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E 103

by: Katelynn Bechtelar
Katelynn Bechtelar
GPA 3.56

Steven Franks

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Steven Franks
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelynn Bechtelar on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COLL at Indiana University taught by Steven Franks in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/233412/coll-indiana-university in Arts and Sciences at Indiana University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
Danielle Graf Professor Lorenzen S1 10 12 November 2010 Clinical Observation Report 9 year old HD smiled as he walked across the room and pulled a piece of paper from the folder on his speech therapy room wall As is common with Pervasive Developmental Disorder the client suffered from a severely low tolerance for distraction during forcefocused activities In this case he was tired of repeating names of pictures and needed something to redirect his attention The piece of paper a makeshift award certi cate gave the inspiration needed to take on another activity People with Pervasive Developmental Disorder a condition directly associated with and or compared to Autistic Spectrum Disorder have severe impairment in social interaction and verbalnonverbal communication skills along with stereotypical behaviors interests and activities With HD treatment focused on increasing social skills and more accurately understanding when to talk and how to express his ideas appropriately In this particular session the clinician worked hard with HD to develop appropriate responses to basic everyday questions In one activity the clinician would hold up a small picture of a common object and say a sentence about the card Then she d ask which word was missing For example when holding up a picture of a car she would say something like What do you use to drive to the store You drive to the store in HD s response a car would mean the next card in line would then be shown and a similar process would take place In another exercise a small model of a house was placed on the table The clinician would move something in the house and HD would then describe the action taking place This helped with his understanding of accurate information processing and sharing When the client can see a gure get moved into the house and correctly relay that information they will have a much better chance of telling a relative that Aunt Susie did indeed leave the living room and go to the garage or that baby George just crawled past the bedroom door and never got out of the house Obviously these functions are very important to get accustomed to The client was very cooperative and wellnatured during the session HD never threw a tantrum or got angry at not 39 J39 39 y A J39 quot 39 Whenever he lost focus the clinician would seize all activity with the command Stop look at me and go on with her work The boy reacted very well to treatment and tried to actively engage in every activity The clinician maintained constantverbal interaction with HD and consistently kept his interest alive She seemed to know when things started to get boring for her client and how to make a transition on to something more engaging The activities were wellmatched for the age and disorder of the client and the clinician was professional yet fun Overall Ithought the session was a major success Both the client and the clinician left with hopeful smiles and I felt like the activities would result in some real improvements over time It was also very interesting to see pictures used for responses just like was discussed in our lectures over childcentered speech development For example guest speaker Sofia Souto made it clear that playbased therapy when appropriately applied worked best with children s speech disorders This clinical observation confirmed my interest in one day becoming a licensed Speech Language Pathologist Danielle Graf Franks E 103 Newspeak Plausibility Essay Newspeak is a language created by the author George Orwell in his book 1984 This system of communication is used to limit civilian intellectual freedom and eliminate intensive thought during speech The language is divided into three main categories of words A B and C vocabularies Group A words represent simple daily concepts such as eating walking and bathing Group B words represent more complicated political topics In this category the phenomenon of good and bad are entirely conveyed by a few simple words with certain in ection differences to explain the level of goodness or badness In this category two or more words or word portions are combined in an easily pronounceable form These words are hard to use correctly without fully understanding the principles of the allpowerful English Socialism party controlling Oceania Words in the C vocabulary are scienti c and technical terms used in extreme moderation since people are not supposed to be intelligent in multiple elds In the book 1984 Newspeak gains roots in political speech and is expected to be the sole system of verbal communication by 2050 with the provisional Eleventh Edition of the Newspeak dictionary It is my personal opinion that Newspeak is not a plausible human language for various reasons Concepts like linguistic relativity provide adequate reasoning for the nonexistence of Newspeak The ageold question of whether language determines thought or thought determines language plays an enormous role in deciding the plausibility of Newspeak There are also speci c structural differences though Orwell s intrinsic design of the language is quite impressive Many linguistics philosophers writers and researchers have put effort into deciding what exactly makes human language a valid and unique form of communication Over time these people came up with principles and theoriesto explain why people speak the way they do and the extent to which language can be changed before losing its value as human communication Taking many aspects of language into consideration Ibelieve that Newspeak is not a plausible human mode of speech The purpose of Newspeak is to narrow the language and end thought which is not absolutely necessary resulting in the elimination of meaning in speech To do this the Ingsoc English Socialism party first thins out the Newspeak language by removing a mass amount of words from the vocabulary Then a new system of grammar was developed so that simple words could be modi ed to explain intensity without actually making new words to do so The overall goal is to have a stripped down language that makes it impossible for people to actually provide their own thinking during personal speech Newspeak is welldesigned to meet this goal but whether it could actually exist as a language remains in question Assuming linguistic relativity applies an eliminated word would result in an eliminated concept in the case of Newspeak However we know this is not the case with Williams Syndrome children People with this disease show extreme mental retardation yet have extraordinary language skills They show that language is indeed not in uenced by thought in their case Their delayed thinking does not compromise their ability for language and therefore contradicts the whole aim of Newspeak Likewise prelinguistic babies and children show that thinking is possible without language While speech is not yet acquired prelinguistic children are able to plan and reason for daily functions Newspeak could shrink quantitively speaking but the quality of meaning would still be expressed with fewer words The structure of Newspeak is also an issue The language calls for a small dictionary consisting of only simple dichotomies and the elimination of personal thought during communication There are certain parameters that human language consistently follow however that are not sufficed by the qualities of Newspeak For instance Napoli s parameters state that displacement cognitive processing and creativity are all necessary characteristics of human language among other aspects Newspeak does not support such parameters Displacement is not necessary because there aren t enough words to move around in order to make multiple meanings Meaning is drastically simplified in Newspeak structure only raw expressionless information is conveyed Cognitive processing is not only discouraged but punishable by law The entire purpose of Newspeak is to have people speak in a way that requires no active thinking except that of the govemment s ruling Human language needs personal thought yet Newspeak condemns it Needless to say creativity is a huge absence in Newspeak because of the lack of descriptive words and the law which outlaws thought The absence of cognitive processing greatly affects the plausibility of Newspeak Hockett s parameters are also contradicted in the same way Arbitrariness the notion that not all signs are representative is not relative in Newspeak One word accounts for multiple things at once by being simplified or altered with intensifiers suffixes and adverbs in instances where new words should be created in normal human language For example good is changed to ungood to mean bad better is spoken as gooder plusgood describes great and fantastic would be translated like doubleplusgood All in all Newspeak is not supported by either Napoli s or Hockett s parameters for human language Humans have predisposition thoughts on concepts to build upon In case the obstruction of human language parameters is not enough to explain why Newspeak is not a plausible human language one may take into account the great reports of linguistic researcher Noam Chomsky His aforementioned quote explained the relationship between language and thought as a fact of human nature The fact of the matter is the principles of expressive language are present in the raw biological makeup of the human organism It is as Steven Pinker has stated the language instinct Newspeak does not in any way support this undeniable requirement for the verbal communication we depend on today It would not be possible to suppress the thoughts of a civilization simply by diminishing its language because as long as people can talk expressive language would exist instinctively in people Creative thought prevails because our brains demand it for us to function as a community This is apparent in the humble truth in that people have brief personal and limited contact with the world yet know so much The classic linguistic principle that the whole of a sentence or phrase is determined by its parts also provides metaphorical evidence for my notion Past experiences and the knowledge achieved through natural human speech make people subconsciously put more meaning into seemingly simple words and phrasesNewspeak also changes the duality of patterning in human language Less words results in simplified sentences and the language also strives tocombine words in a staccato rhythm of short syllables However the natural ow of expressive language is essential as an important part of our biological endowment We are in essence born and raised with thoughts on which we alter or advance most noticeably through language All in all Ibelieve Newspeak could not persist as a human language Though Orwell did an impressive job at creating a system of authoritycontrolled communication its true validity is not protected Linguistic relativity structural properties and the proven required characteristics of human language as discovered by centuries of brilliant linguists testify my opinion This is why Newspeak as interesting and thoughtprovoking as it is could not exist as a plausible human language


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