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Date Created: 11/01/15
DEFINITION AND A BRIEF HISTORY OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Jan 13 2011 HOW NORMAL The man next to you says nonsense words and appears unresponsive to things around him 5 very abnormal Sara has multiple periods of crying per day sleeps 1012 hours each day and eats little 4 A boy takes the family car and stays out past curfew1 normal A woman tells you that she can communicate with the dead and she shares the dreams of others close to her3 somewhat abnormal For the last 6 years a man has been in physical fights about two times a week Once he broke another person s nose3 A man routinely eats well over 2000 calories in things like hamburgers and chicken wings in under an hour 3 WHAT IS ABNORMAL Accepted definition Psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical culturallyaccepted or developmentallyexpected response In the DSMIVTR behavioral cognitive emotional dysfunctions Unexpected in cultural context Personal distress Substantial impairment in function Through the Years PSYCHOPATHOLOGY EARLY APPROACHES AND TREATMENTS Demonological middle ages insanity was caused by possessions by evil spirit the devil or other demons Trephination drilled a hole in skull so that spirits could be released Exorcism series of rituals and prayers to get demons out Witchcraft 15th 17 Century renounced god and voluntarily entered into a pact with the devil Moon and Stars 16th Century origins of the word lunatic primarily in France Asylums 15 19th Century Bedlam St Mary s of Bethlehem Hospital Reform Movement and Moral Therapy 19th Century Abnormality is diseased based Moral Therapy humane treatment in relaxed environment Dorthea Dix PHRENOLOGY psycograph Henry Lavery created machine read personality ELECTROPATHY Hold one end put other end somewhere else on body shock given shocked the melancholy ORGONE ENERGY ACCUMULATOR AND CRYSTAL THERAPIES Wilhelm Reich studied under freud Body had bions normally released during orgasm Said that mental illness was caused by too many bions Sat in metal box and electricity ran through it orgone accumulator which got rid of orgone energy bions Still practiced today crystals TWO MODERN APPROACHES PSYCHOLOGICAL FREUD Oral Stage birth to 1 yr Anal Stage 13 yrs Phallic Stage 35 yrs de ning gender Latency stage 5 puberty focused on developing self Genital stage adolescence on lfyou didn t satisfactorily complete each stage problems from that stage show up later in life PSYCHOLOGICAL BEHAVIORISTS Behaviors are learned therefore individuals showing abnormal behavior could be taught normal behavior Something in environment caused individual to learn behavior Pavlov s classical conditioning dogs and Watson s Behaviorism little Albert Skinner s Operant Conditioning reinforcers Anything you add or take away that increases a behavior negative punishers anything you add or take away that decreases a behavior shape behavior and affect development PSYCHOLOGICAL HUMANISTIC Self actualization Maslow s Hierarchy Bottom must be met before can move up the pyramid Unconditional positive regard must come from therapist empathy HISTORY OF BIOLOGICAL TRADITION Hippocrates and Galen blood heart black bile yellow bile liver phlegm brain Imbalance ofthese things caused physicalmental illness Bloodlettingvomiting Syphilis WHAT ARE GENES AND WHAT DO THEY DO a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material Nucleotides DNA Gene ChromosomesQS pairs Genes are segments of DNA Genotype is all of one s genetic information NN Nn Phenotype is one s observable characteristics WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR PSYCHOPATHOLOGY There is no one gene for any mental disorder Polygenic influenced by multiple genes that each have a tiny impact Nature vs nurture Gene X Envrronment Correlations Passive environment provided influenced by Prenatal prenatal parent s genotypes smoking smoking Evocative individuals genotype influences Prenatal environment smoking Active nichepicking Prenatal Prenatal individual seeks out smoking smoking compatible environment MORE GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION DiathesisStress Model genes predict outcomes ONLY when certain environmental elements come into play genetic predisposition OR environment does not determine outcome interaction between the two does