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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynn Ondricka on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL at Indiana University taught by Yean Odle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/233426/biol-indiana-university in Biology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
The spleen is not an accessory organ to the digestive system The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth The esophagus is different from the other four because it does not produce any secretions that aid in digestion Pepsinogen is not an active form of an enzyme During the process of swallowing the epiglottis closes the trachea leading to the lungs High stomach acidity favors protein digestion N0 digestion takes place in the pancreas Trypsin performs a chemical digestion similar to that done by pepsin Bile helps digest fats Triglycerides are not absorbed directly into the blood from the intestine The liver does not secrete bicarbonate ions Gastr39in is the first hormone secreted by the intestinal tract in response to the presence of food People who don t eat meat must choose foods carefully to get necessary amino acids Zinc is NOT important for building strong bones and teeth concerning mineral metabolism The absence of iron in hemoglobin leads to anemia Hemoglobin transports most of the oxygen in blood The mineral associated with the thyroid gland is iodine Cholesterol is believed to be carried by high density and low density lipoproteins Fats are transported in greater quantities in the lymphatic system than in the blood Insulin and Glucagon are involved in maintaining the optimal blood glucose level Stomach ulcers are generally caused by H Pylori The vitamin needed for blood clotting is Vitamin K Pepsinogen is secreted before digestion of proteins begins in the stomach Prothombin is not required for clotting Sphincters are ALL Peristalsis propels food down the esophagus into the stomach The nerves and blood vessels of a human tooth are located in the pulp A bolus is formed in the mouth The liver does not play a role in the formation of glucagon Mucin is not a hormone The surgeon general recommends reducing all but complex carbohydrates from our diets During or shortly after a meal most cells use glucose as energy Body weight is controlled by ALL The rst factors for esophageal cancer are ALL Hypervitaminosis of Vitamin A is responsible for hair loss bone joint pains appetite loss You have 3 sphincters esophagus stomach and intestine The bolus consists of everything but pepsin Two hormones insulin and glucagon are responsible for the regulation of glucose levels in the blood Excess sugar is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver During digestion when the food is ready to leave the stomach to go to the small intestine it is called chyme The pH of the stomach is acidic In order for food to be further digested in the intestine the pancreas produces bicarbonate in order to change the pH Jaundice a yellowish discoloration of the skin and eyes in newborns is due to an excess of bile pigment The liver stores nutrients detoxifies the blood and regulates glucose levels Bile salts are necessary for the optimum effectiveness of lipase The protein in meat is digested by pepsin and trypsin Ingestion digestion absorption egestion The end product of protein digestion is amino acids Digestion of the four groups of macromolecules Sugar gtamylase glucose Nucleic acid gt nuclease nucleoacids Fats gt lipase fatty acids glycerol Proteins gt trypsin amino acids Hunger hormone is ghrelin Small intestine is 20 feet long Wall lining is folded into fingerlike projections called villi in order to increase surface area for absorption Large intestine is 5 feet long Salts and water are reabsorbed in the large intestine concentrating the unabsorbed material into feces The brown color is derived from bile pigments Bile is derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin The liver removes cholesterol from the blood and converts it into bile acids The human body maintains a glucose level constant at l Pancreas releases insulin Insulin Enhances uptake of glucose Enhances conversion of glucose to glycogen in liver and muscles Stimulates fat cells to take up glucose from blood and convert it to fat Stimulates cells in body to preferentially use glucose as their metabolic fuel Glucagon Has the opposite effect of insulin Stimulates liver to break down glycogen into glucose and release it into the blood Diabetes Type I failure to produce insulin Diabetes Type II insulin resistance and or deficiency Breast Cancer apple shaped genetic predisposition Fat soluble Vitamin D needed for absorption of calcium and phosphorus in bones and teeth Fat soluble Vitamin E muscle maintenance antioxidant Vit C Hypervitaminosis kidney stones
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