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S 316

by: Beaulah Schamberger

S 316 SOC

Beaulah Schamberger
GPA 3.91

Lisa Warner

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Lisa Warner
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Beaulah Schamberger on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC at Indiana University taught by Lisa Warner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/233401/soc-indiana-university in Sociology at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
1 5316 SPRING 2011 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY Concepts social science use scientific method instead of basing stuff on antecdotes or personal evidence history is social science sociology Emphasizes new diversity of family forms a social group whose members are bound by some type of tie legal biological emotional or a combination of these sociological imagination Mills 1959 personal things that we can relate with sociological issues for example unemployment being explained by the current recession individual being to something that is a much broaderlarger level microsociology Studies facetoface and smallgroup interactions to understand how they affect the larger patterns and institutions of society macrosociology Studies largescale social structures to determine how they affect the lives of groups and individuals social institution Structure that organizes and shapes our daily lives government economy religion education system social construction A feature of society that has been socially created and therefore varies across time and place institutionalization Berger amp Luckmann 1967 Something that becomes typical process gradually challenged and deinstitutionalized Sociologisis attempt to explain the variation and inequality in what types of things Attitudes Behaviors Customs Inequality 0 Economic 0 Health 0 Emotional Why do sociologist caution against relying on common sense to explain social phenomena Social science is better need to collect data in rigorous ways that are unbiased What are some examples of personal problems and their correlated public issues Unemployment recession How might we study divorce from a microsociological perspective A macrosociological perspective Levels of analysis Micro interaction between individuals and small groups 0 Marital conflicts leading to divorce Macro divorce patternsrates and how culture contributes to divorce rates over time Berger and Luckmann 1967 argue that man is a social product On what grounds might someone disagree with their argument Biological Religious Some things instead are genetic or biological or ordained by God not social What evidence do we have that family is a social construction Changes over time Changes across cultures Family or other things are social constructions not biological More accepting of samesex couples etc PART 1 ARE WE ALL IN THE FAMILY Attitudes Toward the Definition of Family Concepts family Census Bureau more defined A group of two people or more related by birth marriage or adoption and residing together family sociology broader than census bureau legalV 39 g39 39 39 39 often a 39 39 39 of those less inclinced to focus on structure or function family structuralist view who makes up the family or structure family functionalist view goes with structuralist family s can be defined by their function or what families do provides emotional support helps each other and how they are structured couple cohabitating children etc SNAF BP Ch 1 Standard North American Family heterosexual married white children Leave It To Beaver exclusionists BP Ch 2 marriage has to exist the family is centered on marriage privilege groups with children than those without children more resistant to unmarried people without children biggest group but growing smaller use marriage to define family moderates BP Ch 2 somewhere in between group size stay the same use children to define family inclusionisls BP Ch 2 more inclusive of families roommates friends etc group getting bigger use passionfeelings to decide family WIMTI39 BP Ch 3 Whatever It Means To Them when referring to inclusionists not all inclusionists but came out of qualitative responses what is it to you that determines a family If they consider themselves to be family then they are family the people are defining who is family policy responsiveness BP Ch 4 describe what is happening in democracy based on the idea that politicians listen to people and that public opinion matters there is responsiveness by politicians to public opinion we need to know what people think so that we can have real consequences for how policies develop Why do most sociologists use a broader de nition of family than the Census Bureau Sociologists over time have observed that there is increasing diversity among families Sociological definition of family is based upon the fact that families are changing Recognize that and change our own attitudes about what counts and doesn t count as family researching families but not including them all by accident Census Bureau requires biological legal marital or adoptive relationship and they must live together Explain why our class was more likely to call housemates family than the broader population of American adults We are living away from home for the first time we are always with the people around us Since we have no family around us we consider who is living with us family that is all we have Similar to older people who are living with roommates rather than biological family Based on your reading of BP Ch 1 to what extent do you think the SNAF is institutionalized in our society Standard North American Family It has been institutionalized but it is on its way out No longer llLeave It To Beaver only that ideal still exists but there are much more definitions now Institutionalization is a matter of degree SNAF is becoming deinstitutionalized Various laws support SNAF it is reflected in our laws over time it is becoming deinstitutionalized Discuss the methods used to collect data for Counted Out BP Ch 2 Survey used to ask questions to many people Asked same questions regarding family According to the authors of Counted Out what are the two most important factors that shape adults attitudes toward the definition of family BP Ch 2 Legal relationships between adults Presence of children People are more likely to say something is a family if they have those two characteristics Which group ofAmericans is the largest exclusionists moderates or inclusionists How did the size of these groups change between 2003 and 2006 BP Ch 2 Exclusionists have decreased moderates stayed the same inclusionists increased In both years they are larger than moderates and inclusionists Becoming more inclusive over time Why were the years from 2003 and 2006 an important time for studying Americans de nitions of family BP Ch 2 2003 Massachusetts legalizes samesex marriage started the ball rolling talking about same sex rights more to defining families rather than opposite sexes more people talked about how definition of families started to get talked about Based on the qualitative data presented in Counted Out what is the most important criterion for defining family for each group exclusionists moderates and inclusionists BP Ch 3 Exclusionist marriage Moderate children Inclusionist expressive Why do the authors of Counted Out argue that sociologists need to rethink their assumptions about the functionalist perspective when it comes to discussions of family makeup BP Ch 3 In the past historically the functionalist perspective when they were using that definition they were talking about in very gendered terms People have historically said its best for families if men provide instrumental support financial and women provide expressive support emotional providers and nurturers Inclusionists were giving functionalist arguments commitment and what families provide for each other Includsionists give functional argument in nonconservative and liberal way It is not a conservative ideal only What do the authors predict about the future of Americans definitions of family More inclusionists are more likely to happen include more people in definition It s possible that we see a resurgence of fundamentalism when it comes to religion would lead to more exclusionists What do the quotGolden Girlsquot effect and quotBaby Boomerquot effect tell us about the role of age and cohort in shaping our de nitions of family BP Ch 4 Golden Girls 0 the older you get the more likely you are to include other people as family who are living together in situations have no one else anymore widows and children gone 0 older people are the most exclusive group though 0 is an age effect changes as you get older Baby Boomer o More liberal in their definitions of family 0 Were exposed to more political activism in their early adulthoods o More liberal in their definitions of people who came both before and after them 0 Cohort effect only effects a generation Age changes over time attitudes change as we get older individual level Cohort generations don t change different generations hold different attitudes different attitude from parents attitude and will always be different different groups of people in comparison to other groups How is gender correlated with attitudes toward the de nition of family Education Race Family background Marital status The urbanrural divide Region of the country Religion Contact with gays and lesbians For each ofthese write one sentence that explains the relationship BP Ch 4 Gender woman are more inclusive Education more educated are more inclusive Race consistent differences did not arise Family background children from 2 parent families are more exclusive Marital status currently married or used to be more exclusive Urbanrural divide rural have more exclusionists Region of country southern is exclusive Midwest is moderate north and west are inclusive Religion less literally a person takes the bible more inclusive Contact with gays and lesbians more contact is more inclusive How is the debate about samesex marriage similar to the debate about interracial marriage BP Ch Has a lot to do with discrimination The arguments both for and against samesex marriage mirror the same arguments that were made decades ago about interracial marriage People who are currently antisamesex marriage rights make arguments about consequences for children same argument for interracial marriage Provide an example ofa private consequence of family definitions What about a public consequence Public 0 Public opinions shape policies and laws I Family is defined in a particular way samesex marriage stepparent rights grandparent rights Private how a single person defines family can shape your own daily life and your interactions with other people 0 Who you include as family on Facebook almost a political game how it affects others who is really family Who do you include and not include 0 Who is invited to get into wedding photos 0 Can shape simple things and larger things in our lives 0 Can shape who is invited to personal events and such PART 2 THE AMERICAN MODERN FAMILY Marriage and Divorce Patterns in Cultural and Historical Context Concepts covenant marriage AC Intro both people in couple agree that they can t get divorced for a certain amount of time hardly anyone did it in Louisiana culture nonmaterial and material culture how we act as well as what we produce clothing fashion a very broad term of what makes us who we are values what we think people should believe patriotism democracy norms expectations for people s behavior voting expect people to participate in politics because we believe value in democracy cultural model AC Ch 1 different guidelines for how to act cultural model of marriage AC Ch 1 public formal lifelong commitment raise children most prestigious highly valued form of family so important wouldn t allow gays to marry best way to live divorce is last resort sexually exclusive permanent and loving cultural model of individualism AC Ch 1 selfreliant actor personal growth get in touch with your feelings expressing your needs continued development for yourself throughout life primary obligation is self not one right way to live dissatisfaction is reason to leave relationship coverture AC Ch 2 husband and wife considered one legal person separation of spheres AC Ch 3 resulted from industrial revolution man and women are becoming separated in daytoday lives first time in history we saw that happening prior to that men and women both worked agriculturally men went to work in factories and women stayed home and cared for children companionate marriage AC Ch 3 historical discussion move away from marriage as a function and means to achieve something actually wanted to enjoy partner and romantic love happened in industrialization shift to companionate as opposed to economic relationship marry for love and emotional satisfaction rather than money spirituality of dwelling AC Ch 3 church provides stability security feels like home churches emphasized family togetherness both at church and home less emphasis on personal introspection individualized marriage AC Ch 4 less focus on couple and more on individuals you should do marriage for personal self fulfillment leave room to grow and be happy with relationship personally 1960s to present postindustrial period social activism focused on individual rights and contributed to this spirituality of seeking AC Ch 4 individual responsibility exploration discovery growth emphasized nofault divorce AC Ch 4 get divorced not because any person is at fault but because the relationship is no longer there irreconcilable differences started in 19705 enforceable trust AC Ch 5 why get married Marriage provides us with that going through a legal ceremony makes a public declaration and commitment not other people support and enforce those vows if a partner does something wrong probably not a big deal today more and more accepting of divorce cultural lag AC Ch 5 housewives don t really apply or need them anymore didn t need for someone to stay home and be a housewife because activities became easier washing cooking etc yet that system still exists marriage as capstone AC Ch 5 marriage comes last it is like a marriage badge you get it after you accomplish everything else there is to be an adult Healthy Marriage Initiative Mission Statement to help couples who have chosen marriage for themselves gain greater access to marriage education services on a voluntary basis where they can acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to form and sustain a healthy marriage 0 llHealthy marriage 0 mutually enriching both spouses have a deep respect for each other 0 beneficial to the husband wife and children if present committed to ongoing growth 0 2006 part of welfare reform law 0 150 million per year 0 Approved programs 0 Public advertising campaigns 0 High school value of marriage 0 Relationship skills courses marriage movement AC Ch 5 marriage based family is morally superior strengthen institution of marriage early 2000s lone parent families caused poverty childbearing outside of marriage leads to poverty diversity defenders AC Ch 5 lone parent families can be just as good with support child care options more generous income support family leave arrangements social class Components 0 Economic resources 0 Power 0 Prestige 0 Education 0 Cohabitation 0 Nonmarital childbirth 0 Dissolution and divorce 0 No HS diploma 60 0 HS graduate 50 0 College graduate 36 Economy Globalization Automation Culture of poverty Different values culture of poverty AC Ch 7 disagreed with this idea said that poor people had different values and wanted instant gratification got married with children sooner found that this was not true In our class discussion of differences between Americans and Western Europeans what did we say was the main reason Americans are considered quotexceptionalquot America MarriageGoRound Americans go through more relationships and quicker than Western Europeans number of transitions in and out of relationships that Americans have Divorce rates are much more common in America more often and frequently Americans put a higher value on marriage Western Europeans are more likely to cohabitate Why do sociologist argue that it is best to view culture as a quottoolkitquot Culture is something that we use set of norms and values that we use in interactions with each other Multiple tools achieve same goal use them together Set of tools that we can pull from Depending on the situation that we are in Cultural models of marriage and individualism available on specific situation Explain the contradiction between the cultural models of marriage and individualism How do we reconcile this contradiction On one hand marriage is the best way to live one s life it s what makes a family and is what makes the best form of family ideal family form often agree with that statement However at the same time individuals need to do what makes them happy if marriage doesn t make them happy then they shouldn t stay in the marriage Discuss the positive and negative consequences of adhering strongly to both cultural models marriage and individualism Positive consequences 0 Adults happiness selffulfillment 0 Children some breakups are good Negative consequences children 0 Disruption of routines and stability Sex and pregnancy Behavior Education 000 In Colonial America how did religion support the cultural model of marriage How did it support the cultural model ofindividualism In colonial America husband and wife were considered to be one person religion was supported by this marriage was important for personal fulfillment could go either way Religious freedom was sought for people coming to America individualism is supported During which time period colonial America industrialized America the 1950s 1960spresent was religion in America the least supportive of individualism 1950s incredible emphasis on marriage and children traditional family other family forms were not the norm and were not accepted by society as the traditional family or SNAF Sprituality of dwelling focus on marriage and family rather than individualism Why did our meaning of marriage begin to shift after industrialization Separation of spheres Men work Women stay home and take care of family Marriage could be for love rather than economical more well off Fewer children not needed to work on farm more years to spend together as companion Companionate marriage begins emotional tie is basis sex not just for procreation In the era I called quotindustrialized Americaquot the law was used to emphasize the importance of marriage in many ways Describe some of them 0 Polygamy birth control marriages for emancipated slaves informal marriages I Greater restrictions meant to support traditional marriage Women able to own property after Civil War more independence Government provides assistance only for men postretirement and women who are widowed supports husbandbreadwinner family form 00 The 1950s family was marked by early marriage early childbearing high fertility low divorce and strict gender roles These characteristics distinguish this decade from the rest of American history What was so special about the 1950s that resulted in these characteristics Right after WWII people hadn t been able to be married and be home because everyone was at war and women were working before that was the depression and people couldn t afford to get married or have children Big historical events shaped what was happening with families in 1950s Country economic prosperity support for soldiers get an education have employment way more stability the adults were children of the great depression so they felt it all the more didn t have it while growing up relax more and focus on family stay home and raise them Discuss the connection between social movements focusing on individual right ie the Civil Right movement and the Feminist movement and the rise ofthe individualized marriage during the 1960s and 70s Just know that there is a connection Being exposed to the social movements that focused on individual rights led us to think about individual rights and freedoms in all areas of lfie Not only looking for everyone to have civil rights but start to have some more selfreflection on how we can pursue When marriage doesn t meet goal anymore more likely to say other things are acceptable In The MarriageGoRound how does Cherlin answer the question quotWhy does anyone bother to marry anymorequot Symbolic importance Marriage is a merit badge Shows the world that we ve achieved other things occupation education financial independence marriage is cherry on top Not necessarily practically important not as many benefits as in past Provide examples of programs supported by the federal government that promote marriage Healthy Marriage Initiative Mission Statement to help couples who have chosen marriage for themselves gain greater access to marriage education services on a voluntary basis where they can acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to form and sustain a healthy marriage 0 llHealthy marriage 0 mutually enriching both spouses have a deep respect for each other 0 beneficial to the husband wife and children if present committed to ongoing growth 0 2006 part of welfare reform law 0 150 million per year 0 Approved programs 0 Public advertising campaigns 0 High school value of marriage Relationship skills courses Which three markers of adulthood do Americans consider to be the most important today Finishing school Fulltime job Achieving financial independence 0 Getting married and becoming a parent only half of Americans thought this meant becoming an adult has changed over time Explain the difference between social classes in how we meet standard markers of adulthood College education and financial independence perhaps not as valued Not seen as possible in lower class How is educational attainment related to the rate of cohabitation Nonmarital childbirth Dissolution and divorce Cohabitation Nonmarital childbirth Dissolution and divorce 0 No HS diploma 60 0 HS graduate 50 0 College graduate 36 Why have changes in the economy over the past several decades affected those without a college education the most And what does this have to do with family formation need a college degree to get most well paying jobs now need money to go to college as well family s are now poorer if the parents are not college graduates harder to support family 5316 SPRING 2011 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 2 GENDER AND HOUSEHOLD LABOR 1What is the llsecond shift household chores that need to be done in addition to a quotpaidquot work shift 2 According to Hochschild s research approximately what percentage of men share the housework equally with their wives 20 3 Discuss the changes over time in the amount of time men and women contribute to the second shift generally over time women have been doing less and men have been doing more women still do the majority but a convergence has been taking place gradually 4 How do the types of household tasks that men and women complete differ women do daily tasks that need to be done on a schedule not fun tasks children housework cleaning cooking etc men do tasks that can be done at his leisure mowing the lawn fixing things 5 Hochschild argues that the persistent gender gap in the second shift is evidence of a llstalled revolutionquot What does she mean women have been increasingly been achieving greater equality in all areas of life its stalled because it hasn t really entered into the home yet still a lack of equality there 6 What social policies does Hochschild recommend for helping families negotiate the second shift child care benefits help families balance work and home responsibilities flexible working hours greater opportunities for parttime work paid maternitypaternity leave available to both men and women 7 According to Hochschild what is the most important individual characteristic that can help us predict a couple s division of household labor gender ideology shapes who does what in the home 8 What is a gender ideology Name the three main gender ideologies and explain the differences between them gender ideology attitudes and perceptions of who should be doing what doesn t necessarily mean who actually is doing it traditional women home men work transitional women home and work men work egalitarian equality who does what is not based on gender focus on careerhome 9 Based on your reading of Hochschild why did Nancy and Evan Holt experience so much conflict over the second shift Nancy was doing so much more of the overall work than Evan Nancy thought Evan should do more Evan thought the situation was acceptable and would be llgiving inquot if it was changed 10 How was Nancy Holt able to convince herself that the upstairsdownstairs division of chores was fair she is everything but the garage she did quotemotionquot work she talked to herself that this was fair and equal compares Evan to other men rather than to herself he did more than what other men did and made her feel better about the situation 11 In their discussion of housework what do DeMaris and Longmore present as a presentday paradox even though women are still doing the majority of the housework the majority of people say that that division of household labor is fair if it s not equal then why is it fair 12 According to DeMaris and Longmore what best explains our perceptions of fairness regarding the division of household labor power not as important as the other two the other two determine if we see the division as fair ideology equity 13 Discuss some of the reasons that Moore chose to study the division of household labor among Black lesbian stepfamilies tend to be more egalitarian biological mothers tend to divide labor more though most research has not focused on this group historically black women have had a different idea of what egalitarianism means men working and women staying at home but women of color have not followed that model like white middle class women if we control for gender do we still see expectations of gender relating to division of household labor what it means to be a good mother are shaping what is happening inside these families 14 According to Moore what does egalitarianism mean to her study participants financial independence work roles both partners can be focused on it 15 In Black lesbian stepfamilies who makes the most contributions to household chores and childcare For this group how are these contributions related to power in the relationship the biological mothers are the one who make the most contributions power differential the biological mother had majority of housework and childcare also made the most household decisions this contrasts with heterosexual couples 16 Discuss some of the consequences for individuals and families of inequality in the division of household labor What individual and social solutions did we suggest in class in response to these consequences consequences some feel they are doing an unfair burden of the work marital and relationship conflict men have more successful careers women have to take time off solutions talk about responsibilities together more communication socialization of children do it differently with regard to gender workplacegovernment need to implement policies SOCIAL CLASS RACE AND PARENTING 17 Name some common llagents of socializationquot for children Which is thought to be the most important at least early in a child s life socialization teaching children norms and values of society family media any entity that children are influenced by family is seen as the most important 00 How have sociologists responded to the question quotIs the transition to parenthood a crisisquot no it is not a crisis the transitions provides both benefits and costs negative and positive RD Discuss the differences in mental health between parents and childless adults parents children under 18 more distress over 18 it balances out more childless adults if we don t control for anything then they have better mental health no difference if the parents have adult children unless its involuntary in childless adults then they experience negative effects 20 In our class discussion of the mental health effects of parenthood I argued that the context in which parenthood occurs is important What evidence do we have to make that claim context circumstances in which parenthood happens age teens vs adult teens experience more negative mental health after becoming parents than adults family structure single parents and stepparents experience more stress and distress marital quality matters child problems can create stress on parents 21 What are some of the ways that children s wellbeing has improved over time What are some of the specific reasons for continued concern over children s wellbeing families more important now more opportunities 22 Describe the three main parenting styles we discussed in class and how they relate to children s behavior authoritarian associate with little emotional support strict discipline 3 authoritative high level of emotional support moderate discipline permissive high levels of emotional support no discipline 23 According to Kohn what traits do middleclass parents believe are the most important to pass down to their children What about workingclass parents middle and upper class curiosity selfdirection working class obedience cleanliness conformity to authority 24 How does Kohn explain the social class differences in parents beliefs about desirable traits for children middle and upper class curiosity selfdirection working class obedience cleanliness conformity to authority he explains this by parenting reproduces status quo also potential jobs that the different classes occupy need different qualities differences in values as well 25 Why do Sayer et al find it necessary to conduct a crossnational study when exploring the effects of education on parents involvement in their children s lives control for resources that parents receive from government values or resources that matter for how social class effects children if we still see a difference between social classes in how they raise their children then its resources rather than values 26 What do Sayer et al conclude about the relative importance of parental resources and parental values for time spent with children more resources typically means more time with children at least with fathers 27 What is stratification What three types of stratification receive the most attention from sociologists stratification ranked order of groups that produces inequality race gender social class 28 Of the systems of socioeconomic stratification presented in class which allows for the greatest social mobility social class system of stratification allows for most mobility 29 Describe the three main explanations for social mobility and provide examples for each Which do sociologists consider to be the most important individualist an individual s ability or effort fatalist all about luck structuralist about your environment social features etc gender race class discrimination 30 What research method did Lareau use to study childrearing What was her primary research question Compare and contrast the environments of the two groups of children she studies followed 12 families for a month each field study observation primary research question interested in knowing advantages and disadvantages to what values are passed on depending on social class backgrounds 31 Describe the two childrearing logics that Lareau presents With which social class is each associated consertive cultivation middleclass organized activities middle class emphasis on negotiations and parents are more likely to intervene parent child interaction is better develop talents and interests accomplishment of natural growth workingclass working class families families are not involved in structured activities provide basic necessities more handsoff 32 According to Lareau how do the daily lives of middleclass and poor and workingclass children differ Discuss the skills that each group of children is learning through their activities workingclass few organized activities leisure time high degree of autonomy learn time management cooperation with peers middleclass organized activities little informal play little autonomy parents set schedule learn competition leadership cooperation athleticism comfort with performance 33 According to Lareau how does parentchild interaction differ across social classes Again what skills is each group of children learning workingclass backtalking is rare listen to parents more don t question learn obedience middleclass negotiate with parents better vocabulary how to structure an argument learn negotiation persuasion comfort with adult interactions 34 How do parents interactions with institutions on behalf of their children differ across social classes According to Lareau are children adopting their parents orientations to institutions middle class parents more involved with institutions if there is a problem they are more likely to call the school find ways to gain advantages for their children sense of entitlement working class parents more likely to see teachersdoctorsetc as authority and listen to what they say rather than argue sense of constraint the children are adopting their parents orientations 35 Both Kohn and Lareau argue that social class differences in childrearing may lead to social reproduction What do they mean childrearing techniques and values are passed on continually through the social classes from parents to children it s a cycle 36 What do we learn from Lareau s description of the elementary school graduation ceremonies at Lower Richmond and the Swan School about the expectations adults have for the students middle class parents assume already that their children will go on to college academic achievement and future potential working class parents treated it as a bigger deal staying out of trouble good citizenships good behavior based on these differences the adults have different expectations for where children will end UP 37 What specific social changes does Lareau point to in explaining our increasing emphasis on structuring children s lives around organized activities increasing rationalization of life efficiency control standardization decrease in siblings fewer neighborhood children organized activities make more sense because of suburbanization greater concern over the safety of children activities led by adults importance of extra curriculars for college adults making more money 38 Discuss the suggestions Lareau provides for solving the inequality that is produced from class differentiated childrearing in other countries great support for parents to help level the playing field huge disparity between social classes in US from a middle class perspective parents need to set more limits on organized activities set more boundaries on parentchild interactions lower class perspective need to look for opportunities to provide organized activity INEQUALITY BEI39WEEN SIBLINGS 39 Does birth order shape our personalities Why might we hesitate to accept research claims about the effects of birth order on personality yes there is evidence hard to define at times it may be a selffulfilling prophecy might not be true birth order effects but more perceptions instead family size and economic status are more contributing factors 40 According to Conley what are the most important predictors of inequality between siblings family size as family size increases there are fewer resources to go around greater inequality between siblings in larger families economic status 41 What two theories does Conley present for explaining why there is greater inequality between siblings in some families than others resource dilution theory as we add more children resources are spread more thinly the pie gets sliced thinner especially the case for poor families confluence theory when we have a lot of children in the house the intellectual climate is not as great more quotkidtalk rather than quotadulttalk 42 Generally how does a family s upward social mobility over time affect children Are there exceptions younger children benefit most since they are there longer if its too extreme then it can backfire children may become overly dependant on status or money have a dependence on others 43 What about parental divorce or the death of a parent What are the typical effects on siblings Are there exceptions tends to affect younger children more negatively because they are more involved and up close if an older sibling is still there then they have to take on a parental role if a marriage is high conflict then a divorce may be better to stop fighting 44 How does a parent s remarriage generally affect children younger children stand to gain more social class status increases not always the case depends on the new stepparent 45 What does Conley mean when he argues that lltiming is everythingquot the stage in a child s life when a big change or transition happens 46 Discuss some examples of llrandom acts of kindness and cruelty that can affect children s life outcomes kindness get involved with individual who has positive influences cruelty illness injury war seemingly random 47 Does Conley believe in luck as a way to explain success in life when we look at these random events that are based on bad and good luck there are patterns in that like only men get drafted for war women more likely to be victims of sexual assault the way that luck effects our lives depends on the circumstances surrounding us family environment a nonsupportive family would change a sexual assault case compared to a supportive family Conley believes in luck but only to a certain extent there are more factors involved 48 According to Conley is it possible for a society to create true equality in individuals opportunities for success Conley would say that we are never going to reach true equality unless everyone is genetically altered to be perfectly equal and the same when we are born we can work towards equality but we will never achieve it


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