defines their foreign policy motivates along with the presence of their military capabilities o Morality and cooperation are irrelevant according to realists unless states are acing in their own interest and selfhelp 0 Dependence on other actors for aid in maintaining security of obtaining key resources is intolerable TraditionalRealist View of International Politics The state is the key in international politics Anarchy A key in the international community is insecurity and is created by anarchy Always looking for what you can do to better your country 0 Called selfhelp o Miscalculation leads to disaster 0 US have been making miscalculations in the buying oil 0 Emphasizing protecting territory and people and that a strong military trumps all and emphasizing the state makes all the difference 0 This idea was thought after the First World War 0 Collective Security was made for the international community and would be used to punish a state that acts up I Doesn t work because some aggressors are not aggressors o The idea of disbarment became an idea after World War 1 and many countries believed it was a good idea until Japan and Germany began to build armies o KelloggBriand Treaty was created to stop war with each other and outlaws war I Didn t work because Germany Japan and Italy all signed the treaty 0 Economic sanctions were created to place sanctions on aggressive countries 0 quot20 Years Crisis by Carr criticize all these forms of change 0 Morgenthau preached realist views The Great depression changed the outlook on politics and a Realist view of international politics cannot be used The Great Depression caused new economic policies to be adopted not only in the US but in the whole international community 0 Now during elections people will vote on how a leader handles the economy and expects that the economy needs to expand in order for the public to believe that the leader has done a good job Since we allowed Germany into NATO then it prevented them from recycling into a new fascist leader and attack Europe again and the same ideas were implemented with Japanese and ltalians o Enemies of WW2 are now allies and fight besides us in Afghanistan New international programs were created like the IMF World Bank and the UN Conflict now doesn t exist between Great Powers or that each are democracies and democracies won t fight each other 0 China wouldn t go to war with another advanced country Three groups cause problems nowadays Three examples 0 Rogue State I lran North Korea Zimbabwe and Myanmar I Not are big threats to world peace 0 Failed State I Government and economy is failing in this state I Somalia Lebanon and Afghanistan I Terrorists hide in failed states and won t get found in failed states 0 International Terrorist Group Perception on the World and Russia Russia 0 Three Geography Points 0 Size of Country 0 Isolation 0 Border and Frontier 0 Russia has more and better distribution of natural resources 0 Reasons for the inability to get natural resources I Hard for Russia to keep up with their communication and roads since the country is so big I Hard to exploit resources because they have a lower ability to get those resources I Russia has made it inhospitable to foreign companies 0 Trade 0 Two predominant trading systems I Sea routes 0 Mediterranean 0 Russia hasn t been able to participate in trade because they are isolated from the Mediterranean and the Turks who controlled lstanbul wouldn t trade with them 0 North Atlantic Ocean 0 Where not able to trade through here because countries whole controlled that area wouldn t allow Russia to trade Russians began to be paranoid towards the rest of the world because of their isolation to the rest of the world 0 Since they were isolated in trade they were not able to share new advances with the rest of the world 0 Withdrew and decided not join many international groups 0 GATT General Agreement on Tariffs amp Trade Russia did join this group I This group would set up guidelines for international trade and all countries involved would accept and observe the guidelines 0 Poor banking system no checking or credit card system Frontiers and Borders 0 Unlike the US Russia does not have limited borders like the US does 0 Natural types of borders I Ocean I Mountain Range 0 Russia has doesn t have a lot of natural borders and they have been invaded a lot I Napoleon I Crimean War I RussoJapanese War 0 Japanese sunk most of the Russian navy I World War 1 o By Germany I PolandRussia 0 Was over border disputes on how much land Poland has I RussiaJapan preWorld War 2 I World War 2 o Hitler s plan to invade Russia was codenamed Barbarossa 0 Wanted to attack to Russia for oil and their other natural resources 0 Hitler did not hold a high respect to the Russian army since Stalin purged high command of the Russian Army 0 Also a Russian defeat in Finland also didn t help Hitler s opinion of the Russian army Russian Foreign Policy MolotovRibbentrop pact was negotiated by WW2 o This was pact tried to ensure peace between the two countries o It also divided Poland and gave some land to Russia When Germany attacked Russia Stalin at first didn t believe the report and told his troops not to fire initially and possibly had a mental breakdown He regained his composure and gave his troops orders After Germans initial attack they decided to go south to attack to try to get the Caspian Sea oil fields Germany then decided to capture Stalingrad and Stalin wanted to defend the city to the death At Kursk it was the Russian s last great defensive The Germans discovered a plan to attack the Russians the Russians found out and after a brief delay in the attack the Germans attacked and Russia won the battle Besides giving arms to Britain the US gave Russia arms 0 Only two ways to ship arms I Through the Arctic Sea during the Summer I Though PersiaIran only smaller shipments Atlantic Charter 0 Expression of three major goals I 1st goal was to promote democracy I 2quotd goal was National SelfDetermination I 3 goal that all involved will renounce territorial gains after the war 0 Atlantic Charter was not signed 0 Russia did not go along with the Atlantic Charter Russia wanted a two front war and Russia constantly demanded that Britain and the US attack France 0 Winston Churchill told Stalin that he had a two front war in beginning of the war when France was still independent but they let Germany take it 0 US tried to tell Stalin that it will take some time for the US to build up their military in order to invade France but Stalin didn t care and just wanted the US to attack 0 June 6th 1944 the Battle of Normandy occurs 0 When Germany was retreating out of Russia they killed citizens at random and destroyed land and buildings 0 Russian casualties 25 million 0 Russia thought that the US and Britain were crazy because the two thought that Germany should be united as one and that Poland should be democratic 0 West Germany was set up by Britain and the US 0 Russia decided that to combat the growth of democracy of Germany Russia cut off Berlin from the British and the US I Russia believed that either the two would give up on forming a democracy in Germany or the US and Britain would attack Berlin and the Russians believed they would win that battle 0 By the early 1950s the US got tired of Russian actions and the US under Eisenhower believed that the US need to push the Russians back O O O The problem with this policy is that Americans did not want to go to battle or spend too much money and have to tax the people excessively The solution was nuclear weapons Russia didn t until 1949 The Hydrogen Bomb was created next US had a nuclear advantage compared to the Russians The new political policy created by Eisenhower was massive retaliation This was that the US would launch an allout nuclear attack on an attacking country This is a deterrent type of policy Created for the containment of the Soviet Union and communism Military lndustrial Conquest was the type of policy Eisenhower believed in 0 Russia of course did not like this policy 0 They fought this was an aggressive policy 0 Decided to respond I Insurgency campaign in developing countries against the US Creation of Nuclear weapons and missile carriers First satellite launched into space Sputnik o The Russians said that Sputnik had technology on it that would help for lCBM o It was hoax and Russia said this to try to be left alone by the US 0 US responded by creating our own lCBMs by 1960s Flexible Response created by Kennedy and all of the US military was strengthened Russia offered protection to Cuba and in return Russia was allowed to put mediumrange missiles on Cuba to attack the US 0 Cuban missile crisis occurred due to this 0 Russian leader Khrushchev decided to remove nuclear missiles from Cuba 0 Khrushchev was over thrown by Brezhnev due to the mishap in Cuba and the hoax of nuclear missiles US created Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles SLBM Hard to find where SLBM are while lCBMs are in fixed missile silo locations US also developed the MIRV system Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicle and carry multiple nuclear weapons to hit multiple targets Then the US developed the Cruise missiles Stays low to the ground and maps the ground to help it stay on target 0 Cheap to make I 82 Bomber and Fighters were developed and could not be detected by radar o Russians by the mid1980s were afraidscared of what the Americans might do and if they might attack 0 When Gorbachev became leader and brought up that US was far superior economically and that Russia needed to have change in politics I By the 1980s no one in Russia felt comfortable in developing new technologies and creating new ideas I Gorbachev decided to loosen restrictions in Russia in fear that the Russia will lose to America I Russia was multinational and many groups of people wanted independence 0 Gorbachev was supposedly to be overthrown by hardline Communists in August 1991 but instead it ended up in dissolving the Soviet Union The Fall of the Soviet UnionForeign Policies 0 Gorbachev tries to change the Communist philosophy that everyone is paid the same 0 Starts in 1986 o Perestroika Restructuring in Russian 0 He knows that there will be resistance against his change coming from old thinkers and factory managers and others benefiting from the system 0 To restructure he brings glasnost or freedom to the people of Russia I He wanted the people to tell the government people who are challenging perestroika I However he opened Pandora s box and the people began to also complain about more issues 0 In the late 1980 s Boris Yeltsin is hired by Gorbachev but then is later fired 0 He begins to work his way up through the Russian state for Russian independence from the Soviet Union 0 Yeltsin beats Gorbachev s candidate in the election in Russia 0 Russia becomes more powerful than the Soviet Union as a whole 0 Romantic Phase 19921993 Western influence in Russia 0 Yeltsin brings in the IMF and the World Bank and they perform shock therapy within the country I They liberalized foreign trade and more I This caused hyperinflation and the Rupee became useless I Yeltsin was almost impeached o Yeltsin then wants a new constitution referendum I This would strengthen the power of the president I Wins favor in Parliament then dissolves Parliament afterwards to create a weaker Parliament o The Parliament workers barricaded themselves within Parliament and after a while Yeltsin sends in the troops and they shoot 100 people I Yeltsin wins election but loses favor but then after crossing the country campaigning he wins reelection I Steps down in 1999 and Putin becomes president Russia thinks of itself as a powerful ethos even though they are not as powerful as they used to be Russian thinks they are acting defensively even though it seems to the outside world that they are acting aggressively The Russian people can t decide whether they are a Revisionist or Status Quote country Three groups of people in Russia 0 ProWestern Liberal lnternationalists Close to Europe want Russia to be a part of the international community 0 NeoImperialists o Slavophiles Identifies as Russians as an ethnic group Three phases of Russian Foreign Policy 0 quotRomantic I Phase 19921993 I Western ideals are adopted into Russia but caused an economic downturn o Russians become sour towards Western Influences o Reassertion Phase 19931999 I Russia s leaders come to reality of international politics and realize that there is no one to help them to rebuild 0 New Realism 20002008 I Under Putin he is known for trying to rebuild Russia I Assertion of state power to protect Russian companies I 60 of Russia s exports are oil Putin s foreign policy approach is more assertive than Yeltsin and more realistic 0 He has more appreciation of Russia s actually abilities then believing it s a superpower 0 His policy is geared to state sovereignty 0 He also believes that US shouldn t control world politics and that a rising coalition of developing countriesrising powers should control politics and policies 0 There was a close USRussia partnership right after 911 0 This changed when the US betrays Putin when the US went into Iraq because they believed that Iraq was a sovereign state and didn t need to be invaded I The Color Revolutions in Georgia Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine created new Westerninfluenced governments US left the antiballistic missile treaty US opened up discussions with Poland and other countries to have defensive missile silos in Eastern Europe Russian Culture 0 Four characteristics 0 Xenophobia I Fear of foreigners I Because they have been invaded so much 0 No frontiers to protect themselves 0 Desire to expand I Only way to defend themselves is to invade other countries so they are not invaded I Believe that they need a sphere of influence over the countries that surround them 0 Attachment to Authoritarian government I Figure that a centralized government is a certainty to stay defended against other countries 0 Little to no democracy in Russia 0 Multinationalism I A lot of small countries were annexed by the Soviet Union I Mixed into the Russian society 0 Many groups formed their own countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union I US has a multi ethnic society 0 People in the US from other countries believe their American and have no claims to the land I Marxists argue that in a Capitalist society 0 Two classes 0 Capitalist class or bourgeoisie that control the society and are the privileged class 0 Proletariat class is the other and the class that isn t as well off I Proletariats are constantly taken advantage of by the bourgeoisie and that the bourgeoisie exploits the proletariat Constant tension between the two groups according to the Marxists Capitalism began to change 0 Democracy began to spread throughout the world and began to modernize I The Marxists said that in the Democratic system was controlled by the bourgeoisie 0 Labor Unions started to form o Marxists believe that the labor union leaders will being to befriend the bourgeoisie and will begin to act and become members of the bourgeoisie 0 Both give the proletariats more rights 0 The Marxists failed to recognize these two changes and avoided the issue 0 Imperialism I Lenin argues that Imperialism extends how long Capitalism lasts I Lenin believes that wars will exhaust Capitalism 0 Once Capitalism is overthrown and Communism is emplaced I Communism is the vanguard of the proletariat I No more police and only an army until all other capitalist countries are gone or destroyed 0 Can t have a perfect Communist society only unless there are no more Capitalist countries left and everyone else is Communist Affects and the Geography of the US 0 Good Borders 0 Prevents any attacks and foreign invasion I Only invasion to the mainland of the US in 1812 by the British I International terrorism is only an annoyance to the US 0 Great Powers that were in the US I Purchase of Lousiana end French influence in the US I Annexation of Florida ended Spanish influence I Canada being independent of the British I Annexation of Alaska ended Russian influence 0 Manifest Destiny I That the US was chosen by God to expand and the US has a certain political role in the world 0 Most countries in the world have or have had this idea 0 Commercial Activity 0 America is wellsuited for commercial activity I America was created for success commercially o All the way back to Jamestown by the British 0 The river systems allowed the transportation of goods all the way to international harbors 0 Good Harbors o The US was almost selfsufficient and didn t need to engage in international trade I Rubber was the only necessity that the US need during WW2 o A new rubber substitute was created near the end of WW2 0 Isolation o Affect of American culture I At a settlement you cannot have a class system 0 The US is more polite and respective to people in more menially jobs 0 Everyone has to participate in every day jobs and everyone has to defend against attack 0 Cooperation of everybody 0 Two ways of getting a person who don t participate in helping the settlement I Smack them around I Be overran by the enemy o Attitude towards government 0 The creation of a new system of government I This is because of the separation of the US to Europe I Limit government power 0 Certain power given to 0 Local Government 0 Federal Government 0 Federal Government Power was separated up into 3 parts 0 Legislative 0 Judicial 0 Executive 0 George Washington gave an address to the American public as he left office I Avoid politics in Europe 0 Only extreme cases in European war are excusable I No permanent alliances o Allies will drag you into conflicts that are not necessary 0 Foreign Policy 0 Strong tie to isolationism 0 Louisiana Purchase besides expanding the country was also isolationist I Getting rid of foreign influence in North America 0 Getting rid of the possibility of a French invasion by Napoleon I Easier trade by getting the port that caps the Mississippi river system 0 Monroe Doctrine I The western hemisphere was closed to European colonization I US had no navy until the 1890s so the British decided to enforce the Monroe Doctrine since they had the world s strongest navy I Central American countries didn t like the Monroe Doctrine because they didn t like how America decided the fate of the whole Western Hemisphere Acquistion of Texas 0 Texas used to be a part of Mexico as well as most of the southwest 0 US settlers in Texas were illegal immigrants in Mexico 0 Decided to be independent succeeded from Mexico and later joined the US 0 US and Mexico had a war to decide the border of the two countries 0 American aggressive expansion 0 Border set at the Rio Grande after the US won the war US Military 0 After the war with Mexico the US had a very poor military 0 Alfred Thayer Mahan wanted the US to build a navy to prevent invasion from foreigners Cuba 0 The US first became interested in Cuba before the civil war because the south wanted another slave state 0 After the civil war was fought interest was lost in Cuba 0 Cuba rebelled against the Spanish and used guerilla war fair 0 The US anchored a warship in a Cuban harbor to warn the Spanish I It somehow blew up and the American became infuriated 0 US decided to go to war with Spain 0 US won the war because of their new navy was a lot better than the Spanish navy 0 US also won territory in the Philippines and made it a colony 0 Puerto Rico became a colony as well 0 Cuba did not become a colony because of the Teller Amendment said that the US could not take it as a colony I Cuban new constitution o Platt Amendment 0 US has the right to Guantanamo Bay 0 US also had the right to intervene in Cuban politics and international trade US interest in Latin America 0 The Europeans had many tactics in colonization in many countries 0 The British were most notorious for this I They took over Egypt by Gunboat diplomacy 0 They threaten the Egyptians after the Egyptians defaulted on a loan and the British took control of the Egyptian treasury and threatened Egypt with military force 0 Britain decided to use Gunboat diplomacy against Venezuela when the Venezuelans defaulted on their loan 0 Theodore Roosevelt was president and the US stepped in prevented the British from taking over Venezuela I US had to help Venezuela repay their loans 0 The Monroe Doctrine was rewritten and the rewrite included that the US would have to work on any problems in Latin America I Dominican Republic was one instance of America invaded a Latin American country that defaulted on their loans I Latin American countries didn t like this because they believed that they were being treated as children Woodrow Wilson had a plan to end international war forever after WW1 0 First part of his idea was the League of Nation collective security 0 Militaries had to be disarmed 0 Europe didn t like this because they didn t believe in the idea and didn t want to give up their armies and navies 0 Second part of his idea was that democracy had to be spread to each other 0 Democratic countries don t attack other democratic countries 0 Third part was national selfdetermination 0 England and France didn t like this because they didn t want to give up their colonies and territories o The fourth and final part was free trade 0 Trade doesn t stop during war Political Science Notes Part Three US Entrance into World War 2 US president Woodrow Wilson believed that there had to be change in world politics 0 National selfdetermination 0 Less military buildup 0 Spread of democracy 0 More international trade 0 More international trade would stop wars with each other because it would cause bad business The American people did not like Wilson s new postwar policies in international politics they did n t like international trade they also wanted the US to have a strong military and didn t like national self determination Americans also didn t want to get in European politics 0 Especially when Mussolini and Hitler came into power A law was passed that restricted trade to Europe 0 Soon Americans companies couldn t sell to any products to countries at war US ships couldn t ship any US goods or carry passengers to Europe and banks couldn t loan any money to the Europeans When Germany attacked Poland and killed of the Polish population US Congress routinely looked for ways to help the llgood guys of World War 2 0 They began the cash amp carry policy in which the British and French would buy in cash US ammunition and other war goods and they would have to bring them back using their own ships May 10th 1940 Germany attacked and conquered the French and sent the British back to In 1940 the US passed the 1940 Defense Act which put economic pressure on Germany but the US still didn t want to get involved in the war Winston Churchill asked if the British could have 50 old naval destroyers from World War 1 and in return the US would get to have bases in Bermuda By December 1940 the LendLease policy began in which the US would loan their fellow democracies tanks and other war goods 0 The US believed that if the British lost the war then the Germans would o This gave the most power ever to the president and allowed the president to give any US goods military or other goods to any country anytime o The president was also allowed to open repair stations for repairs around the world so that they wouldn t have to go back to their homeland 0 And finally the US president was allowed to set a price of repayment of a country we help In the summer of 1941 the US set up base in Iceland to protect against an attack against the Germans and then the US announced that US ships would attack any German ships they see The Atlantic Charter was created with the British in August 1941 and announced the spread of democracy and the US and British would not gain any territory after the war The US entered the war because they were attacked by the Japanese in Pearl Harbor They attacked because the US refused to sell them oil anymore and the US prevented from gaining land in the South Pacific 0 This was because the Japanese moved into Southeast Asia in Vietnam Also they believed that US goods were coming from Burma now Myanmar to China 0 The Japanese didn t believe that the Chinese couldn t survive without outside intervention 0 Japan believed that by 1942 that they had to either negotiate with the US or attack lndonesia then after the Philippines and Singapore due to pressure from the lack of oil 0 Japan then believed that they also needed to knock out the US navy in Pearl Harbor 0 The Japanese decided to negotiate with the US and started to plan their attack After negotiations failed then they attacked Pearl Harbor I They hoped that the US would quit and not attack back even though a leading Japanese general Yamamoto who attended Harvard University said that the US would become infuriated After the attack in Pearl Harbor and the destruction of battle ships they failed to realize that battle ships were pretty useless in modern war and the US became infuriated on the attack Truman tricked the US public about the United Nations and made them believe that the United Nations was just the allies of the war and the government introduced it during the war 0 After the war when the real UN was introduced to the US public they were receptive to it and were in favor of the formation of the UN Mid to late 1940 s US foreign policy was how the US could help European democracies survive against communism and the Soviet Union 0 The US did not want to send a lot of troops into Europe and wanted to cut down their army of at least 12 million troops at the end of the war 0 After the war there were a lot of issues 0 Most of Europe was destroyed including railways communication lines and dikes in the Netherlands factories and steel mills across Europe 0 People were moved by the Germans across Europe far from their homeland and were left into foreign countries 0 The US had a politician named Kennan who supported containment 0 He argued that the US needed to stop the spread of Communism and this would cause the Russians to give their people more consumer goods I Once they receive more consumer goods they want more and more consumer goods 0 The US believed that if the Soviet Union did something that US didn t like the Americans would flex their muscles and the Russians would cower in fear This however was a naive approach 0 The Marshall plan was created o It would give money and economic relief to countries that needed it I In West Germany the currency was cigarettes I This would combat Communism because Communism favors people in poverty stricken countries 0 NATO was created was also founded after the war 0 Created to form a military force that would combat the Soviet Union and the spread of communism I Each country would designate a part of their army to the NATO army and the army was commanded by US generals I The entire German army was under the control by NATO and the US 0 Had three jobs British I Russians out 0 Stop the spread of communism I Americans in 0 Have the US involved in European politics I Keep the Germans down 0 Stop them to from causing problems 0 This was our foreign policy in Europe up until June 1950 After North Korea attacked South Korea the US decided that the US needed to get involved in Japan and the Philippines in Asia 0 The US believed that they needed to stop the spread of communism and the US had to stop the North Koreans from conquering the USmade South Korea 0 Also they believed that they were obligated to help South Koreans as well as the Japanese The US didn t help aid the nonCommunist Chinese because it would require the US to send at least a million troops into China The US also helped Taiwan prevent Communist influence in the small country o The French wanted their colonies in Indochina back but the people of Indochina Cambodia Laos and Vietnam resisted o The resisting army used guerilla warfare and attacked the weak points of an army then run like hell 0 The US gave money and guns to the French so they would n t have to get involved in Vietnam and they would stay in Korea 0 After Dien Bien Phu fell the French decided to leave Vietnam Soviet Union supported many independence wars around the world to try to spread Communism around the world and to get the US involved in the wars 0 US feared the spread of Communism o Soviet clients 0 Cuba Nicaragua Korea Vietnam Angola Mozambique Ethiopia and Sudan I In Nicaragua the Sandanistas took control of the country from the Nicaraguan leader Somoza I US supported the Contras movement in Nicaragua to combat the communist leadership of the Sandanista party This was a similar plan in Mozambique and in other African countries Gorbachov wanted a tremendous change in Russian economics and society Soviet Union began to fall apart by itself and the US just sat back and watched o The new views on the US s new enemies o Realist views I China would be the next world power 0 China has transformed itself completely in 17 years I European Union I Possibly Russia I Russia s economy has collapsed and now poses no threat to the US the EU has not strengthen itself yet and China has became closer to the US and has no territorial gain concerning in the US 0 Liberal views I Biggest challenges in the commercial realm and the US needed to keep on invigorating our economy I Believed the threat from the developing world and that the EU are only commercial threat 0 Reactions by the two views I Liberals will believe an attack is due to from an independent group while for Realists they believe that a country is involved and supported the attack o Realists believed that Saddam Hussein sponsored the 911 attacks Other Countries Viewed other countries by the names of 0 Developing Countries 0 These countries have a chance to strengthen and become a major player 0 Underdeveloped Countries 0 A radical view no chance of these countries to improve in the international arena 0 Third World Countries 0 First World US and their allies Western Europe Japan Canada and Australia 0 Second World Soviet Union and its satellites Korea Vietnam Angola China and Eastern Europe 0 Third World Anyone else pursued nonalignment I Followed nonalignment because they feared that they would be involved in a Proxy War in which they would be supplied and directed by the either the US or the Soviet Union to attack another country 0 International South 0 Located in South America Africa and Southern parts of Asia Characteristics of developing countries 0 Former colonies 0 European countries wanted them for natural resources and to strategically hold colonies 0 After WW1 and WW2 war in Europe allowed for colonies to fight for independence 0 ln 1950 s and 1960 s explosion independence of former colonies 0 When they were freed they were usually followed by corruption and an economic downturn I In Congo they had trouble running their new government for a couple of reasons The Katanga or Shaba tribe believed that they shouldn t be apart of Congo because they had valuable copper resources in their province There was no education within the country and only a couple dozen of people had a high school education I Nigeria also had some problems 0 Over 100 tribes in Nigeria 0 They were called tribes because it was all political and the European countries called them that to avoid selfdetermination by the African nationstribes o The Ibo tribe was living in the Southern part of Nigeria and they were located in oil fields They wanted to succeed but the rest of Nigeria didn t allow them to succeed I Unlike Africa most European states there are no more groups fighting for independence besides in Eastern Europe 0 Issues that countries in Africa are different then in Western Europe and the US 0 Usually focus on Imperialist issues I Many countries believe that they are being effective by neoimperialism o Neoimperialism is foreign investment into their countries by multi national corporations I They hate the IMF because the changes that the IMF requires could not mesh into a developing country s circumstances and could ruin the country s economy even worse 0 Nation building I People identify with each other from a similar country no matter what part of the country they are from I People in Africa don t usually identify with people from other parts of their country 0 Economic Growth and development 0 Poverty 0 Data Untied States Union South Africa East Asia Latin America 0 The bottom four is where developing countries are 0 The rich people in the country skew the GDP per capita upwards and the average person probably makes a lot less Most poverty countries have a poor water system disease and vitamin deficiency in the population of their society 0 People in developing countries are willing to do menial jobs just to get paid because this is how they achieve an income 0 The poor will also rummage through garbage to try to find tin foil or aluminum cans Countries will promote o No Capital Flight Means that people who have money will try to put their money outside of their country in US banks or even Swiss banks 0 Rich Jamaicans put their money in US banks to avoid the Jamaican government from getting any of their money I This failed for the Jamaicans and the economy was ruined I To try to revive the economy Jamaica aired ads in America to have Americans come visit Jamaica 0 Redistribution is minimal during this 0 Growth Two types of growth 0 Import Substitution I Strategy erect a very high trade barrier by creating a protective tariff to avoid foreigners products from getting into the country I US started this in the 18001820 I First major tariff was in 1828 in the US I Won t work in developing country because they don t have enough rich people to buy products from their home country 0 Also needs to be a big population 0 The country needs to be able to set up the industries 0 Export Led Growth Make a lot of money in foreign markets and then use the money gained and use it to make new industries within your country I This approach is better for povertystricken countries I Pioneered by Japan after World War 2 0 Japan had system called Keiretsu in their corporate structure 0 One structure that oversees a company I It worked in South Korea 0 After the Korean War South Korea was one of the poorest countries on earth but after they used the export led growth approach their economy has skyrocketed I Need to have an export market to be successful 0 The US and the EU aren t very willing to accept goods from overseas at a lower price 0 Unemployment and public anger rises due to the introduction of exports I Everyone begins to create the same types of industries and causes everyone to fail because there is a massive influx of the same types of goods 0 Factors of Production Basic ingredients to produce goods or services 0 Three factors I Land 0 Territorial expanse 0 Types of naturals resources 0 Topography 0 Will it be easy to build on the land or move goods 0 Climate 0 Soil content 0 Land can be overcome because like Hong Kong Singapore and Taiwan don t have a lot of natural resources but they are still successful I Labor 0 Characteristics of your population 0 Amount of people 0 SkillSets 0 Education 0 Health I Capital 0 Money 0 Two kinds of money 0 Soft currency 0 Hard currency Currency that can be used anywhere in the international community US dollar is a hard currency 0 Gives the US a huge benefit I Three hardest currency 0 US Dollar 0 Euro 0 Yen I Four ways to get hard currency 0 Aid 0 Trade 0 Loan 0 Foreign Investment 0 Developing countries struggle with capital 0 Ways to get hard currency 0 Aid I Grant I Concessional Loan 0 A loan that is below market interest rate I Problems with foreign aid 0 Liberal Critique 0 Not enough aid be given out 0 Foreign aid often comes with strings attached to them 0 All too often military aid 0 Conservative critque 0 Can strife business in the developing countries 0 Trade I Favorable Balance of Trade 0 You sell more to the international community then you buy 0 Advance countries don t want the goods of developing countries Developing countries will complain that the countries that they O are trying to sell goods at a really low price and say you re lldumping 0 Loan I Go to a large bank in the US Japan andor Europe 0 Banks would rather give loans to a person than a country because a person has collateral while they can t get anything from a country 0 The country will get a higher interest rate than the person will get 0 Only way to pay it back is to get a favorable balance of trade 0 Foreign Investment I Three reasons for Foreign Investment 0 Natural Resources 0 Labor 0 Market I Other possible factors 0 Entrepreneurial Ability o Managerial capabilities of people in your society I Also how they are taught o Other societies have poor university system and aren t as rigorous as in the US 0 Technology 0 Efficiency 0 Ability to use your natural resources efficiently o Bechtel is a company that will brings technology to any country that needs anything I Will build anything from a chemical plant to an airport I Except technology that concerns national security Culture 0 Look at dichotomies o Ascription vs Achievement I Ascription Stature in society is developed on what the majority of the people are born into 0 Race gender and religion hinder people s chance from gaining major roles I Achievement People work to earn new spot in society 0 Nepotism vs Merit I Nepotism Societies where the people who are in power only care for their own and will give jobs to friends or followers 0 The people are usually under qualified and are not expected to be good workers 0 Typical in developing societies I Merit People are hired by past experiences and merit o Particularism vs Universalism I Particularistic People who are loyal to small parties I Universalists Loyal to the society as a whole I Political Socialization Process of which where everyone in the world get their value of the world 0 Three major avenues 0 Family 0 Peers 0 Government I Work mostly in schools 0 Corruption lnvolves people taking advantage of other individuals who deserve what they are taking 0 Political conflicts can arise from technological advances 0 Conflict Patterns 0 Every country wants to advance technological grow their economy and make average life better for their society I People will start leaving the countryside because they believe that there are more opportunities in the city I Deprivation type of pattern 0 They see that there is a population in a city that is wealthy and they become angered 0 Doesn t last that long I Resources 0 When people have or take over natural resources people will be want to take back or over those resources 0 Violent conflict can follow 0 Happened in Congo in the area of Shaba with copper I Cultural 0 When culture is the reason for conflict 0 In Iran the shah tried to modernize the country into a major player in world politics It was called the White Revolution Conservatives and traditionalists had issues with his reforms Shah was finding resistance with traditionalists the middle class O O and foreign investors Power in International Politics Power To have others do what you want them to do against their will and then preventing them from them doing things that you don t want to do 0 Who are you trying to control Interdependence If two bodies either a person and a group or two countries are dependent on each other There is a lot more emphasis on getting the people of the country to support an idea or political stance o Politicians will turn to the people to try to gain support if they get turned down by other politicians Congress or the House of Rep 0 They use propaganda to influence the people Fake control Number of ways you can get someone to do what you want them to do 0 1 Takthemintoit o Diplomacy o 2ndMakeadea o Incentive I Foreign aid I Bribe o 3rdCoercion o Militaryforce 4 C Conditions 0 Capability 0 Whether you have the resources in order to do something 0 Do you have I Tactics I Logistics I Public support I Weapons 0 Carter Doctrine The US would resist any Soviet attempt to gain any land in the Persian Gulf I Jimmy Carter did have weapons and tactics but didn t have logistics or public support with his plan 0 Credibility 0 Whether your opponent believes that you are actually going to do what you said you re going to do I If you have a history doing it it will help them believe that you will do it 0 Bad credibility I US in Europe during the cold war and Russia calling out the US I Persian Gulf War and Hussein believed the US wouldn t do anything 0 Communications 0 If you want something from someone you have to tell them what you want 0 Then you tell them what they get if they give you what you want 0 If they don t give you what you want you are going to do something retaliation I Need an overall strategy I Hitler did this in Munich with the British and French 0 He wanted the land in area of Sudetenland 0 He claimed that by national selfdetermination that they should be a part of Germany He also said that would be the last piece of territory the Germans would gain If they didn t let them have the territory he would create another world war I John F Kennedy in the Cuba Missile Crisis Russia pulls their nuclear missiles out of Cuba and the US would pull theirs out of Turkey and would not invade Cuba I Bad Communications 0 lnvolve that if they don t go along with you they will be better off 0 Compliance 0 The country you are trying to convince actually does what you want 0 Rational 0 Value System Persuasion o What gives you influence 0 Value system 0 Economic abilities 0 Democracy Bribery 0 Selling resources or weapons 0 Buying bases or nuclear weapons overprice 0 Why bribery fails 0 Countries don t want what the bribery contains because of various factors I Russia and expansion into Eastern Europe I Vietnam and the Mekong Project under Lyndon Johnson I Hezbollah with hostages in Iran Protection of Kuwaitis oil tankers in the Persian Gulf and the attack of an US battleship Types of War 0 Russett and Starr have figured out that since WW2 80 of wars have involved guerilla warfare or terrorism 0 Before WW2 guerilla warfare was a rare occurrence 0 French marquee and the Red resistance in Russia 0 Militaries that have developed such as the US or UK hate guerilla warfare or terrorism 0 They run up against a lot of problems one is that they have to figure out who they are attacking so that they don t attack civilians o Krepinevich wrote a book on how the US was trying to avoid fighting against guerilla warfare in Vietnam 0 They prefer fighting against a definite enemy military I Avoid collateral damage and killing civilians o Avoiding using nuclear weapons or other large weapons 0 Delineated battle field and the military has to attack only certain areas where guerillas are I Avoiding escalation and keep war within lineated area 0 Showing resolve and prove to your enemy that you are credible o Counterinsurgency policy against guerilla warfare began in Vietnam I Created to show the Russians that the US will fight guerilla warfare in countries that the Soviets support guerillas O Instability with the borders between two countries makes countries worried that it will spill over into their country I This occurred during the Mexican Revolution and raiding parties were led by Poncho Villa 0 Specific reasons to fight certain wars to show resolve border has instability to show dominance or to prevent drug trades I Want to avoid one of these to get out of control 0 Social Organization 0 The government can use the people to do their bidding o Urbanization I The government can find people easily within their cities 0 Attack civilians to make them bend to your will as well as breaking the supply chain and break their moral Total War 0 Only one goal victory 0 Will sacrifice everything to win the war and the entire economy will be invested into the war 0 Needs urbanization and social order to suck everything you can out of your country 0 Regular wars would not target civilians but in total war anyone is a target I Because late teens to low 20s will be conscripted into the army and every civilian can be able to help build guns and other weapons 0 RelationalManeuverTactic I A tactic that can mentally mess up another leader I The tactic is to make the other leader believe he has lost or is about to lose 0 Attrition tactic I If you have more resources and more people if you remain composed then you can just fighting knowing that you will inevitably win 0 Blitzkrieg tactics I Germany quickly attacked the Russians to punch holes into Russia and get behind Russia and outflank and cut of the Russian supplies I Stalin recomposed himself and released that he had more people and just used attrition tactics World War 1 o This war involved status quote and revisionist countries 0 There were five great powers before WW1 I France Revisionist Territorial I Germany Revisionist Status Britain Status Quote I Russia Revisionist I AustriaHungarian Empire Status Quote I Italy is considered by some as a sixth great power 0 French were revisionists because they fought a war with Germany in the FrancoGerman war They lost this war and lost the two territories of Alsace and Lorraine They were so enraged that they would do anything to get the two territories back 0 Germany was Status revisionist because they had the 2quotd largest economy possibly the strongestbiggest army and they felt that they should be considered the strongest country 0 PanSlavism in Russia they believed that everyone in Central and Eastern Europe were related to the Russians and that they should be a part of the Russian Empire and they should be a parent to all Slavic people They believed that the AustrianHungarian Empire needed to cease to exist under this idea I When Serbia tried to revolt Russia backed the Serbs against the Austrians 0 British were status quote because the British really didn t need anything at this point and was regarded as the strongest country they also had the largest empire in the world s history Secondly Britain held the world financial center which was located in London Finally the British navy was the largest and the strongest 0 Austria didn t want change because they were on the fringe of being destroyed and becoming a small and unimportant country Defense pact o NATO 0 Austria and Germany held a defense pact before WW1 0 French and the Russians also held a defense pact Nonaggression Pact o MolotovRibbentrop pact Entente Dual Alliance 0 0 Triple Entente 0 One country will hear another countries problem but that is it low level commitment 0 There was a BritishFrench Entente if the French got into a war with Germany Social Darwinism
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