Popular in Course
Popular in Physical Education
verified elite notetaker
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keeley Nader on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HPER at Indiana University taught by Robert Billingham in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/233410/hper-indiana-university in Physical Education at Indiana University.
Reviews for F 150
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/01/15
Lecture 1 Thursday 15 April 2010 19461082 WWII Baby Boom it was okbecause the USA was the only functioning nation afterWWlI We had manyjobs and we were supplying everybody with cars and other supplies 197039s zero population growth Population started to compress because we didn39t want to over populate the world Post WWII Baby Boomlet Post WWII started to have their babies usually one or two They were educated and had fewer children Massive number ofworkers and producers because so manypeople Now they are all starting to retire and it is a big problem because we have a smaller number ofproducers that are having toprovide for a larger number ofelderly and children The above triangle is out ofbalance we are in trouble Social Security was set in 1935 It was set forAge 65 because average life span was only through Age 68 How are we going to pay for babyboomers once they reach Age 65 El We are going to raise taxes so you as a resourceproducing group take less home because more is being given to the elderly for a pleasant retirement life El We are going to raise the age for full social securitybenefits to Age 67 They are talking about raising the age to 70 9 that sucks because it will happen to us We are going to have to work longer raise families and pay more to take care ofthe elderly El We will not be able to cut benefits because the elderlyhave a greater voting population so they won39t agree to cut benefits New health care system An unemployed person until Age 26 can be covered byparents39 health insurance and benefits All ofthe stimulus benefits come out ofworkers pay check Lecture 2 Tuesday 20 April 2010 Population group should hypothetically be a triangle Population growth is actually a Christmas tree The best population growth and the ideal sustainable population is a rectangle Most industrialized countries have a decreasing population which is an upsidedown triangle A Developmental Tasks of the Elderly Women have a biological clock that makes them go through their midlife crisis early Age 30 because she wants a baby Men go through midlife crisis super late Saggy breasts are due to breast elasticity B Accepting Career Changes Police officers and psychiatrists have the highest suicide rates after retirement C Accepting Changes in the Family Parents used to raise their family so that children would leave and maybe come back in parental crisis Empty nesting syndrome is hard now D Developing a point of view about death Children don t think they can die They think if you shoot someone they will get back up Older people think death will only happen to others Older people finally accept death as something that will actually happen to them Most elderly are ready for it this is not what the book says Accepting one s own inevitable death Death is inevitable elderly are most afraid of pain Lecture 3 Thursday 22 April 2010 2 possible feelings for life after death 1 Hope and 2 Faith faith not in a religious sense 3 Theories Associated with the Question of What Happens After We Die Recycle Theory when the body dies the spirit remains The oldest theory for what happens after we die Animism body dies spirit remains active in lives of living people i EX people talk to spirits and ask them for advice ii Special people can communicate with the spirit world iii No belief in Heaven or Hell iv Oldest model for what happens after we die The following 3 theories are based off of the Recycle Theory Reincarnation body dies soul goes up for judgment and is evaluated soul is put backinto another body people can get to the quotgood place eventually but it takes tens of thousands ofyears people who do things over and over are sent to the quotbad place Idea that people are put into these places because it s what they deserve Karmic stamina idea that people can overcome punishment that they have been judged worthy of to move up levels in life Past life regression therapy people are put in a deep hypnotic trance to help them discover their past lives RewardZPunishment death evaluation either a good place or bad place Invented by ancient Egyptian culture A soul has the weight ofa feather Modification 1 after death the soul goes to a special place to wait purgatory Modification 2 friends and family can intervene on behalf of the person in purgatory Modification 3 good place vs bad place 1 Ex quotyou know he was an alcoholic but he really loved his family ii EX quothe is a jackass send him straight to Hell Modification 4 only a good place exists because a good God would understand why we do bad things bad place would be unnecessary Porky Pig Theory when you re dead you re dead This theory does not allow for the belief in souls Believers in this theory are not any different from anyone else not atheist ghosts are real today s ghosts are the spirits of thousands ofyears ago Lecture 4 Tuesday 27 April 2010 We just watched a Video about death and dyingit basically focused on an artist who portrays death in his artwork as something positive and not as sad as people make it and he attempts to evoke feelings of comfort from his artwork another part of the Video focused on bringing singers into nursing homes to sing songs about dying to old people to make them more comfortable with dying our professor wasn39t there today so i don39t know how much of the Video will be on the test Introduction to Male Reproductive System De nition Functions Structures etc o Scrotum is the skin outside the testes which serves three purposes 0 Temperature regulation specimen I 90 to produce sperm I If it s too hot it ll produces defective sperm 0 Sac holds things in place I The closer the ejaculation the scrotum moves closer to the body 0 A male does not need two functional testicles to reproduce 0 Makes sperm production possible I Remember it does not create the sperm 0 Male reproductive system is external 0 Vas deferens a tube that brings sperm to the fructose maker which are the seminal vesicles It also connects the testes with the urethra o The vas deferens could get tears in them 0 Cowper s gland Either of two small glands that are located below the prostate o Produces preejaculation to ush urine 0 Discharge a component of the seminal uid into the urethra I Which neutralizes acids and lubricate the urethra 0 To Women You cannot prevent pregnancy by urinating before and after sex I After sex if the male urinate it decreases life hood prevent STDS o Seminal Vesicle pair of simple tubular glands poster inferior to the urinary bladder 0 Makes fructose glucose and sucrose sugars I These sugars makes the sperm hyperactive o Retrograde ejaculation when the sperm goes into the urinary bladder o EpididymisA structure within the scrotum attached to the backside of the testis It is a coiled segment of the spermatic ducts that serves to store mature and transport spermatozoa between the testis and the vas the vas deferens o It can have tears in it as well as the vas deferens o The sperm could travel there when ejaculation occurs 0 Vasectomy a birth control way for male in late 40s or sooner if they prefer 0 Note that this process may be reversible 0 Up to 6 weeks after the vasectomy the male can still impregnate his partner 0 In the penis the more blood ows in the penis the harder it is o The penis can rot and fall off if it s circuit is close with a rubber band 0 On records the longest penis is 14 inches and average is 6 12 inches 0 Smegma cheesy yellowish pores below the foreskin of the penis that helps keep the glands moist and facilitates sexual intercourse by acting as a lubricant Circumcision there is no absolute reason to circumcise a male because there is no medical reasons for it 0 However doing so it is less likeliness to get STDS NOT TRUE Sperm head protects the sperm from the female immune system Sperm tail makes the sperm swim to the ovum Brain single largest sex organ in the human body because it could have visual excitement going at it Erection Re ex Center causes the penis to want to have sex even if they don t want to do it this also holds true in females Prostate glands protects the sperm and produces the greatest bulk of ejaculation 0 Out of a teaspoon of ejaculation 5 of it is sperm Testicles produces male hormones testosterone which makes the voice deeper facial hair etc Also it is also sperm production Introduction to Female Reproductive System De nition Functions Structures etc I have a brain amp a uterus amp I use both 7 Pat Schroeder If sex is such a natural phenomenon how come there are so many books on how to do it 7 Bette Midler Men would think it was ridiculous if psychiatrist went around saying that many of them don t really need orgasms They should be content just to be affectionate and share love etc etc Yet unfortunately many men still hope or believe that this male supremacist myth about women is true 7 Barbra Seaman Free and Female 1972 Don t worry about the quotes above those are just what was on the projector in class thought it wasinteresting Structure and Function 0 Urethra 7 urine bye bye 0 Vagina 7 Hi sperm Hi baby 0 Anus 7 I made a poopie yeah you get the idea To minimize urinary tract and vaginal infection is to l Wipe front to back 2 Cranberry juice or just drink a lot Don t ll bladder with urine before sex 3 No thongs it moves the nasty from your butt to your vagina not cool Vagina produces sticky substances and constantly replenish the sticky substance out of your body aka it saves your life everyday 0 When bacteria or nasty stuff from your butt travels up the vagina the sticky substance grabs a hold of it and releases it in your underwear the next morning o The baby comes out of the vagina o The vagina has lubrication Cervix this is where the penis should ejaculate g a mucus that clogs the uterus opening m is a muscle it is not attached to anything 0 During labor it forces the baby out Prolapsed uterus when tendons are so loose the uterus pops out of the body 0 After pregnancy if the uterus is not exercised back into shape the uterus would most likely be prolapsed later in life A tubule pregnancy when bacteria make scar tissues in the fallopian tube sperm goes pass the bacteria and fertilizes the stuck ovum in the tube 0 If this is not taken care of in the early stage the mother and baby will die Fallopian tubes has cilia that helps the ovary get to the uterus Fimbria moves the ovum up to the fallopian tube Abdominal pregnancy when pregnancy occurs in the abdominal area Stone babies this happens when the fetus begins to develop in the abdominal and the mother s immune system kills the baby 0 Note that the mother s body will most likely try to kill the XY chromosome a male baby more than it would want to kill the XX chromosome a female baby I This is because the mother s body recognizes the code and is familiar with it Another note a baby is a parasite that is attached to the mother s uterus and sucking and feeding from her body through her blood it s not a cutesy little 0 creature Ectopic pregnancy pregnancy occurring somewhere other than the uterus 0 Q an ectopic abdominal pregnancy makes sense Ovarv a woman is born with everything she ll ever have 0 In other words males produces sperm regularly female already has all the ovum in her ovaries she ll every needs Blastocyst o 100 cells 0 Hollow sphere o Implants to the lining of the uterus the embryo is implanted 0 Again this baby is a parasite It bores a hole and drops anchors into the uterus After doing so it sucks the mother s living to feed itself 0 Immune system will try to get rid of the embryo mostly boys Uterus during sexual response cycle 0 Clitoris engorges with blood and become erect o 6 12 inches is where the average erect uterus is notice how it s like a lock and a key o Orgasm changes movement of the sperm I It can protect the sperm and move it to the ovum o Gonad o The testes and ovary 7 they are the same 0 Vas deferens and fallopian tubes 7 they are the same 0 Prostate glands and uterus 7 they are also the same Extra Side Notes just add we you think is important to remember here 0 O P a n cymhow in the did that happen How it happens 1 The normal way a vagina 61gt penis uh yeah b Penis get s close to the vagina and deposit a sperm which moves to the ovum 2 Devine Intervention a Sumerian Immaculate conception Nammu s pregnancy which she uses fertile water personi es the Apsu Vikings Odin chief god in mythology please google this stuff or tell someone to do so for you if you want speci c information on these religion I know it s Fquot interesting pretty much he was disguised as a mortal and impregnated a lot of mortal women Also he has three wives c Greek Helen is the daughter of Zeus and Lena Helen was hatched in an egg 3 Parthenogenesis a Greek virgin birth 39 The growth and development of an embryo or seed without fertilization by a male more comment in a lot of other animals but it hasn t been found or recorded in a mammal or human yet 4 Arti cial Insemination a Sperm that coordinately moves from a male to a female i Sperm bank b 200000000 7 500000000 sperm has to be active for a male to be fully reproduce i This is why when the doctor says that there is not enough sperm count the male would ejaculates and save the sperm until it is possible from him to reproduce then the doctor takes his sperm and place it into the female s body 5 Ovum transplant a when the ovum moves out of the body i this is when the male and female fertilizes the egg but the women is not capable to carry the baby ii or the mother cannot have babies so they hire another person to carry the baby with the father s sperm and that other person s ovum iii or the couples get their baby fertilizes in a laboratory petri dish and it is then placed back into the female s body or in another woman s body 1 low success rate 2 High birth defects if there are a lot of ovum developing at the same time 3 Health structural issues 7 eye sight is poor iv When this happens 1 the parent or doctor selects 23 ovum that are developing healthy and removes the rest of the fertilized eggs 2 this is called selective harvesting and no this is not abortion or murder FINAL NOTE 1 Yes there are virgin births a Caused by the lack of knowledge of how reproduction is done i The baby is produced in the uterus not the stomach so swallowing the sperm it will not impregnate you sexually activities impregnate a mammal human Tushy 21 Math Manng Mammg mm afanzs gmnp Endngam r mg ma afamsgmnps mm m may a Hummung afmamagespxefemdfann afmamage excludmg um pnadaf mz a 1415 stakes mm USA so thqu my a rm cam maer ls amyshghdymme mm 155 m messed up children hs 51w up Wm mm 15 a 1m hlsmxyafn Manng Gradient Males have better chance at mates because they have so many options Women marry men in a social class above them they are then accepted into that group Women marry men in a social class below them they are placed in the lower class and are not treated well More females than males it is harder for females to nd mates ON TEST From an objective Perspective People in the USA have very little choice in who their mate will be because of socialization From a subjective Perspective People in the USA have a tremendous amount of choice Thursday 25 March Marriage and Family Forms throughout History Monogamy Mono one Gamy main entry Monogamy is the only marital form found in every culture It s universal It s the only form of marriage that has been found continuously throughout history Pair bonding 7 love 9 exclusive relationship 9 romance Marriage legally binding contract set by the state between two economic entities You re only married when you sign the marriage license or contract Wedding license is also the divorce contract Even in cultures that allow other marital forms monogamy is the most widely practiced Practiced is the one that everyone does which is Monogamy Preferred is polygamy he didn t really give a definition for preferred IF ON THE TEST YOU ARE ASKED WHICH ONE IS MOST WIDELY PERFERRED IT IS POLYGAMY IF ASKED WHICH ONE IS MOST WIDELY PRACTICED IT IS MONOGAMY he stressed this a million times during the lecture There are only two forms of marriage legally practiced in the US Traditional Mono gamy One man married to one woman until death do us part Includes marriage where the person is a widower Serial monogamy One man married to one woman at a time Divorce and remarriage If marriage between people of the same sex becomes legalized these ie traditional and serial monogamy will be the only two forms of same sex marriage allowed On a world wide cultural basis only about 20 of the world s cultures prefer monogamy In other words about 20 of the world s cultures accept monogamy as their only legal form of marriage Monogamy 20 Traditional 65 Serial 35 What about the other 80 Polygamy widely PREFERRED Poly many One man many wives one woman many husbands People get jailed for being bigamists which only means that the man or woman is married to two people so if there are several spouses bigamy is false Polygamy Forms Polygyny Many women 76 You can have multiple wives in an economic environment where you can FEED them Each wife must have equal amounts of things Polyandry Many men 4 Woman reproduces slowly so there is no overpopulation this is because there are limited resources Found in isolated places Infanticide population control save a few babies kills a few babies Tuesday April 6 How to Obtain a Bride 3 categories of a woman s economic status a Economic Asset b Economic Liability c Economic Equal 3 ways to get a bride l Steal Her 7 eX Helen of Troy 7 practiced into l9Lh century in EuropeMediteranian Sea Costal area Today it is called elopement 2 Bride Price 7 Women are viewed as economic asset her family must be compensated for her economic loss Buy Purchase her via auction or catalog Common in American West in 19 century Today it is called an Engagement Ring buying this for wife General Rule 7 3 months gross salary 3 Dowry 7 old woman outlived her usefulness with no one to take care of her A Amount of money or property given by a bride s family to her bridegroom or his family when married B Amount of money transferred from a man to this bride when married In theory this ramians hers even if they divorce He did say this sounds like Bride Price but they call it Dowry C Today Woman s family pays for wedding engagement parties Note Only thing that makes you married is the liscense Three Main Reasons Marriages End in Divorce lmen and women think about money differently Men think of money as ours and women think of it as mine both men and women feel that men should bring home most of the money it is how couples decide what to do with the money they have that matters couples really need to talk about this prior to the marriage 2 work Jobs can play a role in time husbandwife can spend with family Women believe men aren t putting enough work in the family vice versa 3sexbattle couple has about sex causes relationships to end bad sex has never ruined a good relationship good sex has never saved a bad relationship but it often makes someone stay in a relationship longer than they should if men and women stay healthy our sex drive doesn t go away Stroke a blockage of blood ow to the brain Osteoperosis a condition associated with a slow insidious loss of calcium producing porous bones Presbyopia a normal condition in which the lens of the eye starts to harden losing its ability to accommodate as quickly as it did in youth Human Growth Hormone a powerful class of hormones that was developed to treat children af icted by dwar sm and has become a trendy antiaging potion Hormone Replacement Therapy a regime often recommended by physicians to maintain cardiovascular tness slow bone loss and slow memory loss Cataract a vision impairment condition caused by clouding of the lens Prostate Gland a walnutsized male gland at the base of the urethra Cholesterol a white waxy fat found naturally in the body and used to build the cell walls and make certain hormones Rheumatoid Arthritis an in ammatory disease that causes pain swelling stiffness and loss of function of the joints Divergent Thinking an openended way of thinking multiple solutions are sought examined and probed thereby leading to what are deemed creative responses on measures of creativity Dialectical Thinking an organized approach to analyzing and making sense of the world one eXperiences that differs fundamentally from formal analysis Climacteric changes in the ovaries and the various biological processes associated with these changes Dry Eye diminished tear production Macular Degeneration evidenced by faded distorted or blurred central vision Floaters oating spots that actually are particles suspended in the gellike uid that lls the eyeball but generally do not impair vision Hypertension high blood pressure Glaucoma increased pressure caused by uid buildup Within the eye that can damage the optic nerve if left untreated Presbycusis loss of the ability to hear highpitched sounds Fluid Intelligence the ability to make original adaptations in novel situations Crystalized Intelligence the ability to reuse earlier adaptations on later occasions Amenorrhea the absence ofa menstrual cycle Convergent Thinkingi the application of logic and reasoning to arrive at a single correct answer to a problem Perimenopausei the cessation of menstruation typically over a period of two to four years with an intermittent missing of periods and the eXtension of intervals between periods Impotence the inability for a male to have or sustain an erection Menopause the process culminating in the cessation of menstrual activity Hypothyroidism underactive thyroid gland Androgyny the presence of both maletyped and femaletyped characteristics Generativity vs Stagnation the quotcrisisquot that according to Erikson the midlife years are devoted to resolving through guiding the neXt generation Social Convoy the company of other people who travel with us from birth to death Sandwich Generation people caring for both growing children and aging parents Alienation a pervasive sense of powerlessness meaninglessness normlessness isolation and selfestrangement Traditional Marriage a social arrangement in which a woman lives the life of a homemaker and the man lives as the provider Displaced Homemaker a woman Whose primary activity has been homemaking and who has lost her main source of income because of divorce or widowhood Maturity the capacity of individuals to undergo continual change in order to adapt successfully and cope exibly with the demands and responsibilities of life Generativity the concern in establishing and guiding the neXt generation Em pty Nest Syndrome the emotional dif culties that women face when their children leave home Self Concept the image one has of oneself Empty Nest the term applied to that period of life when children have grown up and left home Multiinfarcts quotlittle strokesquot that destroy a small area of brain tissue Osteoporosis a condition associated with a slow insidious loss of calcium producing porous bones Hypothermia a condition in which body temperature falls more than 4 degrees Fahrenheit and persists for a number of hours Senility a lack of consistency and deterioration in cognitive functioning Death Drop a marked intellectual decline that occurs just a short time before a person dies Alzheimer s Disease a progressive degenerative disorder that involves deterioration of brain cells Sleep Apnea a sleep disorder in which the person occasionally experiences breathing that stops during sleep Collagen a substance that constitutes a very high percentage of the total protein in the body Decay Theory forgetting due to deterioration of the memory traces in the brain Encoding perceiving information abstracting from it one or more characteristics needed for classi cation and creating corresponding memory traces for it Interference Theory refers to retrieval of a cue becoming less effective as more and newer items come to be classed or categorized in terms of it Retrieval the process by which information is gathered from memory when it is required Storage the process by which information is retained in memory until it is needed Senescence the process of aging Ageism the stereotyping of a group of people and judging them solely on the basis of their age Gerontology the study of aging and the special problems associated with it Geropsychology the study of the behavior and needs of the elderly Life Review a reminiscence and sharing of family history from one generation to another Elderly Abuse acts of commission and omission that cause unnecessary suffering to older persons Wisdom expert knowledge about life in general and good judgment and advice about how to conduct oneself in the face of complex uncertain circumstances Adult Day Care longterm care support to adults who live in the community providing health social and support services in a protective setting during any part of the day Selective Optimization with Compensation refers to the life span model where we are adjusting our standards of expectation Disengagement Theory of Aging states that elderly people maintain a fairly stable level of activity for as long as possible and then nd substitutes for those activities they are forced to relinquish Activity Theory of Aging states that as an elderly person s level of activity declines so do feelings of satisfaction contentment and happiness Modernization Theory the notion that the status of the aged tends to be high in traditional societies and lower in urbanized industrialized societies Integrity vs Despair the stage in which individuals recognize that they are reaching the end of life Social Exchange Theory of Aging the view that people enter into social relationships because they derive rewards from doing soieconomic sustenance recognition a sense of security love social approval gratitude and so on Role Exit Theory of Aging views retirement and widowhood as the termination of the participation of the elderly in the principal institutional structures of societyithe job and the family Lecture 1 J 39 is 391 Juntil 39 ins24intheUS 0 You are not cognitively and emotionally capable of making logical rational decisions Before you can learn about adolescent Development 0 We have created adolescent development in our culture 0 In order to understand adolescent development you have to understand the society heshe lives in LIFESPAN the span of time that an organism is designedprogrammed by its biology genetic program to live in a perfect environment 0 In general it s believed that a normal person at birth in a perfect environment can live 120 150years decided by human cells in a Petri dish not someone with down syndrome or taysaches disease or genetic or inherited problems LIFE EXPECTANCY The number of years that somebody can be expected to live according to statistics 0 1850 1998 life expectancy has close to doubled o 1400 life expectancy was 24 o 12 or 13 is biological maturity you can reproduce youngest girl to give birth documented was 5 This also was age of marriage 0 1950 Life expectancy was 50 o Adulthood marriage movedfrom 12 13 to 16 18 Now what do we do with 12 01 13 year olds We invent ADOLESCENCE Period of adolescent indiscretion They are not children and they are not adults they are just drift 2010 Life expectancy is 85 years old 0 Biological maturity is still 1213 but most men get married around 26 and most women get married around 23 This is 13 years between marriage and biological maturity o This makes generations get into con ict because people don t want to wait to have sex until they are 2326 So while we wait to have sex and be married we go to school Educators are babysitters He is full of bullshit 0 People want year round education because both parents work and it makes somebody else watch the kids babysit and maybe we hope that you can learn something useful BUT we educate people mainly to be exible because so many people change careers it s not like you are going to school for only career More females going to college than males as high as 60 40 We have now created TWEENS Rights and Passages 0 Message to the child that you ARE an ADULT o For adults You treat the child as an ADULT Today rights of passages have turned into parties but you are still treated like a child by society this creates confusion for the childadult Helicopter Parents A parent who says that their child isn t happy FIX IT my child said it is hard to do this and this and this FIX IT 0 Conferences around the country are dedicated to how to deal with these types of parents Lecture 2 Back in the day Birth 1213 9999 Death 24 o The individuals placerole is given to them by the communitysociety Present Day Birth 12 13 9999 graduating from college 24 o The individual is responsible for nding their own place in the communitysociety Back in the day society placed you now we place ourselves Areas of Redefmition of Selfwhich are found universally 1 Biological sel Changing Body Developing physical shape Awkwardness Voice change more in men than women Secondary sex characteristics body shape based on fat to muscle ratio Primary characteristic 0 Sexual urges within context of society 2 Cognitive Maturity as we mature we forget how we used to think 0 Can think differently 0 Can nd fault with others thoughtsideaspositions 0 Can propose alternative thoughtsideaspositions 0 Can evaluate others parents mostly based on outside models or examples 0 Can form judgments about others Parents 0 Can remove labels associated with parents mother or father can evaluate the person 0 Often think about their own death 3 Family 0 Moving from 0 Family of orientation family you are born or adopted into To 0 Family of procreation the family that you create through marriage or non imarital life choices 0 Con ict with parents over the rolepower of the individual vs the family parents 4 Psychological o All the points above lead the individual into asking themselves this question Am I crazy 0 The answer is no All ofthis is normal and is part ofbeing human All of this stuff is easier if you are a part of the dominant societygroup If you are a part of the minority group this is harder Lecture 3 Ages 6 12 9 Concrete Period of Thinking and Development All stages in cognitive development have cogpitive egocentrism 0 From the early adolescence the idea is that my thoughts are the things I am focused on the most this is not what he is trying to talk about in lecture 0 My thoughts are correct this is the operational de nition Cognitive egocentrism leads to assumptive reality If I believe it s true it is Both of these elements lead to parentchild disagreements because the child always thinks they are correct or the parent possibly thinks that they are correct if they haven t moved past this stage This is where racism and prejudice comes from people never move past concrete reality with assumptive reality from egocentrism Peter Pan Fantasy Cognitive Life is too good it is too much fun I don t want to grow up Peter Pan Svndrome I J 39 39 39 39 Sum men don t want to grow up and leave their mothers care They try to nd women who will take the place of their motherA woman who will take care of them like their mother did Founding Fantasy very common in concrete development when children will say that they were adopted or found because they could not have been born to the family that they have Part of the fantasy centers around when their real family nds them their parents at the time would realize how special they are and how much they mean to them Children s Jokes Many adults will think that they have a sexual theme to them but if you listen in a cognitive perspective they are based primarily on the assumption that adults are stupid Rule Breaking o Moral Perspective there is a rule and someone broke it If parents get hung up on this they miss the cognitive perspective Cognitive Perspective Children break rules to prove their cognitive superiority to adults Rules are arbitrary They are not always logical Parents should never lose their temper Many Children think that rules are negotiable and try to negotiate all rules They think that they can talk their parents into changing their minds all the time 1 of 2 Things come from rule breaking 1 Cognitive Conceit I am smarter I am more intelligent I am superior to you It is a good thing we want children to develop a sense of cognitive conceit because in a fundamental meaning it says I believe in myself and I believe in the position that I have take if you can change my thinking I will change my mind Child enjoys and wants to think differently that the parent does 0 Can lead to narcissism like 12 different kinds 0 Negative Identity A person who has to be always right 2 Cognitive Ineptitude extreme examples a parent dumbs down the child and the environment they grow up in they are relentlessly told they are dumb stupid don t understand and belittled Child then doubts their ability to reason and argue These children are easily manipulated and are easily taken advantage of They generally go through life looking toward someone else to tell them how to think and how to act Piagget 0 3A Early Adolescence 0 3B Later Adolescence Children can learn abstractly and think abstractly Imagina Audience Everyone is thinking about me as much as Ithink about me It is a self ful lling prophecy children who have low selfesteem think that their audience thinks the same thing Erickson 0 Peer group conformity shouldn t be there power and authority once we are 18 or older 0 Egosafety Personal Fable Complex set of beliefs about the self that makes us think we are so unique the rules of the universe don t pertain to us 0 With males it is associated with risk taking Females as well but not as much Lecture 4 Books by Erik Erikson 0 Childhood and Society written in 1950 revised in 1963 0 Identity Youth Crisis 1 think 1958 but you might have to ask someone for the date According to Erikson s psychosocial model of development 0 Identity must be perceived by the individual but also recognized and con rmed by others Thus the process of establishing an identity involves Integrating into a coherent whole one s past experiences ongoing personal changes and society s demands and expectations for one s future 0 Identity must be perceived by the individual but also recognized and con rmed by others 0 Thus the process of establishing an identity involves integrating into a coherent whole one s past experience ongoing personal changes and society s demands and expectations for one s future Spimthall and Collins 1984 o This was expanded by James Marcia Marsha Books by Marcia 0 Development and validation of egoidentity status 1966 0 Journal of personality and social psychology Marcia s model identity involves the adaptation of o A sexual orientation 0 A set of values and ideals o A vocational direction Psychological crisis anytime a decision has to be made Identity 0 Up until 1950 the general rule was when the child was born there was a sense of we already know who you are what you re going to do and how you re going to progress through life Their family gives them their identity also known as foreclosed identity Children got to choose their fates only after WWII Foreclosed identities in 2010 0 Politics 0 Religion 0 Career 0 Motherhood A welldeveloped identity gives one a sense of one s strengths and 39 J o A person with a less welldeveloped identity is not able to define hisher personal strengths and weaknesses and does not have a wellarticulated sense of self I 139 39J I Marcia s balance of identity identity achieved and identity confused Commitment YES YES NO 1 Identity Achieved Occurs when an individual has gone through an exploration of different identities and made a commitment to one 2 Moratorium The status of a person who is actively involved in exploring different identities but has not made a commitmentHere are my gifts these are my hearts desires how do I put them together Psychological period of time out Most college student s even seniors tend to be here 3 Foreclosure Status is when a person has made a commitment without attempting identity exploration 4 Identity confused chameleon type of people They conform to whatever they are around This can go two routes 0 Chameleon lizard becoming like the people they are around Can become your perfect partner The individual is good at knowing what other people expect of them They grew up in a dysfunctional home Path committee grew up where they were constantly evaluated Find that they have no ability to think on their own Lives are rules by committee ie tell me what to think what to wear who to hang out with what to think how to behave etc Identity Diffusion Occurs when there is neither an identity crisis or commitment 7 0 Erik Erikson s 5 h Addition Negative Identity Erikson s term for people who grow up in families that are so hostile and judgmental It allows the kid to build up anger and disagree with parents This identity turns into a lifestyle for these people Negative identity people so out of the normal An individual who grows up in a judgmental hostile and negative home Can be over dominated or overcome it and fight back egodefensive mechanism Problem it becomes their lifestyle Only way I can survive is to always be right or always be against the other person You love t his person at first Most difficult to change because they have to acknowledge that they are wrong They usually don t Answers to questions for test these are the answers no matter what the question or the options 28b 31 c Egocentrism A lack of awareness that there are viewpoints other than one s own Personal Fable A romantic imagery in which adolescents tend to view themselves as somehow unique and even heroicisuch as destined for unusual fame and fortune Bulimia An eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of bingeing particularly on highcalorie foods such as candy bars cakes pies and ice cream Anorexia An eating disorder that primarily affects females causing some to become obsessed with looking thin and terri ed of becoming fat Sexually Transmitted Infections Diseasesiincluding gonorrhea syphilis chlamydia and AIDSitransmitted by engaging in sexual intercourse while not using condoms Period of Formal Operations Refers to the final and highest stage in the development of cognitive functioning from infancy to adulthood Imagina Audience The belief of an adolescent that everyone in the local environment is primarily concerned with the appearance and behavior of the adolescent Obesity The excess accumulation of body fat considered to be an increase of 20 pounds over typical weight for height Menarche The first menstrual period Substance Abuse The harmful use of drugs or alcohol lasting over a prolonged period through which self or others are placed in hazardous situations Puberty The period of the life cycle when sexual and reproductive maturation becomes evident Adolescent Growth Spurt The rapid increase in height and weight that occurs during the early adolescent years Asynchrony The term used to describe the dissimilarity in the growth rates of different parts of the body Negative Identity A debased selfimage and social role Identity A feeling of being at home in one s body a sense of quotknowing where one is goingquot and an inner assuredness of anticipated recognition from those who count Identity Diffusion A lack of ability to commit oneself to an occupational or ideological position and to assume a recognizable station in life Deviant Identity A lifestyle that is at odds with or at least not supported by the values and expectations of society Identity Moratorium A period of delay during which adolescents can experiment with or quottry onquot various roles ideologies and commitments Storm and Stress A stage of turmoil maladjustment tension rebellion dependency con icts and exaggerated peer group conformity that some believe to be inevitable in adolescence Binge Drinking Five or more drinks in a row for men or four or more in a row for women Generation Gap Implies the existence of mutual antagonism misunderstanding and separation between youth and adults Puberty Rites Initiation ceremonies that socially symbolize the transition from childhood to adulthood Youth Culture Standardized ways of thinking feeling and acting that are characteristic of a large group of young people Drug Abuse The 39 or r 39 39 use of chemical agents to an extent that interferes with people s health their social or quot 39 f quot 39 or the f quot 39 ofthe rest of society Consciousness of Oneness Sympathetic identi cation in which group members come to feel that their inner experiences and emotional reactions are similar Identity Foreclosure The avoidance of autonomous choice Identity Achievement When the individual is able to achieve inner stability that corresponds to what others perceive that person to be Depression Prolonged feelings of gloom despair and futility profound pessimism and a tendency toward excessive guilt and selfreproach Social Clock A set of internalized concepts that regulate our progression through the agerelated milestones of the adult years PostFormal Operational Thought Adults come to realize that knowledge is not absolute but relativistic and to accept contradictions and mutually incompatible systems of knowledge because they recognize that contradiction is inherent in life adults must find some encompassing whole by which to organize their experience Social Aging Changes in an individual s assumption and relinquishment of roles through time Biological Aging Changes in the structure and functioning of the human organism through time Aging Norms Social norms that define what is appropriate for people to be and to do at various ages Social Norms Standards of behavior that members of a group share and to which they are expected to conform Age Grading The arranging of people in social layers that are based on periods in the life cycle The biological and social change across the life span Transition Points The relinquishment of familiar roles and the assumption of new ones Information Processing The stepbystep mental operations that we use in tackling intellectual tasks Life Events Turning points at which individuals change direction in the course of their lives Rape sexual relations obtained through force threat or intimidation Intimacy The ability to experience a trusting supportive and tender relationship with another person Pregnancy A period characterized by physical and emotional change that precedes the birth of a baby Triangular Theory of Love The theory that companionate love consists of two other types of love intimacy and commitment Instrumental Tie A social link that is formed when we cooperate with another person to achieve a limited goal Marriage A socially and or religiously sanctioned union between a woman and a man with the expectation that they will perform the mutually supportive roles of wife and husband Mentor A teacher experienced coworker or boss who provides guidance Cultural Dislocation An alienation from a traditional way of life Role Overload Occurs when a person has too many role demands and too little time to ll them Primary Relationship Social interactions that rest on expressive ties Seconda Relationship Social interactions that rest on instrumental ties Expressive Ties Social link formed when we invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to another person Consummate Love The emotional bond when all aspects of triangular love exist in a relationship Role Con ict The experience of pressures within one role that are incompatible with the pressures that arise within another role Companionate Love The kind of love that you have for a very close friend Lifestyle The overall pattern of living whereby we attempt to meet our biological social and emotional needs Family Life Cycle The sequential changes and realignments that occur in the structure and relationships of family life between the time of marriage and the death of one or both spouses Intimacy vs Isolation The stage of reaching out and making connections with other people Romantic Love Typically what we think of when we say we are quotin lovequot with someone Chapter 11 Conceptual MC 1 B 6 B 11 D 16 2 C 7 B 2 C 17 B 3 C 8 C 13 D 18 4 B 9 B 14 C 5 D 10 A 15 B Factual MC 1 B 8 D 15 A 22 C 2 D 9 C 16 D 23 D 3 A 10 B 17 B 24 D 4 C 11 D 18 D 25 C 5 A 12 C 19 B 26 C 6 B 13 C 20 A 27 C 7 B 14 B 21 C 28 B Lecture Notes Tuesday 20210 2112010 20200 PM 2210 F150 Notes Society affects how children are raised Pick up baby for it to survive o If not picked up then it dies 0 Abandonment happened often in 19521972 10 of babies Infanticide Abandon cite safe drop Adoption Oxytocin associated with attachment hormone highly associated with parenting behavior o Peak at orgasm and childbirth Baby cries to get someone to pick it up Baby needs food water shelter and touch to survive Once bonded hard to unattach child from parents even if quality of life sucks Baby recognizes familiar faces and smells can differentiate o Has no concept of mother Attachment is a survival mechanism Adult attachment is primarily psychological If there is a maternal instinct then choices would not exist Attachment theory o Ethology is concerned with the adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history o Preattachment phase birth6 weeks 0 Variety of built in signals help bring newborns into close contact with other human beings o Attachmentinthemaking phase 6 weeks 6 to 8 months 0 infants begin to respond differently to familiar vs unfamiliar people o clearcut attachment 6 to 8 months 18 months to 2 years 0 separation anxiety becomes apparent o formation of reciprocal relationships 18 months to 2 years and on o stranger anxiety become apparent 0 rapid development helps infant to understand reasons for departure and returns Lecture Notes Thursday 20410 2112010 20200 PM 2410 F1 50 notes In this class Billingham talked about the baby and how it tricks another being into taking care of it with the use of the eyes He talked about the role of the parents and how if one parent tended to the baby when it cried at night and let the other go back to sleep then the other parent will eventually not wake up whenever the baby cried Linda Haas He mentioned that if we talk babies while in womb they can understand the rhythm of our language and learn it quicker BUT the baby does not understand the words you say And he also talked about how babies need to be held and touched to be comforted To survive a baby must be picked up taken care of by someone else Baby has powerful mechanisms to get people to pick it up Sight o Coordination of focus is not in newborns o But can track an object o Babies designed to look at the human eye o Baby tricks adult into thinking that shehe can recognize adult this builds relationships because adult thinks the baby knows who shehe is Hearing o Music affects heart rate o Fetus has mucus plug therefore cannot here the words you say o Fetus cannot hear you while in womb but can hear the pattern and rhythm of language o Linda Haas found that we can filter out noise if it is noise we do not need to attend to Touch o Baby needs it Amniotic fluid close to salt water Lecture Notes Thursday 21110 2112010 20200 PM Test moved to Tuesday 23 2010 Test covers Chapters 710 0 Woman is born with all the ova she is going to have hence greater cumulative eFFeCt on the ovum with bad environment 0 Women are more sensitive to pain throughout development than men are but women have a greater pain tolerance than men do In Birth Babies breathe oxygenated salt water contractions help move the water out 0 the lungs CsectiOh babies are more prone to respiratory problems later in liFe Hearing During laSt trimester 0 pregnancy a baby can hear mOther s muFFled voice and the sounds or her heartbeat breathing and digestion Baby has mucus plug that dribbles out o the ear Sight Upon birth babies exhibit a pr0tective re ex o tightly shutting their eyes against bright light blinking reFleX Newborn can see well at a distance or 8 to 12 inches From the bridge 06 their nose Newborn can t adjust his eyes to clearly see images closer than 8 inches or Farther away than 12 inches The ability of mm eyes to Focus on the same image is essential to the deVeIopment o depth perception Color vision is immature at birth but color discrimination is learned early starting with yellow and ending with blue Touch Most poorly developed sense at birth Taste Taste and smell are intertwined The most highly developed sense at birth is taste 3 diFFerent possible tastes tip 0 tongue 9 sweet 0 things that taste sweet don t usuallgtl Kill us 0 You can use the tip 0 your tongue to tell if something is good or n0t Sides 0 tongue 9 sal cgtl and sour o BaCK of tongue 9 bitter Nursing Colostrum is in breast milIlt and helps support babies immune system Breast Feeding is learned Smell Taste and smell are intertwined smell alone can change a biological SVstem synchronizing menstrual cycles Arguably the most nighy developed sense at brtn 39s smell Lecture Notes Tuesday 21610 2112010 20200 PM People grow up around Others who are similar to them neighborhood effect When children start school the Kids are in a school environment 1 public parents start to lose control over child s socialization The larger community school board teachers state school boards Other children compete with the Family For the socialization g harles Darwin 1859 origin of the species o Concept of evolution through sexual seleCtivitye inFluenced Sigmund M o Biological mechanism that helps species surVive Sigmund Ereud Stages of DeVelopment o Oral Stage birth18 months Fixation on oral pleasure it is how they learn EriKSOh must be some way to explain how Hitler happened o Was acquainted with Anna Freud and with Sigmund Freud s teachings Stage 1 Oral Stage Basic Trust Vs Mistrust FP gt C S PgtC Stage 2 Anal Stage Autonomy Vs Shame 6 Doubt 18 months3years Child tells us that they view themseIVes as being diFFereht crom you by saying no and deiying you Child Shows aUtonomy they go and get what they want Child is in COhFliCt with what they want to do and what society tells them to do eg pOtty training is Forced by parents and parents are Forced by society Stage 3Phallic Stage Initiative Vs Guild 36 Children learn nOt to touch themselves Mother teache gm what a women m Father teache gm what a man hou d be Stage 4 Latency IhdUStW VS IHFQNOHW stage 5 Gemtm IdehtK V VS Row CthUSWOh nmn39 ages M peuona ly deve opmem a 4 s 5 Shag 1 2 7 8 g Basicuun 3 Oral w a m a 1 MW 3 w i iambl 3 mm m 9mm v 3 W 3 Jud uy lalen m g Y inkr mily a m 3 02mm V5 39m e L mm m m mu m afain Generativa gamma v mgm Egu Mammy quotnegw n dupav Integrity v3 Despah Generativity vs Stagnation Identity vs Identity di usion Industry vs Inferiority onomy VS ame u amp Doubt and other family I Initiative vs Guilt I and siblings Basic trust vs Mistrust Parents HAMJud C ange ncweaigirig compleiifq Erwvivcm m enita cLanqr r CHAPTER 7 2112010 20200 PN V0 CAB 1 lChU39lrF 14 15 Zone of Proximal Development Helping children with tasks that are a little too hard for them to accomplish alone Preoperational Period Storage of cognitive development typified by an egocentric View of the world Reversibility Refers to a child s failure to recognize that operations an be turned back to an earlier state Anaphylaxis Lifethreatening allergy Morphology The term used when a word changes form Pragmatics the types of language that can be used in different social contexts Theory of Mind The ability to understand that others see the world differently from oneself Intelligence A global capacity to understand the world think rationally and cope resourcefully with the challenges oflife Egocentrism A lack of awareness that there are viewpoints other than one s own Twofactor Theory of Intelligence A theory which concludes that there is a general intellectual ability employed for abstract reasoning and problem solving Semantics Deals with the meaning of words as well as the rules for combining words together meaningfully Metamemory Individuals awareness and understanding of their memory process Metacognition Individuals awareness and understanding of their own mental processes Asperger s Syndrome A mild form of autism Receptive Language Language that can be understood Syntax Refers to the way that words must be ordered in a sentence Conservation The recognition that the quality or amount of something stays the same despite changes in appearance Centration The process whereby preoperational children concentrate on one feature ofa situation and neglect other aspects Shortterm Memory The retention of information for a very brief period usually not more than 30 seconds 20 Longterm Memory The retention of information for an extended period of time 21 Memory The retention of what has been experienced 22 Phonology The stage oflanguage development where children move beyond two word sentences begin to display real understanding of the rules governing language and begin to master the different sounds within the language 23 Sensory Information Storage When information from the senses is preserved in the sensory register just long enough to permit the stimuli to be scanned for processing generally less than two seconds 24 Intelligence Quotient Ratio of mental over chronological age 25 Multiple Intelligences Nine distinct abilities that interact 26 Private Speech Speech directed to oneself or to nobody 27 Recall Remembering previous information 28 Reciprocity Child s capacity to attach meaning to a current situation from previous situation 29 Rehearsal Process of repeating information to oneself THEORISTS 1 can Piaget a Preoperational Period Study of children s cognitive development Years between 27 ii39 A child increases the capacity to represent the external world internally through the use of symbols such as words and numbers iv Preoperational children operate from egocentrism are absorbed in their own feelings and thoughts and are often not able to recognize others thoughts and feelings b Argument 0n Moral Reasoning i Children s moral reasoning evolves and begins with reciprocity of attitudes and values 39 The ability to recall thoughts and feelings from memory makes moral thought possible iii As young children mature they come to know more about attitudes values and the quotrulesquot of accepted behavior 2 NeoPiagetians Prosocial Behavior a Young children have more reasoning capabilities and show evidence ofprosocial behaviors 2 Howard GardenerTheory ofMuItl39pIe Intelligences a Children have different strengths and weaknesses in their intelligence systems and that education should instruct to accommodate different kinds of intelligence 4 Les VygotskyThe Zone ofProximaI Development a with help from a more skilled partner children master tasks that are too hard to accomplish alone 5 KohlbergPreC0nventi0naI Stage a First stage of moral development 2 Young children are obedient to authority from fear of threat or punishment C Young children are egocentric and unable to see the perspective of others Theory of Mind 1 Focused on children s understanding of their own thought processes I From ages 2 to 6 children gain a clearer understanding of their world people s actions their own thought processes number concepts and causality of events PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH CONCERNS CHAPTER 8 2112010 20200 PM V0 CAB 1 2 3 U1 lGquot 9 GenderBeing classed as male or female SelfEsteem A person s own sense of selfworth or selfimage Gender Roles A set of cultural expectations that define the ways in which the members of each sex should behave Ioint Custody An arrangement whereby both parents share equally in the making of significant childrearing decisions and share in regular childcare responsibilities Authoritarian Parenting Attempts to shape control and evaluate a child s behavior in accordance with traditional and absolute values and standards of conduct Aggression Behavior that is socially defined as injurious or destructive Harmonious Parenting Distinguished by parents that seldom exercise direct control over their children in an attempt to cultivate and egalitarian relationship Permissive Parenting Distinguished by providing a nonpunitive accepting and affirmative environment in which the children regulate their own behavior as much as possible Gender Stereotypes Exaggerated generalizations about male or female behaviors 10Authoritative Parenting Firm direction for a child s overall activities but gives the child considerable freedom within reasonable limits 11Peers Individuals who are approximately the same age 12 Resource Dilution Hypothesis States that in large families resources get spread too thinly to the detriment of all the offspring Scaffolding Supports a child s learning through intervention and tutoring that provide helpful task information attuned to the child s current level of functioning Gender Identity The conception that people have of themselves as being male or female Self Concept The image one has of oneself Socialization The process of transmitting culture transforming children into functioning members of society Emotion The psychological changes subjective experiences and expressive behaviors that are involved in such feelings as love joy grief and anger 18 Initiative vs Guilt The stage when children strive exuberantly to do things and to test developing abilities sometimes reaching beyond their competence 19 Self The system of concepts we use in defining ourselves 20 Con uence Theory The View that the intellectual development ofa family is like a river with the input of each family member owing into it 21 Play Voluntary activities that are not performed for any sake beyond themselves THEORIES o Psychoanalytic Theory Freud o Suggests that early experience plays a significant role in gender identity 0 Children are bisexual at birth 0 Complexes are normally resolved by age 5 or 6 Oedipal complex Boys Electra Complex Girls 0 Psychosocial Theory Erikson 0 Certain gender traits are assimilated by social interactions 0 EriksonPsyCh050CiaI Theory 0 Children attempt to resolve the con ict of Initiative vs Guilt by acting with purpose on their world 0 Ages 36 children strive to do things and to test developing abilities 0 Cognitive Learning Theory Proposes that modelingimitation plays a major role in gender identity 0 Cognitive Development Theory States that children acquire a mental model of a female or male or traditional gender stereotypes and then adopt that model s gender related Characteristics KEY CHILD REARING PRACTICES 1 Warmth or Hostility Dimension of the parentchild relationship o Warmth affectionate accepting approving understanding and childcentered behaviors When disciplining parents use explanations words of encouragement and praise o Hostility cold rejecting disapproving selfcentered and highly punitive behaviors leads to interference with development of conscience and breeds aggressiveness and resistance to authority 2 Control or AutonomyDimension of the disciplinary approach 0 Control with restrictive parenting it can lead to child dependency and interference with independence training Combination of Parenting Approaches 0 Warm butRestrictive Parenting leads to politeness neatness obedience and conformity Potentially immaturity dependency low creativity blind acceptance of authority and social withdrawal and ineptness 0 Warm with Democratic Procedures leads to socially competent resourceful friendly active and appropriately aggressive individuals Potentially selfreliant creative goaloriented and responsible behavior ifparents encourage independence and mastery in social and academic situations Potentially permissiveness and selfindulgent children with little impulse control if parents fail to foster independence 0 Hostile Rejecting and Restrictive Parenting Interferes with the child s developing sense ofidentity and selfesteem Children see the world as dominated by powerful malignant forces over which they have no control It fosters resentment and inner rage Can result in neurotic problems self punishing and suicidal tendencies depressed affect and inadequacy in adult roleplaying o Hostile and Permissive Parenting Associated with delinquent and aggressive behavior in children Rejection breeds resentment and hostility which when combined with inadequate parental control can be translated into aggressive and antisocial actions prarents discipline it is usually physical capricious and severe 3 Consistency or Inconsistency Dimension that parents show in using discipline PARENTING STYLES 1 Authoritarian Parenting attempts to shape control and evaluate a child s behavior in accordance with traditional and absolute values and standards of conduct Obedience is stressed verbal giveandtake is discouraged and punitive forceful discipline is preferred Parents are said to use rejectingdemanding dimension Children tend to be discontented withdrawn and distrustful 2 Authoritative Parenting Firm direction for a child s overall activities but gives the child considerable freedom within reasonable limits Control is not rigid punitive intrusive or unnecessarily restrictive Parents provide reasons for given policies and engage in verbal giveandtake with the child Children are usually selfreliant self controlled explorative and contented children Children have comfortable supported feelings while they explore the environment and gain interpersonal competence 3 Permissive Parenting Nonpunitive accepting and affirmative environment in which the children regulate their own behaviors as much as possible The children are consulted about family policies and decisions Parents make few demands on the children for household responsibilities or orderly behaviors Children are least selfreliant explorative and selfcontrolled 4 Harmonious Parenting Attempt to cultivate and egalitarian relationship one in which the child is not placed at a power disadvantage Parents emphasize humane values as opposed to the predominantly materialistic and achievement values operating within mainstream society The girls were competent independent friendly achievement oriented and intelligent The boys were cooperative but submissive dependent and not achievementoriented Baumrind Distinguishes among authoritarian authoritative permissive and harmonious parenting Found a number ofparental practices and attitudes that seem to facilitate the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in children 1 Parents who are socially responsible and assertive and who serve as daily models of these behaviors foster these characteristics in their children 2 Parents should use firm enforcement policies to reward socially responsible and independent behavior and to punish deviant behavior This parenting technique uses the reinforcement principles of conditioning Parents can be even more effective in their demands are accompanied by explanations and ifpunishment is accompanied by reasons that are consistent with principles the parents themselves live by 3 Parents who are accepting are more attractive models and reinforcing agents than rejecting parents 4 Parents should emphasize and encourage individuality self eXpression initiative divergent thinking and socially appropriate assertiveness These values are translated into daily realities as parents make demands upon their children and assign them responsibility PLAY BEHAVIORS AND EMOTIONALSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Functional Play repetitive eg rolling a ball Constructive Play manipulating objects or toys to create something else eg using blocks to build a tower Parallel Play solitary play near others eg putting a puzzle together alone 0nlooker Play observational eg watching others play a game Associative Play two or more children sharing toys and materials eg sharing a box of crayons while they color something separately o Cooperative collaboration Play interacting communicating and taking turns eg playing board games jump rope or playing kickball CHAPTER 9 2112010 20200 PM V0 CAB 1 01 CD X 14 Period of concrete Operations When a child develops the ability to apply logical thought to concrete problems Individualized Education Plan A legal document which ensures that the child with special learning needs will be provided with the needed educational support services in the least restrictive environment Stereotypes Certain exaggerated cultural understandings that in uence the mutual set of expectations that will govern the social exchange Cognitive Styles Differences in how individuals organize and process information Learning Disabilities Difficulty with schoolrelated material despite the fact that students appear to have normal intelligence and lack a demonstrable physical emotional or social impairment Dyslexia Extreme difficulty in learning to read in an otherwise normally intelligent healthy child or adult Horizontal Decalage Implies that repetition takes place within a single period of development such as the period of concrete operations Bilingualism Provides instruction in both first languages by teachers proficient in both Executive Strategies The ability to integrate and orchestrate lowerlevel cognitive skills Conservation The concept that the quantity or amount of something stays the same regardless of changes in its shape or position Obesity The excess accumulation ofbody fat considered an increase of 20 pounds over typical weight for height Empathy The feelings of emotional arousal that lead an individual to take another perspective and to experience an event as the other person experiences it Total Immersion The instructional approach of placing children with limited English proficiency in regular classrooms with or without support in their first language and using English for all instruction Inclusion The integration of students with special needs within the regular classroom programs of the school 15 Limited English Proficiency The legal term for students who were not born in the United States or whose native language is not English and who cannot participate effectively in the regular school curriculum because they have difficulty speaking understanding reading and writing English 16 Moral Development The process by which children adopt principles that lead them to evaluate given behaviors as quotrightquot and others as quotwrongquot and to govern their own actions in terms of these principles 17 Prosocial Behaviors Ways of responding to other people through sympathetic cooperative helpful rescuing comforting and giving acts 18 Autonomous Morality An egalitarian morality based on respect and cooperation 19 ELL English Language Learners Students who cannot participate effectively due to language restrictions 20 ESL Approach Teaching children English as quickly and efficiently as possible 21 Heteronomous Morality Morality based on absolute moral rules 22 Mental Retardation Disability in individuals having lower than average mental functions and adaptive skills THEORISTS o Piaget 0 Period of Concrete Operations I Qualitative change in children s thinking during middle childhood as children begin to develop a set of rules or strategies for examining the world I Children develop conservation skills in a fixed sequence U Numbers 57 B Substance 78 B Length 78 B Area 89 H Weight 910 B Volume 1214 0 Theory on Moral Development by cognitivedevelopment I There is an orderly and logical pattern in the development of children s moral judgments I Development is based on the sequential changes associated with children s intellectual growth especially the stages that are characterized by the emergence oflogical thought I Portrayed children as active participants in their own moral development and are dynamically interactive in their environment opposed cognitive moral development theorists environment acts on and modifies children and children are passive recipients of environmental forces Children learn from their environment 0 Kohlberg There is universal morality 0 Theory ofdevelopment ofvalues and moraljudgment I Preconventional Level I Stage 1 o X shouldn t steal because he might be caught and go to jail X should steal because he wants it I Stage 2 Theft is justified because his wife needs it and X needs his wife s companionship in life Theft is condemned because his wife will probably die before X gets out ofjail so it will not do him much good I Conventional Level I Stage 3 o X is unselfish in looking after the needs of his wife 0 X will feel bad thinking of how he brought dishonor on his family his family will be ashamed of the act I Stage 4 0 Theft is justified because X would otherwise have been responsible for his wife s death 0 Theft is condemned because X is a lawbreaker I Postconventional Level D Stage 5 0 Theft is justified because the law was not fashioned for situations in which an individual would forfeit life by obeying the rules 0 Theft is condemned because others may also have great need U Stage 6 0 Theft is justified because X would not have lived up to the standards of his conscience if he allowed his wife to die 0 Theft is condemned because X did not live up to the standards of his conscience when he engaged in stealing 0 Carol Gilligan Stated that Freud s Piaget s and Kohlberg s moral theories capture men s but not women s moral development 0 Men have morality ofjustice 0 Women have morality of care 0 Vera JohnSteiner s 0 Creativity PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT 0 Children grow more slowly during middle childhood and become more skilled in controlling their bodies 0 With regular proper nutrition health care and adequate sleep a child s brain and nervous system ill continue to develop by both progressive myelination and regressive pruning processes Still a small percentage of children during these years are identified as having learning disabilities andor gifted abilities This is the period when most children are healthiest Yet rates of dental caries asthma ADHD and obesity in this age group are rising Risks include accidents contagious illness eating disorders and sedentary lifestyles COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT An important feature of the elementary school years is a marked growth in children s cognitive sophistication Piaget calls this period quotconcrete operations and most children achieve mastery of conservation problems over time Considerable controversy eXists about whether the acquisition of conservation skills in the period of concrete operations occurs in the invariant stage sequence and whether understanding conservation can be accelerated Using the computer as a model for the brain information processing theorists ask whether during childhood there are changes in the basic processing capacity of the system or in the type of the program used to solve a problem Although the developmental process is somewhat predictable children vary in their rate and overall amount of change Individual differences in abilities become more evident The number of dimensions along with children conceptualize other people grows throughout childhood with increasing ability to distinguish people s characteristics by 7 to 8 years of age Children from ages 6 to 12 continue to acquire subtle phonological distinctions vocabulary semantics syntaX formal discourse patterns and compleX aspects of pragmatics in their first language A growing segment of the US child population is bilingual and identified as English Language Learners or ELLs The four main approaches used in the US to open the doors to mainstream education are English as a second language bilingualism total immersion and twoway bilingualism Schools primarily use conventional intelligence measurements such as the StanfodrBl39net test or WISCIV The reliability and validity of such tests are documented the scores are stable for schoolage children and they correlate well with the predictive of academic performance or the need for special education services There is greater understanding today that children do not all learn in the same way thus there is a growing body of research and instructional materials to meet different cognitivestyle needs More US children are being provided with special education services and individual education plans The largest percentage of thee youth are classified as having learning disabilities Such children might have problems in reading writing mathematics auditoryvisual perception or other sensory areas A child can be classified as having a learning disability in one area but also have gifted abilities in another MORAL DEVELOPMENT Morality involves how we go about distributing the benefits and burdens ofa cooperative group existence and includes an understanding ofbehavior and actions that are considered right or wrong Cultures vary in moralethical values that children are taught thus there seems to be no one set of universal moral standards Cognitive learning theory views moral development as a gradual and continuous process whereby children acquire moral standards and values primarily through imitating and observable behavior of others Cognitive developmental theorists conceive ofmoral development as taking place in sequential stages with clearcut changes distinguishing one stage from the neXt With differing views ofmoral values across cultures their theories might now apply A number of researchers have attempted to specify which personal and situational factors are most closely associated with moral behavior Biological intelligence age and seX differences play only a small part in moral conduct Group codes and motivational factors have a much larger role Moral development involves much more than simply learning prohibitions against misbehavior It also involves acquiring prosocial behaviors Schools churches and community organizations promote healthy moral development through various character education programs CHAPTER 10 2112010 20200 PM V0 CAB 1 N 09 He 0quot 53 00 H H H N PTSD A disorder that may exhibit a variety of symptoms including numbing and helplessness increased irritability and aggressiveness extreme anxiety panic and fears exaggerated startle response sleep disturbances and bed wetting Prejudice A system ofnegative conceptions feelings and action orientations regarding the members of a particular religious racial or nationality group Anxiety A state of uneasiness or apprehension Bullying Deliberate repeated aggressive behavior involving a power imbalance Intrinsic Motivation Activity that is undertaken for its own sake Extrinsic Motivation activity that is undertaken for some purpose other than its own sake Phobia An excessive persistent and maladaptive fear response usually to benign or illdefined stimuli Locus of Control An important moderator of an individual39s experience of stress people39s perception ofwho or what is responsible for the outcome of events and behaviors in their lives Fear An unpleasant emotion aroused by impending danger pain or misfortune Motivation Inner states and processes that prompt direct and sustain activity Educational Selffulfilling Prophecies Teacher expectation effects whereby some children fail to learn because those charged with teaching them do not believe they will learn Values The criteria used in deciding the relative merit and desirability of things Industry vs Inferiority The fourth stage of the life cycle when children in middle childhood become interested in how things were made or how they work Self Image The overall view that children have of themselves Coping The responses we make in order to master tolerate or reduce stress Gender Cleavage The tendency for boys to associate with boys and girls with girls Group Two or more people who share a feeling of unity and are bound together in relatively stable patterns of social interaction SelfEsteem A favorable evaluation of self THEORISTS THE QUEST FOR SELFUNDERSTANDING 1 N W 1 U1 Erikson s Stage of Industry vs Inferiority Psychosocial Model of development children in middle childhood experience the fourth stage of the life cycle Industry vs lnferl39orl39ty U Children desire to try many new things and to develop their abilities U Those who are prevented from trying new activities don t get the opportunity to try or don t experience success in comparison to the group are likely to develop low selfesteem SelfImage selfconcept is a domainspecific assessment that children make about themselves Praise or belittlement is commonly internalized and a child will see themselves as good or bad SelfEsteem Children acquire positive healthy selfesteem if they are accepted approved and respected SelfRegulated Behaviors In expanded social settings children must learn to regulate their own emotions to get along with the group The peer group typically rejects children who cannot selfregulate their behaviors Understanding Emotion and Coping with Anger Fear Stress and Trauma Anger Fear anxiety and stress play an important part in the lives ofyoung children Generally girls experience more fears anxiety and stress than boys especially as they enter middle school years All children experience stressful situations in response to perceived threats or dangers yet they can learn coping strategies to deal with stress Two important aspects of coping with stress are a child s own sense of mastery and locus of control B Developmental Fears i Preschool Children Fears of being left alone and imaginary fears of darkness large animals and monsters ii Elementaryaged Children Fears of failure and criticism bodily injury and illness and supernatural phenomena such as ghosts iquot Adolescents Global fears abstract and anticipatory fears such as failure and criticism social evaluation economic and political concerns and violence 2 All Life Stages Fears of danger death and injury CONTINUING FAMILY INFLUENCES 1 Mothers and Fathers U Mothers play an important role dung the middle years of their children s development by supporting them in their efforts to engage in productive activities U Most children live with a biological father or stepfather during at least part of their childhood but fathers differ in amount of time they spend with children in the activities they share with them and in the degree to which they take on the responsibilities ofparenting When fathers are involved in children s lives both children and mother benefit U Divorced fathers must go through a process of grieving and accepting the end of their relationship with the mother of their children to prepare for their new relationship with their children Fathers who do not do this emotional work often find it difficult to stay emotionally close to their children after a divorce 2 Sibling Relationships U Siblings normally feel loyalty and support for each other but might also have con ict U Siblings relationships are good places for children to learn important con ict resolution and negotiating skills 3 Children of Divorce U Reactions to divorce differ with i Age ii Temperament iii Parental Competence in managing the divorce U Children s concerns about this loss are normally quite different from the parents COHCCFHS U Studies find that children experience less stress when parents cooperate in matters concerning the children 4 SingleParent Families U Children living in singleparent homes has been increasing throughout the 1990 s and 2000 s U The majority of singleparent families are headed by women though the number of singleparent families headed by fathers is slowly rising 5 Stepfamilies U Between75 and 80 of divorced parents remarry U Children can find it difficult to adjust to the authority of a new parent
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'