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Date Created: 11/01/15
STUDY SKILLS PACKET Psy 111D Spring 2004 01 02 Lea This packet includes a model of a critical thinker You can use this as a guideline for learning the material for this course or any other course Depending on your learning style see preface of textbook to determine your learning style and study habits you can create your own study strategies with this model To help you with this task I have also included tips for reading your textbook taking notes and tips for preparing for exams Your study guide provides an excellent source of study tips in the section Tips for Success at the end of each chapter study guide is on reserve at Brill Library 10 tips for success in my course read the textbook pm to the lecture and take m notes do all assignments attend every class about 70 of material on exams are covered in lecture take m notes during lecture use the outline provided in the study guide study to understand use the model of critical thinking contained in this packet as a guideline read over your notes REGULARLY ask questions visit me during of ce hours don t procrastinate 0 maintain your physical and mental health 959 50908 YOUR INSTRUCTOR39S MODEL OF CRITICAL THINKING THE DEFINITION OF CRITICAL THINKING Critical thinking results from a combination of the exercise of a set of cognitive skills and a commitment to a group of attitudes that enables an individual to decide what to believe and how to act Instructions Fill in the term see Critique vs Examine Whatis vaur instructor asking for that would describe the type of test question that maybe asked THE SKILLS OF A CRITICAL THINKER l RETENTION KNOWLEDGE a de nition the ability to remember speci c information b required tasks to remember facts principles and steps in sequences c in psychology to acquire and retain speci c psychological terms de nitions facts principles and sequences d questions it helps to answer Who what where and when e sample question What is the de nition of psychology f study strategy examples make ash cards notes of bold words in text also can be found in study guide under key vocabulary terms rote or maintenance rehearsal g test questions maybe 2 COMPREHENSION a de nition the ability to understand the meaning of material b required tasks to explain translate or interpret to a new form or symbol system c in psychology to grasp the meanings of basic psychological principles concepts methods and theories d questions it helps to answer quotHow and why does this happenquot e sample question Why is Wilhelm Wundt known as the founder of empirical psychology f study strategy examples read textbook complete check your progress in the textbook after you have read the chapter and complete notes from class and your textbook in the study guide deep processing g test questions maybe 3 APPLICATION a de nition the ability to use learned material to solve quotreallifequot problems b required task to use concepts principles and theories to nds solutions to problems c in psychology to use psychological principles amp methods to change behaviors amp mental processes d questions it helps to answer quotHow can this problem be solvedquot e sample question How can parents use extinction to decrease tantrums in their children f study strategy examples while reading the text or during lecture write down your own examples from your own life deep processing g test questions maybe 4 ANALYSIS a de nition the ability to separate complicated wholes into their parts and organizational relationships b required tasks to divide complicated concepts into their component parts and explain how these parts are related to each other c in psychology to break down complex psychological principles theories and methods into their parts and relationships d questions it helps to answer quotOf what is this complex whole composed and how are its parts related to each otherquot e sample question Describe Freud39s three major parts of the personality and explain how they interact f study strategy examples be sure to understand the methodology of the experiments answer the guidelines for the psychological detective questions for each concepttheory deep processing and encoding speci city g test questions maybe 5 SYNTHESIS a de nition the ability to combine separate parts into new and creative wholes b required task combine previously learned material in order to produce new ideas c in psychology to produce unique and creative psychological ideas solutions hypotheses and theories d questions it helps to answer quotWhat new ideas or conclusions can you reach on the basis of what you have learnedquot e sample question Use the results of empirical research to answer the question quotDoes watching violent television cause children to behave more aggressivelyquot f study strategy examples be sure to understand the methodology of the experiments answer the guidelines for the psychological detective questions for each concepttheory deep processing and encoding speci city g test questions maybe 6 EVALUATION a de nition the ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose b required tasks make judgments rate ideas and accept or reject materials based on valid criteria c in psychology to identify and use valid criteria and methods during the processes of assessment diagnosis and research in order to distinguish between fact and ction education and propaganda relevant and irrelevant information and rational and irrational beliefs about psychology d questions it helps to answer quotDetermine the validity of a principle theory or method e sample question Use the criteria discussed in class to discuss the usefulness of Piaget s theory of development f study strategy examples be sure to understand the methodology of the experiments answer the guidelines for the psychological detective questions for each concepttheorydeep processing and encoding speci city g test questions maybe THE ATTITUDES OF A CRITICAL THINKER 1 Critical thinking requires hard work persistence and careful planning 2 Errors provide valuable feedback and knowledge of their causes is a foundation for future success 3 Terms and issues must be clearly defined before they can be discussed meaningfully and productively 4 Psychology is inextricably intertwined with other academic disciplines eg philosophy biology and mathematics 5 For every major issue there are many different points of view and all sides of an issue must be investigated thoroughly before a conclusion is reached To be perceived as intellectually responsible individuals must make every effort to understand the perspectives of those with whom they disagree 6 An attitude of healthy skepticism is a valuable tool especially when confronted with slanted selective prejudiced or selfjustifying information 7 The assumptions of a theory tradition or belief must be analyzed carefully and understood completely before it can be either accepted or rejected 8 It is perfectly acceptableand often highly desirablefor individuals to change their beliefs values or behaviors if presented with sufficient empirical evidence or logical justification to do so 9 Those with whom we agree are not always right and those with whom we disagree are not always wrong When disagreeing it is best to do so in an agreeable manner ie disagreements should produce constructive discussions not arguments 10 There are no simplistic dogmatic explanations of complex phenomena It is often necessary to look beyond obvious common sense or traditional answers to arrive at valid conclusions 11 Many theories can be used to explain phenomena The theory an individual chooses to embrace is dependent upon that individual s unique set of academic cultural spiritual methodological professional and personal values 12 Many methods of investigation can be used to study phenomena eg experiments correlational studies naturalistic observations or case studies The appropriateness of a particular method is determined by a careful determination of its purpose and the individuals situations and ethical principles involved 13 Learning is a lifelong process which can occur in the absence of any formal educational process ie critical thinkers learn from their teachers but they can also learn by themselves long after their formal education has ceased Reference The skills of a critical thinker are based on the results of the author39s empirical research classroom experience and Bloom Englehart Furst and Krathwohl39s 1956 taxonomy of cognitive educational obj ectives Bloom B S Englehart M D Furst E 1 amp Krathwohl D R 1956 Taxonomy of educational objectives Cognitive domain New York McKayCritique vs Examine What is your instructor asking for The terms below commonly appear in paper assignments or in essay exam questions Some of these terms may have different meanings in different contexts When in doubt ask your instructor for clarification Critique vs Examine What is your instructor asking for The terms below commonly appear in paper assignments or in essay exam questions Some of these terms may have different meanings in different contexts When in doubt ask your instructor for clari cation FREQUENTLY USED TERMS Com pare Write about the ways in which two or more things are similar and the ways in which they are different Contrast Focus on the ways in which two or more things are different CriticizeCritique Make a detailed judgment What are the strengths and weaknesses of the thing you are judging Is it correct Is it morally acceptable Does it make sense Is it too costly Include any judgment that is relevant to what you are critiquing Your judgment or conclusion must be backed up with evidence De ne Tell the reader what a term means using words that are already familiar to the reader De nitions should be brief and to the point The word being de ned should not be part of the de nition Describe Explain the subject in such a way that the reader experiences it secondhand A description usually is a list of relevant facts or a summary of a line of evidence Diagram Present the requested information in a visual way Diagrams include drawings charts and graphs Labels often are needed for the reader to understand the information Discuss Provide a complete detailed indepth analysis Discussions often include comparison and criticism Evaluate An evaluation is similar to a critique although it may imply a more general discussion of a program or theory s strengths and weaknesses See criticizecritique Elaborate Go beyond a brief statement include additional comments descriptions explanations or examples Explain The emphasis in an explanation is on the why andor the how of the thing that is being explained as opposed to a simple statement or description Illustrate Provide either a concrete example or a diagram whichever is appropriate Interpret Translate or explain the subject in your own words and give your opinion about it See also criticizecritique Justify Tell the reader why you think your answer or position makes sense see also criticizecritique List Be sure to identify what it is you are listing Provide your list in brief form using numbers or bullets unless the question indicates otherwise A list is less detailed than an outline Outline An outline is a brief organized overview that includes main points and important subpoints but omits minor details Use numbers and letters or bullets to organize your outline but the traditional outline format is not always necessary Relate Describe any connections or associations between two or more things see also compare Review Give a brief organized critical overview of important points Based on this overview you should draw a conclusion Summarize A summary consists of a condensed version of the main points that have been or will be covered No details examples or elaboration should be included Synthesize Combine parts to form a whole A synthesis goes beyond a list or summary in that you should not only summarize each of the points to be included but also explain how they relate to each other Trace To trace means to describe a course of events in order from beginning to end Reference UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Psychology Writing Center 3937 15th Ave NE Box 351525 Phone 2066858278 Fax 2066164794 psywcuwashingtonedu httn39 dent 39 39 39 pay 39 39 39 F him 200 Tips for Reading Your Textbooks and Taking good notes Did you ever nd yourself reading a chapter in a textbook and not being able to remember what you read There is a sure way to remedy this It39s called label in the margin 1 You should begin by surveying what you are about to read Look at the major heading the charts and pictures read the summary study the review questions In addition search your memory for anything you already know about what your assigned reading The more you know about what you re reading the easier it will be to process it into your longterm memory 2 Read only one paragraph at a time and before you begin to read that paragraph look for a reason to read the paragraph Use clues such as the heading or topic sentence Do not mark as your read 3 When you nish the paragraph put yourself in the position of your professor What test question will you ask from that paragraph Actually write that question in the margin of your textbook 4 Now mark the answer to the question by underlining numbering boxing circling etc 5 Want cut down on study time for major tests Put this information in your longterm memory now by covering the text and asking yourself the question written in the margin 6 Recite the answer in your own words 7 You are now ready to read the next paragraph 8 Complete the Live Psych modules as you come across them in your textbook 9 At the end of each section complete the check your progress in your textbook Can you answer all the questions without having to go back If you have to go back for more than 2 questions you probably aren t reading the text for understanding 10 When finished with the chapter complete the learning objectives in your study guide It may take you longer to read a chapter this way but there are definite advantages You can read it a bit at a timea page here and a page theretaking advantage of short periods of time you usually waste or didn39t have time for a whole chapter You never have to reread the chapter You know the test questions in advance You have a systematic way to study you textbook Reference Learning Strategies for Success The Study Skills Help http wwwmtsu edustudsklTxtbook html Reference Keene State College httpwww keene Tips for NoNonsense Note Taking during lecture Use a looseleaf notebook so you can rearrange pages and add in handouts where they belong Also you re less apt to lose notes when using a looseleaf Always title and date your notes Be prepared for class Read ahead so the lecture information makes sense and is familiar to you Obtain a copy of the outline from the study guide or make your own from the text This will help you organize your notes Listen closely for changes in pitch volume and tone Watch closely for changes in movement and gestures Most of these cues signal that a main point is about to be presented Take notes in your own words and jot down examples from your own life Use keywords It39s best not to use complete paragraph and sentence form Not only is it unnecessary but you don t have time Use as many abbreviations as possible Make up your own Use various notations to point out main ideas and important details stars arrows brackets boxes etc If you miss something or fall behind leave a space and move on Get the missing information from a classmate or the instructor later Or stop me if I am going to fast Read over your notes after every lecture while the information is fresh to fill in missed information jot down questions to look up or ask etc Review your notes daily or as often as possible This will help you learn the information and it saves time on studying 39 r fm Tips for preparing for tests Are you really doing everything you can to prepare for tests Rereading the chapter and looking over your notes is not enough Below is a list of tips for test preparation from successful students 1 Keep up to date with assignments Read the chapter prior to lecture and take good notes see reading your textbook 2 Take good notes in every class every day see nononsense note taking 3 Process information as you come to it Learnng information is much different than quotbecoming acquaintedquot with it 4 Make summary sheets ash cards and practice tests Complete the practice tests in the study guide V39 Find a study partner or two in each class and routinely take turns teaching each other the material
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