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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmyn Sauer on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Class Note at Indiana University taught by Interior Design in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/233415/class-note-indiana-university in Apparel Merchandising&Design(Effective Fall09) at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Fashion amp Identity Gender Age and SubCuture IDrcss I Assemblage of modifications of or supplements to the body I NOT appearance adornment clothing apparel costume fashion I Classification system see Eicher Roach Higgins u Modifications I Supplements Culture I Learned ways of life modified and passed on from one generation to next I the Shared products of human society society interacting people who share a culture from Ian Robertson s Sociology I Distinguishing us reliance on learned behavior Patterns of social behavior in Norms shared rules or guidelines that prescribe behavior for a given situation Folkways ordinary usages and conventions of everyday life I Mores mor ays strong norms with a moral significance I Values socially shared ideas about good right desirable normsan expression of values I Ethnocentrism tendency to judge other cultures by the standards of one s own I Cultural Relativism recognition that one culture cannot be arbitrarily judged by standards of another Cultural Strain I Real vs Ideal real actual practices ideal values and norms people claim to believe in I Subculture group shares in overall culture of society but has own distinctive values norms lifestyle campus military I Counterculture subculture that is fundamentally at odds with dominant culture consciously rejects important norms hippies punks Gender and age 111 12 in CallahanPaoletti Gender Identity19th amp 20th century children s clothes I Really age not gender early then gender as we age amp into 20thC male privilege I Pantaloon controversy undermining society s natural order I Power of public opinion and manufacturing industry gendercolor Gender and Class contd III 14 PaolettiKidwell men amp women Transforming borrowed symbols I Gender symbols changechallenge name a changed symbol Applied men s skincare industry I Takeaway p134 Controversial changes can only take place once roles in society have altered I Do differences in dress imply inequality Will distinctive apparel ever become obsolete Gender rolcs Subculture III 16 Cole Gay Apparel Writings early as 1880 Socially important but subculture 30s50s Managed self hidden identity not to those in the know Sartorial or behavioral signifiers such as Signifiers that become incorporated Like Barthes Imageicon vs real or written not actual but manner worn Subculture III 17 Hebdige Subculture Forms of Incorporation Like McCrackenmeaning transfer Symbolic challenges to symbolic order use image challenge ideal Forms Commodity commodities arrive at the marketplace laden with significance I Ideological media and public opinion trivialize or transform to exotic Commercial vs ideological manipulations of group R 100 September 1 2009 1 Why is it important Multi trillion industry 448 trillion sales US 2007 9 share of the US total GDP Employs diversified skills 18 of nation s workforce employed by retailerswholesalers 153 million people worked in US Retail Industry as of May 2008 Dynamic amp everchanging 11 Unique Because World s leading manufacturing employer No other manufacturing sector nearly as global Almost every countryeconomy depends on appteXtile industry for econ 111 Retail Cycle refer to pic in syllabus 1 Research profile the customer 2 Design fashion 3 Manufacturing 4 Merchandising 5 Retail selling unit 6 End user client R 100 September 8 2009 Fashion s Shifting Paradigm Customers will be less in uenced by marketing campaigns Fast fashion in amp out no classics New lines coming in every month with a quick turn around Example HampM is catching on because it lets consumers stay current without spending as much Each brand will have to be more individualized to appeal to consumers Companies will need to cut back by 1020 cut down store openings operating expenses etc Designer labels will have trouble growing when consumers trade down to brands that offer good design and quality for price The New Pushier Consumer Businesses are focused on being profitable while building consistent brands Brand identity is important because it builds customer base Consumers recognize amp trust the brand With the recent past of the industry quotthinking smaller is viewed more as a clean break Brands are forced to do more than simply quotedge out the competition The presentation and availability of goods are constantly changing Reaching the consumer will require a more targeted marketing Focused on a particular audience ex Backtoschool The PriceValue Game Consumers are more focused on value than price Consumers are more informed they don t want to be manipulated or told how to buy Greater separation between those who are doing well and those who are not Prices are increasingly lower and will continue to drop Clothing is no longer a status symbol it must include relevancy The New Society Fashion crowd is paying more attention to causes and worldwide issues Donna Karen s Urban Zen concept buying something with a conscience Customers now want to buy not only for themselves but to support others People want organic products 55 of consumers are buying organic products Up from 49 a year ago The Global Order Growth rates are going down because there is not enough capital to expand Abercrombie is cutting agships in Milan amp Tokyo Hollister is seeing opportunity in the UK to open stores Tiffany amp Co cut store openings from 22 to 13 this year Brazil China amp India top the list of the 10 most attractive emerging markets for investments Difficult for retailers amp manufacturers to get financial backing amp capital The New Austerity A new concept is being formed instead of quotfashion for fashion it is now fashion for reason Consumers think through their buys more Consumers are doing more with less which is becoming a way oflike in the fashion industry Edit before instead of after Instead of making 1000 items they make 500 Shorter break target between the time of losing money amp making Customers are looking for a level of honesty Consumers are trying to be more conservative The Nuts amp Bolts Companies are quotacting vertical by executing new ideas instead ofwaiting around Coach Target and Aeropostale are making items more affordable Rather than placing so much value on growth businesses work harder at efficiency and improving existing stores Fashion geography changing more businesses in developing countries Some manufacturing may return to US due to the falling dollar amp high shipping costs The Future Maintain creative exibility Less known brands will take advantage of the market amp move up The global fashion game is moving quickly and the future is unknown New brands created based on culture amp tradition Manufacturing will change to improve efficiency based on trends of the market Declines elsewhere could help China s creative market Obama said quotBuy American G20 Summit As consumers we don t want to pay eXtra for buy American 92409 1 Power of the consumer A Consumer demand drives all facets in the pipeline B Firms need to match marketingmerchandising to consumer demand C Difficult to track the everchanging consumer 11 Marketing Fashion A Marketing orientation not production orientation now not as easily dictated to B Sophisticated marketing research techniques C Marketing identifies customer and determines what products to offer that customer 1 focuses on the wants and need of customer D Segments do not remain static They are always changing E No company can be something to everyone F Market segmentation will not ensure success but failure to segment will result in failure CONSUMERS Super Consumers now have ability to research and purchase in many ways seeks places to purchase and competitive prices less customer loyalty Brand everything Consider new marketsLocation L L Cross shopping customer who go from one type of store to another type of store Bloomingdale s shopper who also shops at WalMart CONSUMER DESIRES Price Product Service Access Overall shopping experience RESEARCH Must research to get to know the customer BRANDS National Brands carried in various stores Private labelbrand brand that is owned and marketed by a specific retailer exclusive brands can be national brand if agreement between vendor and retailer BUILDING A BRAND Knows core consumer Consistent Connect from ad to store Focused product assortment unique experience trust customer recognize a niche emotional connection with customer point of differentiation example Nordstrom customer service NATIONAL BRANDS ex Liz Coach Iuicy reputation for quality brand identity less risk for the retailer PRIVATE BRANDS ex American Eagle AampF Inc at Macy s no help from vendor with markdowns so more risky expertise needed in development higher profit higher initial markup exclusivity can provide a better value PROTECTING A BRAND intellectual property exclusive rights to a brand trademark and original designs protecting rights protects business IP is what we do in US now with manufacturing out of US Patent protection 20 years copyright 100 years trademark protection forever trademark rights ow from use important to protect brand image but also can t infringe on an existing mark register trademark with the US Patent amp Trademark Office and register trademarks with Customs Bureaus in US and other countries where business is conducted COUNTERFEITS 200 billion to 1 trillion in global sales s vary greatly China place of origin for 6070 of goods seized at US border for infringing on intellectual property rights Unite in fight against NY Mayor s Office of Midtown Enforcement put pressure on landlords to take responsibility for what happening on their property GRAY MARKET Legal challenge because legitimate products distributed through channels not authorized by original mfg Sold in unintended markets Diverted goods LICENSING legal arrangement where mfgs are given exclusive rights to produce or market for a specific time licensee pays a royalty fee ofwholesale sales Licensor additional incomeloss of control R 100 September 29 2009 Design Key Concepts Haut Couture original fashionhigh dressmaking Paris rules governing are very strict member of Chambre Syndicale handwork quality custom tailored to individuals measurements before WWII monopoly on fashion Opportunities and Chalenges in Haut Couture most houses loose market not growing branding tool brands timeless Changes in Fashion Direction 1960 YSL began making preta39porterreadytowear not 1 of a kind more profitable Couture houses have readytowear collections Other countries began deign hubs and fashion weeks Fashion Now left brain amp right brain CEO vs Designer Article about marketing amp merchandising even for couture designers even mass market now fast fashion bottom line profit licensing very important Changes now fashion in uence from many places street peers celebrities retailers getting into quotfast fashion Target vertical runway in Rockefeller Center HampM Bryant Park Companies developing own brands and hiring designers to develop exclusive brands Part 11 Intro Fashion Theory Gaining prominence Museum exhibitions I Social awarenessecological implications I Globalization Academia Theory I Conceptual network of propositions that explain observable phenomenon I No comprehensive variety of disciplinary perspectives I Understandexplainpredict fashion change Directional Flows Veblen Theory of the Leisure Class I 1899 economistsociologist I Conspicuous Consumption Simmel trickledown theory Field trickleup status float civil rights diversity King trickleacross simultaneous adoption Models of Cyclical Change I Historical Continuity Shifting Erogenous Zones Laver extremes Pendulum Swing extremes Recurring WaveDynamic Kroeber etc Historicism retrovintage ORIGINS Darwin The Origin of Species I Hierarchical evolutionary development codes value of dress and appearance Structuralism I Systematically analyze relationships discover amp interpret meaning Collective Selection Blumer Taste Change Lang desire noveltyconformity Semiotics Barthes decode imagesrelations Marketing systemmeaningmaking McCracken Symbolic Interaction BlumerKaiser ambiguity negotiation meaning Role Theoryexpectations Lang amp Lang 6 I Foisted upon the mass or mass change of taste ie The New Look describe publicityresistance change in mass taste Fashion as a collective phenomenon not media Barthes 7 a leather belt with a rose stuck in it worn above the waist on a soft Shetland dress I 3 garments real image written I 3 structures technol iconic verbal I 3 shifters real to image techno to iconic real to language techno to verbal image to language iconic to verbal Fashion Magazines simultaneous yet distinct messages McCrackcn Fashion System 3 waystypesmeaning transfer Cultural world to consumer goods like advertising New style associated westablished cult category I New cultural meanings invented by opinion leadersconventional social elite Radical Reform of meaning Western societyconstant change marginal groups Claude LeviStrauss western Hot societies demand acceptencourage radical change McCracken contd 2 agents for meaning transfer Designers l Fashion journalists social observers Gatekeepers observe decide ViewerPossessor depended onact of association transfer of meaning ads amp fash system selfdefinition social communication Fashion System my shirt shoes or I Directional flow fashion adoption I Cyclical change fashion adoption I Structuralism I Mass taste I Language I Meaning transfer I Gender symbolismdistinction
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