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G 114

by: Turner Waelchi

G 114 GEOL

Turner Waelchi
GPA 3.63

Claudia Johnson

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Claudia Johnson
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Turner Waelchi on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL at Indiana University taught by Claudia Johnson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see /class/233425/geol-indiana-university in Geology at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
Summary Points from readings Chapter 1 1 Dinosaurs rst came to scienti c attention in Britain during the 1820 s 2 Richard Owen coined the term Dinosauria meaning terrible lizards in 1842 3 The rst restorations of dinosaurs in the 1850 s re ected terribly incomplete knowledge of dinosaur anatomy and prejudices about living reptiles Dinosaurs were portrayed as ponderous sluggish and dim witted brutes 4 The great dinosaur rush of the 1870s and 1880s in western North America brought to science many more dinosaurs including nearly complete skeletons described principally by two American paleontologists ED Cope and QC Marsh 5 By the beginning of the twentieth century many dinosaurs could be reconstructed with fair accuracy but scienti c views of dinosaurs still stressed their slowmoving and slowwitted reptilian nature 6 Two great dinosaur collecting expeditions of the rst half of the twentieth centuryito East Africa in 19071912 and to the Gobi Desert during the 1920s and 1930s7brought more dinosaurs to scienti c attention but they did not alter the prevailing view of dinosaurs as reptiles 7 Between 1940 and 1970 still more dinosaur discoveries were made but they too failed to alter tumof thecentury views of dinosaurs as reptiles 8 A new concept of dinosaurs as fast active agile and birdlike emerged in the 1970s following new discoveries of small theropods a new understanding of the biology of living animals and the recognition of dinosaurs as the ancestors of birds Chapter 2 1 Evolution is the origin and change of groups of organisms over time It can also be described by Darwin s phrase descent with modi cation 2 Darwinian evolution occurs by natural selection This means that variants in a population of organisms better adapted to their environment will reproduce more successfully than less adapted variants 3 The stratophenetic method of phylogeny reconstruction requires much more complete fossil record than exists for dinosaurs Therefore most paleontologists who study dinosaurs do not use this method 4 The cladistics method of phylogeny which constructs cladograms is favored instead Cladistics identi es closely related taxa as those that share evolutionary novelties 5 Problems with using the cladistics method arise from evolutionary convergence and dif culties in identifying features as evolutionary novelties 6 Biological classi cation groups organisms into taxa according to these phylogenetic relationships 7 The names of taxa are constructed according to international rules 8 The fossil record of dinosaurs is best applied to the problems of macroevolution Chapter 3 Fossils are evidence of past life Dinosaur fossils are not only bones but also include fossilized footprints eggs skin impressions stomach stones and feces N Dinosaur bones were almost always mineralized as they were fossilized a process believed to have taken at least 10000 years 3 Taphonomy is the study of the processes that intervened between the life of a dinosaur and the fossils of dinosaurs we collect and study Taphonomy particularly concerns the information lost via these processes 4 Dinosaur fossils are preserved almost exclusively in sedimentary rocks formed on the continents by rivers lakes and deltas 5 Geologic time is measured by two time scales a relative one and a numerical one 6 On the relative time scale dinosaurs lived during the Mesozoic Era from the Late Triassic period through the entire Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods until their extinction at the end of the Cretaceous 7 On the numerical time scale dinosaurs lived about 228 to 65 million years ago 8 The numerical time scale is based primarily on the decay of radioactive atoms found in sufficient quantity with few exceptions in igneous rocks 9 Because dinosaur fossils are not found in igneous rocks numerical ages for dinosaurs are estimates with varying degrees of accuracy This is why most statements about the ages of dinosaurs employ the relative time scale Chapter 4 l Reptile is a term that refers to tetrapods that lay an amniotic egg have limb skeletons modified for fully terrestrial locomotion and are ancestral to birds and mammals 2 Dinosaurs are reptiles because they laid amniotic eggs and had limb skeletons adapted to terrestrial locomotion 3 Reptiles are classified into four groups based on the number and position of openings temporal fenestrae in the skull roof behind the orbits 4 Dinosaurs are diapsids because they had two temporal fenestrae on each side of their skull 5 Diapsids consist of two groups the lepidosaurs lizards snakes and their ancestors and the archosaurs quot J Jquot r and 439 6 The ancestry of dinosaurs lies among the thecodonts Key to deciphering this ancestry is ankle structure and other skeletal features that indicate the evolution of upright dinosaurs from semiupright dinosaurs 7 Dinosaurs appeared suddenly during the Late Triassic over a geographically wide area They were the descendants ofLagosuchuslike thecodonts 8 The earliest dinosaurs include the early theropods Eoraptor Staurikosaurus and herrerasaurs and very primitive omithischians the fabrosaurs Chapter 5 1 Most predatory dinosaurs were theropods 2 Theropod phylogeny is not as clear as the phylogeny of some other dinosaur groups largely because of the fragmentary nature of most theropod fossils 3 Nevertheless theropods can be distinguished from other dinosaurs by many skeletal features most of which identify them as birdlike bipedal cursors Theropods include the ancestors of birds 4 The most primitive theropods were the Late TriassicLate Jurassic ceratosaurs distinguished primarily by the fusion of bones in their hind limbs 5 The very birdlike tetanurans were advanced theropods 6 The camosaurs were large tetanurans having huge skulls and short forelimbs among other features 7 Camosaurs of the Middle Jurassic through Early Cretaceous were mostly allosaurids 8 The tyrannosaurids some of the largest meateating land animals of all time were advanced extremely large coelurosaurs of the Late Cretaceous 9 Most other coelurosaurs were small tetanurans having small skulls and long forelimbs among other features 10 Most coelurosaurs are known almost exclusively from the Cretaceous of Asia and western North America and consist of the tyrannosaurids omithomimosaurids dromeosaurids troodontids oviraptorosaurs elmisaurids and segnosaurs Chapter 6 Sauropodomorph dinosaurs comprise two closely related groups prosauropods and sauropods distinguished from other dinosaurs by having had small heads spatulate teeth long necks short feet and large claws on the first digits of their forefeet 2 No known prosauropod is a suitable ancestor of sauropods although Riojasaurus from the Upper Triassic of Argentina may best approximate that ancestry 3 Prosauropods lived during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and so were some of the oldest dinosaurs representing the first evolutionary diversification of planteating dinosaurs 4 Sauropod dinosaurs first appeared in the Late Triassic and by the Late Jurassic at least two types were extant diplodocids and camarasaurids distinguished by a variety of skeletal features 5 At least three other types families of sauropods can be recognized in the JurassicCretaceous brachiosaurids ctiosaurids and titanosaurids 6 The heaviest known sauropod was the Brachiosaurus at 50 to 55 tons and the longest sauropod was the Supersaurus at 42 meters 7 Saurpods were plant eaters egg layers and inertial homeotherms The long popular notion of aquatic sauropods has no evidence to support it Sauropods had elephantlike limb structures and probably spent most of their time on dry land 8 By the JurassicCretaceous transition sauropods had reached their evolutionary zenith in terms of size and diversity 9 Sauropods were much less successful after the Jurassic but did survive until the end of the Cretaceous Chapter 7 l Omithopods were bipedal or facultativelyquadrupedalomithischian dinosaurs that lived from the Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous 2 Heterodontosaurids were the first omithopods and were small bipedal dinosaurs with unique chisellike teeth They are known only from the Lower Jurassic of southern Africa 3 Hypsilophodontids were small bipedal omithopods that were especially diverse and widespread during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous 4 Hypsilophodontid success may have been based in part on their ability via hinges in the skull to move their dental batteries sideways in order to grind vegetation 5 Tenontosaurus and dryosaurids were mediumtolarge hypsilophodontidlike omithopods of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous that provide a possible evolutionary link between the small hypsiophodontids and the large iguanodontids 6 The iguanodontids were large facultatively bipedal ornithopods that were particularly successful during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous 7 Hadrosaurids the duckbilled dinosaurs rst appeared during the Middle Cretaceous and were diverse and abundant during the Late Cretaceous especially in Asia and North America 8 The appearance of hadrosaurids nearly coincides with the decline of hypsilopj odontids and iguanodontids 9 Hadrosaurids encompass two subfamilies the hadrosaurines with at skulls and the lambeosaurines with skulls bearing dorsal tubes or crests 10 The hollow tubes and crests on lambeosaurine skulls were most likely signaling devices used both for display and as resonating chambers to produce distinctive sounds ll Hadrosaurids were powerful quadrupedal walkers that may also have been amphibious Chapter 8 l Thyreophoran dinosaurs include two closely related groups Stegosauria and Akylosauria as well as the primitive quot 39 quot quot wand quot quot 14 2 The presence above or alongside the vertebral column of one of more rows of dermal armor plate distinguishes thyreophorans from other dinosaurs 3 The key evolutionary novelty of stegosaurs is the vertical bony plates and spines arranged in single or double rows along the neck back and tail 4 H uayangosaurus from the Middle Jurassic of China is the most primitive known stegosaur 5 All other stegosaurs are stegosaurids best represented by Stegosaurus from the Upper Jurassic of the United States 6 The plates of Stegosauruswere highly vascularized and probably had a temperatureregulation function 7 Stegosaurs reached the zenith of their diversity at least eight genera and achieved a nearly worldwide distribution during the Late Jurassic The Cretaceous decline of the stegosaurs may have been due to the appearance of new vegetation owering plants andor the evolution of new types of planteating dinosaurs 8 One of the key evolutionary novelties of ankylosaurs is the possession of extensive body armor 9 Two types of ankylosaurs nodosaurids and ankylosaurids had evolved by the Early Cretaceous and were distinguished from each other by differences in skull structure and body armor 10 Anklosaurs were the tanks of the Mesozoic and adopted a defensive strategy based on impervious armor 11 Although the oldest ankylosaur is of Early Jurassic age the conservative evolution of this group of dinosaurs took place primarily during the Cretaceous Chapter 9 l Ceratopsians and pachycephalosaurs are closely related and belong to a single group of dinosaurs the Marginocephalia 2 Ceratopsians consist of two groups psittacosaurids and neoceratopsians distinguished from other dinosaurs by features of the skull that include presence of a frill 3 Psittacosaurus from the Lower Cretaceous of Asia well represents the primitive ancestral structure of the Ceratopsia Neoceratopsians differ from Psittacosaurus in their extremely large heads prominent frills and pointed sharply keeled beaks 4 Protoceratopsids were primitive neoceratopsians from the Cretaceous of Asia and North America having short frills and no horns 5 Ceratopsids were advanced neoceratopsians from the Cretaceous of North America having long frills and horns 6 Pachyrhinosaurines with relatively short faces and frills were primitive ceratopsids 7 Ceratopsines with relatively long faces and frills were primitive ceratopsids 8 The horns and frills of neoceratopsians functioned in display and thermoregulation and the frills provided attachment sites of jaw muscles They were not primarily used in defense 9 Ceratopsians lived during the Cretaceous in Asia and North America They were the most successful during the Late Cretaceous in western North America where ceratopsids were among the last dinosaurs 10 Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal omithischians with greatly thickened bones of the skull roof ll Primitive pachycephalosaurs the Homalocephalidae had at skull roofs ornamented with pits 12 Advanced pachycephalosaurs the Pachycephalosauridae had smooth domed skull roofs l3 Pachycephalosaurid skulls and skeletons contained a variety of features that suggest these dinosaurs butted heads like some modern sheep and goats l4 Pachycephalosaurs lived during the Cretaceous in Europe North America and Asia Chapter 10 1 Dinosaurs appeared during the Late Triassic when all the continents were united in a single supercontinent Pangaea 2 Climates on Late Triassic Pangaea were warm and monsoonal and the vegetation was dominated by ferns and gymnosperms 3 Dinosaurs were not the dominant land vertebrates of the Late Triassic thecodonts were 4 Thecodonts and many other land vertebrates became extinct at or just before the end of the Triassic 5 Dinosaurs established themselves as the dominant land vertebrates by the end of the Middle Jurassic 6 Early and Middle Jurassic dinosaurs were mostly r r J r J and 7 The Late Jurassic was the golden age of dinosaurs the largest dinosaurs lived then and sauropods stegosaurs hypsilophodontids and allosaurids were the dominant dinosaurs 8 During the Early Cretaceous dinosaurs were in transition as vegetation changed and world climate became wetter and warmer 9 The Middle and Late Cretaceous dinosaurs were mostly hadrosaurs ceratopsians ankylosaurs coelurosaurs and tyrannosaurids Chapter 11 l Dinosaur trace fossils are skin impressions footprints eggs gastroliths and coprolites 2 Dinosaur footprints provide important information about dinosaur posture gait speed behavior and distribution 3 Estimates of dinosaur speeds from trackways range mostly from walks to fast runs of as much as 43 kilometershour for theropods 4 There are many myths surrounding dinosaur footprints including the idea that humans walked side by side with dinosaurs and that sauropods swam in the sea 5 Dinosaur footprints receive scientific names but attention is not often paid to several sources of variation when naming dinosaur footprints 6 Dinosaur eggs are known from most kinds of dinosaurs and indicate that dinosaurs laid hardshelled eggs like those of living birds 7 Dinosaur gastroliths can only be identified with certainty when polished stones are found associated with dinosaur skeletons Dinosaurs probably used gastroliths primarily to crush and grind food 8 Dinosaur coprolites have been little analyzed largely because it is difficult to identify the kind of dinosaur that produced a speci c coprolite Chapter 12 l Fossilized skin impressions suggest al dinosaurs had reptilian scales covering their bodies There is no conclusive evidence of hairy or feathered dinosaurs 2 Dinosaur coloration does not fossilize and is usually arrived at renderings by analogy to the coloration of living reptiles 3 Restorations of the external appearance of dinosaurs have evolved with changing ideas about the biology and behavior of dinosaurs 4 Dinosaur weight estimates are based mostly on scale models and are only as accurate as the models 5 Living reptiles have indeterminate growth whereas mammals and birds have determinate growth 6 Dinosaur growth rates and longevity based on living reptilian growth rates are those of very slowto mature and longlived dinosaurs However dinosaur rates based on living wa1mblooded animal rates are much faster and suggest times of dinosaur maturation and longevity comparable to those of living mammals and birds 7 Although jaw and tooth structures allow paleontologists to distinguish meateating from planteating dinosaurs it is seldom possible to determine exactly what food a dinosaur ate 8 The skeletons of all dinosaurs identify them as grounddwelling walkers and runners Few if any dinosaurs lived in the trees or in water 9 All dinosaurs probably laid eggs some in nests that may have been protected and after hatching tended by adult dinosaurs 10 Dinosaurs defended themselves in a variety of ways from speedy escape to impervious body armor 11 Several lines of evidence suggest group behavior especially in some theropods omithopods and sauropods But the exact kinds of social structures of these dinosaurs cannot be determined and there is no evidence of herd behavior among dinosaurs Chapter 13 l WaImblooded vertebrate metabolisms are endothermic and have a fast metabolism 2 Coldblooded vertebrate metabolisms are ectothermic and have a slow metabolism 3 Numerous lines of evidence have been brought to bear on the nature of dinosaur metabolism including posture and gaits speed activity levels and agility feeding adaptations bone microstructure blood pressure geographic distribution bird ancestry social behavior predatorprey ratios and body size 4 Many of these lines of evidence are consistent with endothermy in at least some theropods and omithopods but evidence does not support endothermy in the other dinosaurs 5 Very large dinosaurs such as the sauropods were gigantotherms 6 The evidence does not support extreme views of dinosaur metabolism in other words that all were ectothermic or all were endothermic 7 The evidence suggests a probable variety of metabolisms in dinosaurs including ectotherms and endotherms some of which were also heterotherms and gigantotherms Chapter 14 1 Birds are feathered vertebrates with skeletons highly modified to be lightweight and rigid to enable sustained powered ight 2 Archaeopteryx from the Upper Jurassic of Germany is the oldest known bird 3 Skeletal features of Archaeopteryx are essentially those of small theropod dinosaurs 4 Evolutionary novelties of the skeleton shared by theropod dinosaurs and birds provide strong evidence that birds descended from dinosaurs 5 There is little or no evidence that birds are A J J from quot J Jquot ornithischian dinosaurs or pterosaurs 6 There are two hypotheses of the origin of avian ight the arboreal and the cursorial hypotheses 7 Many paleontologists favor the cursorial hypothesis which states that ight originated in a ground running animal that evolved feathers and apped its wings to gain stability and additional thrust when catching insects 8 Modern birds evolved by the beginning of the Cenozoic 9 Recognition of dinosaurs as the ancestors of birds forces us to rethink much of dinosaur anatomy an behavior and stress their birdlike aspects Chapter 15 l The two current and debated explanations of dinosaur extinction identify as the cause a comet impact or complex ecological changes 2 Other explanations of dinosaur extinction lack strong evidence and include eggeating mammals extreme cold or hot climates poisoning a supernova explosion thinning and trace elements in dinosaur eggshells disease and extraterrestrial big game hunters 3 The terminal Cretaceous extinction eliminated many types of organisms in the sea and on the land 4 The broad extent and selectivity of the terminal Cretaceous extinction forces a search for a cause that explains both of these factors 5 Patterns are the fossils and rocks studied by paleontologists The processes evolution and sedimentation that created these patterns cannot be observed directly 6 Different distribution patterns of the last dinosaurs re ect different degrees of sampling and precision of identification 7 Strong evidence accepted by most geologists indicates one of more comets collided with the Earth 65 million years ago 8 Supporters of a comet impact causing dinosaur extinction predict a sudden and simultaneous extinction of dinosaurs 9 According to some paleontologists the pattern of fossil distribution in the Hell Creek Formation in Montana is not consistent with a comet impact causing the terminal Cretaceous extinction Instead it suggests gradual decline of dinosaurs because of complicated ecological changes 10 Some paleontologists minimize the significance of dinosaur extinction by noting that the magnitude of the terminal Cretaceous extinction has been overstated that dinosaurs did not become extinct because birds survives or that the last dinosaurs represent a small fraction of all dinosaurs that ever lived These arguments however do not diminish the importance of dinosaur extinction 11 The inability to give a simple answer to the question of what caused dinosaur extinction re ects the fact that all the data are not in on the subject Ce Evolution sequence between theropods and birds n Lost teeth OZ Lost foot feathers j birds gt characteristics modemjj Late oldest dinosaurs found to date gt contemporary Characteristics of modern birds theropods gtprotoavis es Tr1ass1c prosauropods oz Primitive om1thopods o o o skull Vvas disa ieu lated benes o I o No feet feathers Jurassic oldest bird Archaeopteryx Late EampM 70 mil year gap in fossil finds ofbirds Cretaceous 1 Why did feathers originate a Insulation b Flight c Display 0 Put birds w theropods a few birds and log of feathered theropods Warm blooded o 4chamber hearts Feathers insulation ight contour Strong hind limbs for impact Can run walk and swim No teeth except in most primitive Strong investment in parental care 67 air sacs Hollow bones Lots of oxygen sustained energy Powerful ight muscles attached to sternum Belong to the amniotes porous egg Fused bones in o Forelimbs wing 0 Tail 0 Hind limbs legs Pneumatic bones gt hollow bones Light for Flight anchiomishoxleyi gt feathers on its feet wings hind limbs torso tail Archaeopteryx pelvis is a modi ed saurischian pelvis Primary wing feathers of birds A asymmetrical feather a bird that can y B symmetrical feather a ightless bird 2 How did ight for dinosaursbirds originate a trees down b ground up c foot feathers new hypothesis to be developed 0 Keep birds as separate class Avis unique features 0 Put theropods w class Aves Theropods closest relative to birds The finger bones in modern birds are fused while in the Archaeopteryx they are not The Archaeopteryx had a long jointed tail while in modern birds the tail bones are almost nonexistent Modern birds have lost their teeth and modified the beak and bill Archaeopteryx has teeth There are two hypotheses of the origin of avian ight the arboreal and the cursorial hypotheses Many paleontologists favor the cursorial hypothesis N Cursorial hypothesis which states that ight originated in a groundrunning animal that evolved feathers and apped its wings to gain stability and additional thrust when catching insects Arboreal hypothesis states that ight originated from a climbing and gliding ancestor 0 Down feather soft uffy shaftless 0 Under outer contour feathers I Insulation 0 Retrices 0 Tall stiffened I Rudder for ight 0 Flight Feather o Aid in silent ying Formal de nition of What is a dinosaur archosauriandiapsid reptiles Archosaurs crocodiles ying reptiles pterosaurs dinosaurs thecodonts The predentary bone and osszfied tendons along the vertebral column of ornithischians are two features in addition to pelvic structure that distinguish them from saurischians Snakes lizards crocodiles Dinosaurs Diapsida Ruling Reptiles Euryapsids Aquatic reptiles Synapsida Mammallike reptiles Anapsida Stem Reptiles Identifying features of a dinosaur Pelvic structure upright posture sprawling posture amphibians and other reptiles shoulder joint faces backward modi cations in pelvic structure 3 or more sacral vertebrae eXpanded ilium neck and ball on femur Advanced mesotarsal ankle bones in ankle preserve well abundantcommon Crocodile normal ankle dinosaur Still Searching Threophorans Omithopods Early Jurassic 39 l Theropods Sauropodomorphs Omithischians Late Triassic l 5 Middle Triassic Search here Dinosaurs Who are the ancestors Thecodont gtancestral Turtles Anapsids Mammallike reptiles Synapsid Swimmers Euryapsid Lots of other reptiles Diapsid Extinction Survivors Birds mammals crocodiles turtles lots of invertebrates especially those of the oceans gtcorals Extinction Plesiousaurs mosasaurs ammonites invertebrates gtlarge gt microscopic No size differentiation to extinction B M C Ma ss extinction 5095 of species cenozmc younger 135 million years P T Xn Cretaceous older K A Mesozoic P M A 3 hypotheses of extinction of dinosaurs 139 lmpaa met orlte hlt General to all groups extinct 2 volcanic eruption 3 ecologic f dinosaurs Iridium gtrare Eaith mineral gt2 sources Outer space Volcanic Hypothes1s Evidence Triggered from underground w volcanic eruption o Outpourings of lava 35 miles thick near the KT boundary 0 Is this the source of the Iridium Most scientists agree with the impact theory Ecologic Two scenarios


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