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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mack Lakin on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TEL at Indiana University taught by Erik Bucy in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/233440/tel-indiana-university in Telecommunications at Indiana University.
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Introduction 83110 Erik Bucy Wed 12 2pm and by appt 327 Radio TV 3rd Floor ebucyindianaedu 812 856 5207 Smart Elevator Pitch 90 second Pitch htt ereservesindianaedu Password sound Instructor bucy T101 Media Life Recommended Readings NY Times Technology Section WIRED Magazine Assignment Grade Due Information Overload Paper 15 Sept 24 Field Assignment 15 Nov 12 Depiction of Tech in Film Museum Project 1 Minute Response Essays 10 Daily Exam 1 15 Oct 5 Exam 2 15 Nov 9 Exam 3 20 Dec 9 Thurs Dec 9 100 215 WH100 Participation 10 Daily A 94 100 B 83 80 D 69 67 A 90 93 C 79 77 D 66 64 B 89 87 C 76 74 D 63 60 B 86 84 C 73 70 F 59 BELOW Themes Media environments Impact of new tech use Questioning information technology Media commerce vs cyberspace values 3 freebies for attendance Tech Trends Digital Media driving the communication s revolution Historical eras have defining technologies ours computers Computers no longer havejust 1 purpose Seamless change amp media acceleration new terms and new technologies ex text vs call or call vs face to face Computer culture foreshadows what will occur in larger culture Sometimes technological trends seem bigger then they are Technomyopia techno my opia down plays what s going to happen later Convergence Since 1980 3 technologies have been integrated TV telephone computer and radio Integration of technologies and industries Digital media are driving the communication revolution Complexity amp Convergence 9210 Convergence the merging of computing media and telecommunications in digital environments Changes 4 things 1 media content 2 relationships between media ampconsumers 3 structure of firms 4 how pro s do their work Online Complexity levels of 39 39 on the web Interpersona o H me pages instant messages emails Small Groups 0 Chat rooms MUDS Multiuser domain News groups Organizational o Intranets local are networks campuscorporate pages listsenes football team members online Mass communication 0 Media Site one to MANY distibutiontransmition 0 Also any highly visited site that convey information ex portal site Functions on the Web 1 Information Deliver o ass media online encyclopedia aspect 2 Communications 0 Emailchat Picturevoice phones 3 Interaction Gamespolls file requests downloads user with system interac ion 4 Computation Basic data processing Complexity vs Simplicity 4 levels of comm X 4 Web functions 16 different combos creates complex environment Cyberspace s Killer Apps Do one thing and do it well email including 1M and Chat Web Browsers Social media sites FB MySpace peer to peer file sharing hulu Game playing sites Online Auction sites eBay Now iPhone iPad Droid apps New Media Environment Online content is being customizable 9 news customizable to you ex Yahoo ecommerce sites that know your past purchases and tastes VIA the web broadcast media are treating the viewer in more personal terms as well Number of cable and TV satellite channels are exploding Leapfrogging over generations of technology Smart Phones advertised as multi functional 0 Like an iPod ampa Cell phone 0 Plays music video functions as a phone camera and more Apple TV also converges technology 0 Designed to bridge computers and television So users can easily watch downloadable videosmovies on a big screen Both devices liberate media from the computer 0 Are relatively easy to use 0 Are important point Full Service Networks With Convergence We re seeing the rise of info amp comm networks ex ATampT phone InternetampTV Cable phone companies are becoming full service networks 0 One stop cablephoneinternet services 0 Content is often produced by other companies however content providers Print online TV news operations also merging 0 Traditional media positioning for digital future Online editions for daily news Multi Stage history of econ development 1St stage agriculture and raw materials characterized by resource extraction 2quotd stage industrymanufacturing urbanization heavy industry 3rd stage services and the professions specializations and office work 4th stage information based economy info work comm becomes a commodity info comm tech ICT s are becoming more important in daily life not less half of all leisure time involves mediaICTs Student spend 105 hours on ICTs a day Most work is becoming information work We are becoming an information society When a natural economy is based on info related work Control Revolution 9710 Control revolution Beniger explains the rise of ICTs historically explosion of organizational info processing and comm tech C 1870 1930 Why Need Control Ability to harness energy produce goods grew but our ability to coordinate lagged Huge problems arouse in manufacturing and transportation Bureaucracy developed to regain control of industry and government Bureaucracy an information reduction tech Beniger Technology extension of a natural process typewriter camera lens scuba gear microphone says Beninger Search engines are an information red uction technology for the web No one search engine reaches every page or web site currently online Technological Shifts From media scarcity to media abundance From one way produced to more interactive technology From standardized mass content to more individualized content Info Discrepancy difference in what info you can and can t get to In previous eras more infogood thing 0 A means of developing and sustaining knowledge State of info scarcity NOW we produce info much faster than we can process it o More infoBAD thing State of info surplus Limited Capacity Working memory can be fairly easily overloaded 7bits of info 2 at any one time overload occurs A specific instance of discrepancy Overload 9910 Consequences of overload Seeing is believing Visuals better than words 0 Visuals show you how to feel 0 Words tell you how to feel Neuristic judgmental shortcut 0 Not having full information 0 Allow decision making under conditions of uncertainty City amp Communication Magnitudes Experience in living in cities 0 Milgram 1970 Possibilities for comm increase exponentially from small towns to cities How many people you meet in a 10 mile walk 0 Small town 10000 little 0 Mid sized 20000 more 0 Mega City 220000 TONS Order of magnitude increment Consider the density complexity amp pace of cities 0 External factor influence psycho exp of urban life City Life continuous set of encounters w complexity and overload adaptations occur 0 Both psycho and social 0 Geared toward info reduction Adaptive Mechanisms Numerous adaptations adaptive mechanisms and more 91410 Create a media diary Talk about media in tech use Behavior of urbanites then is to some extent determined by adaptations to the problem of overload An information problem Moral and social involvements become restricted Especially with strangers Overload is made manageable by limiting one s span of sympathy Nationally we may experience a similar form of compassion fatigue Excessive coverage of crisesdisastersepidemics can lead to a hardening of public sympathies 0 Sally strutter s effect What have you done about the homeless or the environment lately Govt criticized for this too Social responsibility With info discrepancy and an ever g rowing number of inputs we see A withdrawal of selfless behavior Rise of incivility aggression Reluctance to trustassist people to you don t know Reluctance to become involved in the needs of others As claims on one s time increase more and more details social courtesies are dropped adaptive mechanisms multitasking 0 using more that one ICT thing at once is multitasking creating o A generation of people who can t focus and make a complicated argument Or 0 A generation that can do more then ever before If so should we be worried about this If not what will multitasking do over time Watch Multitasking at MIT from pbsorg Watch the skill of the future from pbsorg Multitasking Accident in Bloomington Because driver was on her cell phone when she over corrected She hit a patch of ice and went into a pond Consequences of overload Constant info pressures also lead to 0 Rise in tension and anxiety 0 Loss ofjob satisfaction 0 Strained relationships Given the growing complexity of the info environment 0 Benefits will accrue of those able to filter and sift Info reduction is one of the primary tasks of our age 0 Applies to individuals and institutions 0 Beniger Bureaucracy an information reduction So called neu roenhancing drugs Supposed to improve focus concentration and wakefulness Allowing over committed people to become higher functioning and more over committed o A response to a 247 work cyclecoping mechanism Medications such as Adderall Ritalin Provigil o Prescribed for ADHD memory loss but increasingly used for off label purposes Media saturation Concept given by Todd Gitlin Discusses iconic plentitude as the contemporary condition Icon image figure representation character you ve met Most faces we will ever see we shall see in the form of images Quotes Raymond Williams we have never as a society acted so much or watch so many others acting What we have now is drama as habitual experience ex Jersey Shore impacts electronic media ever more time consuming o 1965 TV occ 25 of free time o 1995 occur 40 o 2004 occur 50 o 2004 we spend almost 10 hours a day decline of reading 0 200357 people read a book 0 down from 61 in 1962 0 young adults18 34 are the least avid readers info compression amp acceleration processing depth depends on o aspects of the message 0 and aspects of the viewer or user attn cognitive effort familiarity We re in a period of message compression proliferation and acceleration 0 Info more plentiful speedy and dense From 1965 1995 0 Average TV ad shrunk from 531seconds to 254 seconds 0 Ads per minute rose from 11 to 24 Media Proliferation 1968 2004 news sound bits have shrunk from 423 to 7 o 1971 Americans targeted by 560 daily ads on average 0 1991 over 3000 messages per day in the workplace 60 of time is spent processing documents 0 are we up to our ears in it Paper consumption triples from 1940 1980 and again from 1980 1990 Media acceleration FSTR by JMS GLCK Faster by James Gleick 0 Number of media channels has also grown exponentially I Cablesatellite TV especially Media acceleration 91610 Media acceleration Number of media channels has grown exponentially 0 Cable TV Info acceleration For last 30 years computer processing speed has doubled every 18 months 0 Moores s law Acceleration is particularly evident in popular culture 0 Movies TV programming music and 0 Casual conversation On TV 10 30 second breaks between shows are becoming nonexistent causes digital editing reduces shot duration and time between shots remote control encourages channel surfing shows in turn produce rapid sequences to hold attn this result is disorienting in content which encourages more surfing zenith ad from 1957 early awareness of channel surfing potential but remote took a while to catch on zapping changing channels during commercials and other program breaks zipping fastOfonNarding through prerecorded programming and advertising We are becoming accustomed to fast visual pacing Rapid editing and camera movement Movie trailers montage editing diff forms of message compression and acceleration SQUEEZE AND TEASE When the credits are compressed into 13 of the screen and the remaining 23 are used for promo tainment created by NBC because they were losing people Don t give someone a chance to turn away The commercials still exist But now have Moved inside the programming creating islands of content surrounded by commercials ads also more entertaining now important to recognize what commercial media do assemble audiences for advertisers within programs we see product placements or storylines built around certain products Coarsening of Culture digital tech creates more info at an ever increasing pace ever more exciting media for networkscontent providers this presents a challenge how to be heard over the din of cultural noise One answer arousing content The cultural volume level is starting to increase in different ways talking louder dressing more provocatively saying more shocking things show more shocking things David Shek calls this the 2X4 effect I had to hit him in the head with a two by four to get his attention in terms of popular culture we re seeing a rise of Tabloid Trash TV Shockjocks on radio Songs w more lyrics X sports pro wrestling vs cage fighting Violent movies Increasing use of sex talk jokes and innuendo Is info glut to blame for our crisis in family values Closer to you by The carpenters vs Addicted by Saving Abel Coarsening Culture 92110 Coarsening Culture observations that there is and increased amount of sex and violence in media much of this intentionally or indirectly aimed at children and young adults Also in politics an argument culture of heated exchanged Especially in politics an overall rising of the cultural thermometer ex Zell Miller on Hardball Causes Changing times Information glut Media acceleration Competition for audience attention 0 Eyeballs dollars Pushing limits of 1St amendment 0 Crassness protected by freedom of speech 7 dirty words consequences viewer desensitization role modeling 0 a concern if it s bad behavior reinforcing a negative gender stereotypes o the mook jackass and midriff as cultural archetypes for the MTV set Mook rude crude anything goes personality Mid riff Sex merchants of cool Metaforms With info scarcity narratives and storytelling were highly valued Now with information glut and info discrepancy we see the rise of metaforms EX Bevis and Butthead are a metaform because they comment on other MTV shows 0 Information and data filters 0 Present in both cyberspace and conventional media space A change in the media environment due to acceleration and proliferation toshO So much programming that it s difficult to monitor 0 Especially with satellite 24hr cable channels etc Thus a growing need for metadata 0 Information about information On TV shows about shows 0 Talk shows that analyze the news 0 News roundups Real or fake 0 Entertainment shows about other talk shows and celebs Solutions to Crass culture Censoring MPAA ratings 0 Also videogame ratings 0 Music warning labels The FCC The V Chip Interest group pressure 0 Religious organizations 0 Protecting mainstream values THIS FLIM IS NOT YET RATED movie Three laws of new media Historically 3 things lend to happen when a new ICT or media technology appears in society 1 It has unforeseen and unintended consequences 2 It takes longer to mature assume a stable form than originally thought 3 It is attacked as being dangerous and harmful to the public especially kids 0 And so called vulnerable populations Re Purposing remediating On all media the trend is not toward telling new stories but toward riffing filtering commenting o Samplingrepacking old material McLuhan The content of any medium is always another medium 0 Content of writing is speech 0 Print is writing 0 Radio is print 0 0 TV is radio And the web integrates all of the above Guest Speaker 93010 Carolina Correa IU Telecomm graduate Select equip you want to work with learn how to work it 0 Ex camera finalcut Marshall McLuhan Studying the media should not only deal with the content of the media But with the technology or media itself 0 And the total cultural environment within which media function ALL I HEAR IS BLAH BLAH BLAH All media from the phonetic alphabet to the computer are extensions of man that cause deep and lasting changes in people 0 Transforming the man made or social environment 0 And allow us to see natural environment differently Narcissusnarcosis a syndrome whereby man remains as unaware of the psychic and social effects of his new technology as a fish of the water it swims in when a new media induced environment becomes all persuasive It is the medium itself that is the message not the content The content or message of any particular medium has about as much importance as the stenciling on the casing of the atomic bomb An environment becomes fully visible only when it has been superseded by a new environment we do so by turning into an art form Mediamorphosis 92810 FIRST EXAM NEXT TUESDAY Mediamorphosis Fidler analog to digital era not widely predicted Go back to the early 19705 o The era of slide rules 0 Mechanical adding machines 0 Huge slow computers 0 The 6million dollar man Very few foresaw the digital revolution and rise of the web 0 Okay McLuhan did the circuit invites the participation SIX PRINCIPLES o Co evolution and co existence Media don t displace one another a Smart phone doesn t replace iPod u Develop simultaneously 0 Metamorphosis Mediamorphosis the transformation of communication media usually brought about by the complex interplay of perceived needs competitive and political pressures and social and technological innovations Since Gutenberg bridges of familiarity must be crossed between old and new forms of communication A new medium does not emerge spontaneously from nowhere but from a complex process comparable to evolution A process Fidler calls Mediamorphosis o Propagation Broadcasting over generations of media a Ex ColorTV 0 Survival Most media don t die they evolve or they are forgotten o Opportunity and Need Business side 0 Delayed adoption 30 year rule Paul Saffo For the assimilation of new ideastechnologies first stage excitement and puzzlement not much penetration second stage fluctuation market penetration and consumer adoption begins third decade normalization so what everybody has the product Technomyopia A strange phenomenon that causes us to overestimate the potential short term impact of a new technology And when the world fails to conform to our inflation expectations we turn around and we underestimate the long term implications First we over shoot and then we undershoot Six principles of mediamorphosis 1 Coevolution and coexistence o All forms of communication media coexist and coevolve within an expanding complex adaptive system As each new form emerges and develops it influences over time and to varying degrees the development of every other existing forms 2 Metamorphosis 0 New media do not arrive spontaneously and independently they emerge gradually from the metamorphosis of older media When new forms emerge the older forms tend to adapt and continue to evolve rather than Ie 3 Propogation o emerging forms of communication media propagate dominant traits from earlier forms These traits are passed on and spread through communicatory codes called languages 4 survival 0 all forms of communication media as well as media enterprises are compelled to adapt and evolve for survival in a changing environment Their only other option is to die 5 Opportunity and Need 0 new media are not adopted on the merits of technology alone There must be always an opportunity as well as motivating social political and or economic reason for a new media technology to be developed 6 Delayed Adoption 0 New media technologies always take longer than expected to become commercial successes They tend to require at least one human generation 20 30 years to progress from proof of concept to widespread adoption Diffusion of innovations Originally researched in relation to new farming techniques 0 In developing countries 0 Any innovation General rule consumer technologies aren t widely adopted until they drop below 500 VCR prices 0 2200 in 1975 0 300 in 1985 20 of original price 0 under 100 by 1998 80 of original price new techs tend to follow a similar pattern 0 HDTV s problem First few units cost 10 or more times as much as the last units sold Adopter related factors 1 amount of previous practice or experiencewith the technique or technology 0 first cell phone users police safety workers were those who already used mobile radios 2 innovativeness of potential adopters 0 some people more inclined to try new things Critical mass quick acceleration 9142010 307 00 PM EXAM next Tuesday Adopter related factors 1Amou nt of previous practice or experience with the technique or technology 0 first cell phone users were those who already used mobile radios 2 Innovationness of potential adopters 0 some people more inclined to try new things 3socia norms also play a role is it mainstream o Citizen bandCB radios anyone 0 Popular with truckers Mini and semi rig o Breaker breaker 1 9 Five characteristics influence adoption of new technologies wSony PSP ex Relative advantage 0 Portable goes with you no longer place dependent versatile less bulky than a laptop wireless connection Compatibility 0 Works with Sony s Playstation games also plays movies songs and shows images Complexity 0 Not overburdensome to figure out but smart phones may be a little trickier Trialability o Sony s stores Apple Stores and places like Best Buy serve this need also friends and roommates Observability o SAME AS ABOVE Fidler adds a sixth o familiarity a link to the past Similar to other playback devices and plays same content Technology determinism Belief in technology as a key force in society Underlying politics economics culture class gender Hard form Technology directly determines and shapes culture People are seen as relatively passive acted upon by machines advancements Soft Form Technology change drives social change BUT at the same time Responds to social pressures and is subject to constraints Constraints imposed from various corners Values political climate tech feasibility costs involved social attitudes 0 Ex nuclear power bullet trains stem cell research Technology in progress Consistent theme in American thought Progress through technological invention and innovation Technology becomes equated with moral and material improvement 0 A more efficient economy a better quality of life Tech has a political dimension Steam engine as a driver of expansion and manifest destiny Through technology we achieve an improved lifestyle Plague of Democratizing the means of a higher life Horace Grreley NY Tribune 1853 PowerPoint Popular presentation software has come under increased scrutiny Heavily used in business other venues o Criticized for shaping human communication Important to look at the diffusion and impact of this new communication technology Brief History Preceded by Blackboards Overhead projectors Slide projectors o HyperCard s for Mac PowerPoint 10 introduced in 1987 for the Mac 0 Originally only black and white easy to copy Shortly after its release Microsoft bought out the company for 14 million 0 Forethought technologies MS released first PC version in 1990 0 As part of Windows 30 AutoContent added in mid 19905 Today the program dominates the software presentations market 0 95 market approx 400 million Windows machines globally Widely popular but increasingly criticized a cognitive veg o matic that slices and dices human thought Chops up complex ideas and information into bite size nuggets Condensed not only your material but your way of thinking about the material Used as a crutch by poor studentsbad communicators Disengaging audiences O O O O O O O O OO DystopiaUtopia 9142010 30700 PM Dystopia When the conditionsquality of life are dreadful a techno hell Technology out of control motif Represented culturally in movies science fiction 0 Star trek the matrix terminator series I Robot Lawnmover Manetc Centuries old theme Mary Shelly s Frankenstein 1818 The Luddites A group of English textile workers early 18005 Destroyed steam powered looms when introduces into a textile mill Did n t want theirjobs eliminatedwages reduced by labor saving machines Luddite anyone opposed to technological change Dystopian view Stresses the negative impacts of technology 0 Ex internet addiction Computer hacking Digital device a How tech can increase existing social imbalances PowerPoint E mail spam overload Anti social impacts of videogames Fears over Y2K u Y2K thought stuff would go haywire because of the ls and Os a Youtube Nike Y2K Jogger u htt www outubecom watchvWhF7d 4Ico Utopian view Sees a world made better by technology 0 EX Digital democracy Internet as a vast knowledge base Mobile work Mobile lifestyle Social benefits of e mail online chat Pro social aspects of videogames Visions of workplace productivity u htt www outubecom watchv O7IC V7dM The Y2K problem To save space on early computers dates were only put in as their last two numbers 0 In COBOL 1971 was programmed as 71 Problem 0 When the last two digits of the year are 00 what is it 1900 2000 Could cause minor inconveniences to closing down of major systems Fixing Y2K Involoved reprogramming to make the date four digits 0 And Obscure abbreviations TOD Today s date 0 Not much metadata to explain functions 0 Billions of lines of programming to deal with Y2K preparations Recommendations Stockpile food water batteries Take extra cash out of cash machines Plan not to fly out on New Year Leep gas in your tank Have extra fuel on hand wood in fireplaces Relocation planning 0 Some people even moved to survivalist communities Double edged nature of PROGRESS Technology like progress itself is double edged o More capabilities but more dependence Offers more choice but much more monitoring More anonymity e mail but less anonymity tracking More social opportunities less personal interaction More geographic reach but less electronic distance Crowds your psychic space Raises questions about how we are progressing O O O O Dystopian Allegories Allegories story with an enduring moral or political meaning inform us about our own time 0 Typically cast in another era 15 minutes or 150 yrs into the future Take an issue or threat and extend it over time in another context 0 Offers insight into the state of affairs today 0 Biohazards tech threats political domination Individual freedom almost always valued over a hopeless mechanistic future Allegorical message we have the capability to change the future THE MATRIX THEME humans as energy source 0 A metaphor for the 3rd world Death in the virtual world death in reality 0 Survival of both mind and body necessary Neo as savior the one who will bring peace 0 Return of the messiah o The last best hope for humanity democracy Important to control technology 0 Or else it will control you 0 don t let technology make you it s B1TCH Eric Bucy 12 MONKEYS Willis plays James Cole 0 InitialsJC another savior o A convict in a post apocalyptic future plagues by a recurring dream Ofa man being shot in an airport 0 Humans forced to live underground Biological agent killed off most people Allegedly released by the army of the 12 monkeys o A tale of unheeded prophecies of doom Biological agents destroy but time travel and other technologies offer hope Cole s character is heroic o Dies for sake of others 0 Tells scientists where to find a non mutated for of virus 0 Wears a bloody shirt which reads Chris But the dystopic hero is imperfect he seems to be delusional 0 Switching between realities hears voices Bureaucracies will inherit the Earth 101210 Parasocial Parasocial Interaction Illusion of intimacy attempt to overcome the exclusionary nature of television 0 TV is involving but oneway 0 New convergent technologies which are networked support one way and two way communication 0 But tv remains dominant medium How to address this text on television formats later in broadcast PIparasocial Interaction offers an illusion ofintimacy 0 TV a close up medium offers the illusion of a face to face relationship 0 The appearance of a conversational give and take Over time o The audience comes to feel as if they know the performer 0 But the performance is compensatory designed to remove the perception of audience passivity o By watching tv personalities you start to appreciate their Appearance Sensibility Gestures Jokes Conversational style Over time their a Values beliefs u Motives Developing a Persona Persona 0 Stage personality adopted by talk showvariety show hosts 0 The actual person is not the persona Effective personalities achieve a certain familiarity 0 An intimacy with the audience An addictive process 0 Le it may be enhanced with magazines other media outlets Accomplished by means of 1 informative gestures conversation small talk 2 Casual Attitude toward scheduleformat 3 Group of friends treating sidekick or supporting cast as a group of friends 4 Breaking out of scripted format a we never know what s going to happen on this show Steve Allen original host of The Tonight Show 1954 1957 Role of Sidekick The sidekick as a friend 0 Audience invited to think that friendship between persona and sidekick extends to them Shows the appropriate way to act toward the hostpersona 0 let me introduce my good friend Paul Shaffer ladies and gentlemen Difference to main persona 0 Shows that the focal personality the host is admired respected adored Reinforces the show s values 0 Of sociability friendship camaraderie Makes the host continuously likeable 0 Even when they re having a bad night Deviating from the script Carefully planned but appears to be spontaneous o Mingling with the studio 0 Taking the camera out on the street 0 Symbolically unties the studio and home audience Blurs the line between persona and audience 0 You could be there Appropriate cast role Sidekick cast tech support show difference persona and act like support cast Persona should be loved and admired eg Jerry springer Jerry Jerry Jerry Appropriate audience role But the parasocial audience has limited options 0 In studio cheer ask questions appear in background for reaction 0 At home withdraw from the parasocial relationship The audience serves to affirm the format as credible 0 And treat the rules and conventions of the show as natural in support of the persona Information traffic patterns Allocution 9 all flows out from the center to the local Conversation 9 people talk to each other Consultation 9 Center pushes information out to the local and it s up to the local to make a quiry about the information Registration 9 center sends local something only after the local signs in or gives information of their own On the horizon 0 SMS applications in broadcast environments 0 text on tv formats already popular in Europe Asia elsewhere 0 further overcomes TV s exclusionary nature Layering of horizontal conversation onto unidirectional flows 0 Persona downgraded to a host or facilitator 0 Audience feedback is almost immediate and visible 0 Role of the audience no longer marginalized but becomes central Text on TV Formats In these formats the AV content is o Graphicated content is layered on top of each other 0 Deprioritized o Transformed into an excuse to CHAT Focus of the program is graphicated space 0 The host indeed the video assumes less importance than in a video only broadcast 0 Part of a broader trend Newscrawlers logos graphics Reality TV 101410 Parasocial Interaction The illusion of intimacy User generated content the vieweruser supplies the program material Reality TV The observance of people in real life situations the situation might be real or contrived Chilean Miners Saga Mistress Greets Chilean Miner as Wife Bows out Taxonomy categories of Reality TV Talent Competition Game Show 0 American Idol Competition 0 Survival Documentary 0 House Wives of Orange County Fantasy Fulfillment o Bachelorette Bachelor Makeover of people 0 Biggest Loser Makeover of car CrisisTension o Apprentice o Punked Newscasts 0 NEWS Cheaper to follow real people than to Hire writers Hire actors Build setsstagesscenery Frankenbite Editing unrelated segments together to create a new reality Moneyshot The esgment where the person has a climatic emotional moment breakdown crying triumph etc The Truman Show Interactivity 101910 why study interactivity People say it s important 0 Byproduct of convergence merging of tele data and mass comm s into a single system Fundamental departure from pre exsisting information traffic patterns mediated conversation Operative concept of defining technology of our time Held as a quintessential communication concept whose time has come Facilitates and extends our social nature Just an FYI you are not paying attention at the moment you are looking at apartments augmented reality 102110 Worldboard WWWWORLDBOARDORG computers as theatre comparison computers and theatre both are like reality only different represents situations that do not exsis in real life involve to a greater or lesser extent the collaboration of the useraudience create common ground orjointly occupied space where meaning take shape entertainment training in interfaces that offer agency the feeling of change 0 depends on interactivity a not so interactive only lets you do something every once in a while an interactive interface allows users to do comething that really matters at any time wwwtedcom Pranav Mistry the thrilling potential of SixthSence technology interactivity reconsidered erroneous assumptions about interactivity o 1interactivity communication is uniformly desirable and mainly associated with positive outcomes in fact some are negative and this may be key to understanding the concept 0 2Different users perceive respond to interavtive conditions the same way they don t research shoes curvi linear threshold effects interactive tasks contribute to emotional frustration disorientation 0 even for experienced Web users interactive options make movie watching more cumbersome and have a detrimiental effect on adverticing effectiveness Multimedia downloads can also hinder memory and contribute to 0 negative website perceptions and 0 lower evaluations of news quality Privacy and surveilance 102610 Readings from week 8 amp 9 Film option just one movie must be seen in theatre can use two for a comparison Earthcamcom 9 Kelly Cam 9 IU Construction Cams 9 buildiuedu Traffic Patterns Allocution gt and 9 o Flows from the info center to the periphery Consultation 6 and gt 0 When users query information centers Registration 9 and lt 0 Information fed to the center from the user Conversation 9 gt and lt 0 Horizontal communication between peers Network Power Key to understanding the operation of network power is appreciating the role of traffic patterns 0 In information gathering and user surveillance Regardless of application or interface attribute some traffic pattern always prevails 0 But largely below the user s awareness 0 Control thus operates behind the scenes 0 DVR s e mail chat texting cell phones not just the internet In describing their typology information traffic patterns Bordewijk amp van Kaam 1986 commented o society should at least have at its disposal a clear and simple picture of what power positions and relations are on the vulnerable terrain of human communication instead of media attributes in the pre Internet era 0 fears centered on one way patterns of communication that were seen as propagandistic and manipulative indeed they still are but now layered over this existing media system 0 are networked configurations that extract even as they allow interactivity consultation and conversation software code and programming algorithms thus structure the online environment in ways often unknown to the end use 0 who assumes that what you see in cyberspace is what you get that isn t always the case what you see isn t always what you get Privacy The Panopticon 0 Proposed by Jeremy Bentham as an ultimate prison design 0 A single guard could see every prisoner No prisoner could see anything else Individuals kept isolated in rings of cells all observable from a central tower Tendency is to act as if you are under surveillance at all times even if you re not Panopticism French critic Michel Poucault used the panopticon as a metaphor for societal institutions a Prisons Institutional power derived from u Surveillance u Classification D Isolation Panopticism a technique of power observe segment target your audience 0 The panoptic sort Oscar Gandy sees a totalizing system of social control that threatens individual liberty Based on the ability of state and corporate bureaucracies to collect process and share personal information 0 O O Enables u Tracking a Coordination a Control Privacy Privacy can be elusive concept 0 As consumers and citizens people draw the line at different places Constitutional right to privacy was expressed by Warrena dn Brandeis 0 As discussed they defined privacy as the rig ht to be left alone A passive definition appropriate for their time 1890 active privacy 0 1867 Alan Westin defined privacy as the rig ht of individuals to determine for themselves when how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others in Privacy and Freedom 0 Since then info gathering has become Widespread and automatic Code of Fair Info Practices 102810 active privacy The rig ht of individuals to determine for themselves when how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others Primary reasons 0 Network technologies and your electric data shadow Since then info gathering has become 0 Widespread and automatic iii r US no comprehenSIve privacy Law but we do need a road map Code of Fair Information Practices 0 A nonbinding set of privacy principles c1973 No record keeping systems should be secret What is on record and how used No secondary uses of info Methods to correct records Reliability assurances from organizations See Database Nation p7 OOOOOO European Union privacy regime EU privacy rights include the rig ht 0 Of access to your data To know where your dtat originated To have inaccurate data rectified To hsve recourse in the event of unlawful processing To withhold permission to use your data for direct marketing US relies on companies to offer comsummers an opt out option 0000 Privacy vs Accountability With surveillance technologies a conflict arises over 0 Privacy vs accountability On the one hand 0 As Americans we value our privacy independence and liberty On the other hand 0 As Citizens of a democracy we demand a certain level of accountability o Increasingly through reciprocal transparency Precision Advertising 11210 EXTRA CREDIT Prof Nicole Martins Add 5 points to lowest exam grade half a letter grade nicomartindianaedu I Survey online Precision devices being adapted to broadcast environment Digital cable Digital video recorders DVRs TiVo and Replay DVRs allow viewers to treat live TV as if it were recorded Skip over commercials Up to 88 of commercials go unwatched Avoid other unwanted content credit huddles timeouts With this kind of precision The networks will no longer be in the driver s seat Currently ad rates set to market demand On assumption that there are millions of viewers DVRs tell you exactly how many viewers are watching DVRs may thus overturn the networks revenue model Along with the Neilson ratings system Based on 5000 viewing households With TiVo and DVRs you have millions of data points The arrival of interactive television It s probably already here Ads will be increasingly embedded in content Via product placements Or ads will become part of the entertainment 0 CHEW with Hawaii 5 0 The networks seeing the handwriting on the wall Formed partnerships with TiVo and Replay Info society characterized by control technologies Not just for industry efficiencies butfor consumer transactions Precision advertising feedback mechanisms The genius of it is we feed our info into the system Without compensation Coertion by Douglas Rushkoff The science of selling 0 Now involves appearing as if you re not selling Society rife with subtle advertisingpersuasion 0 Floor plans in stores and malls designed to make you lose your bearings o wink advertising that anticipates our adverse reaction to advertising 0 Web cookies planted by our internet merchants That suggest other products we might like Marketing profile Purchasing behavior 0 One component of psychographics Psychographics opinions beliefs goals lifestyle etc 0 Web of information that comprises your marketing profile 0 Beyond demographics Demographics age gender etc The Acxiom Corp 0 wwwacxiomcom o the biggest company you ve never heard of 0 stores demographic and commercial info about you census data tax records reg forms product surveys customers records that are acxiom clients complies lifestage profiles 0 70 different psychographic types 0 all with the goal of cutting through the clutter advertisers don t want to broadcast ads to an anonymous audience 0 true for marketers and politicians presidential ads now bought locally market by market 0 narrowcasting allows marketers to say things to some people they don t want others to hear avoids open divisiveness even while dividing voters and consumers privately an ethical issue a Do we stop sharing things as americans Understanding the audience MTV leaves nothing to chance 0 Network is addicted to research and understanding its fans Is everything on MTV an ad 0 Music videos 0 Sets filled with trendy clothes and products 0 Shows about upcoming movies 0 Conventional ads 0 Reality shows with product placements The first rule of cool 0 Don t let your marketing show Data shadow Cast by electronic transactions Term introduced by Alan Westin in the 19605 o Metaphor for info that follows us without our awareness like a shadow Incorrect data shadows can result in bad credit lack of career mobility and more Do you know what your FICO score is max850 0 An index of how likely you are to pay your bills 0 and get new credit Marketing Profile 11410 data vs information data is un ltered information o Unreviewed unedited it has questionable value Information on the other hand has 0 Content accuracy utility timeliness value Willing to pay for information not willing to pay for data Information has a pedigree a traceable line of descent checked for accuracy 0 Has a locatable origin In other words information has been filtered or packaged by a knowledgable person 0 Data is the raw form of information Marketing of credit cards Your credit score 0 Determines how many and the kinds of offers you receive 0 Miss a payment make a late payment your rate goes up Credit card customers 0 GOOD THING Revolvers people who pay less that the full amount 0 BAD THING Dead beats people who pay their balances off every month Precision marketing Positive consequence of precision marketing 0 More choice personalization In interactive environments characterized by feedback responsiveness o Advertisingmarketing messages become much more personalized Via affinityrewards cards Automated data collection Registration forms INFO as a commodity The market expects more choicepersonalization Infocommunication becomes a commodity something to be offered and sold 0 AOL is a good example Advertisingmarketing messages become much more personalized 0 Via affinity cards Affinity Cards Affinityreward cards 0 Facilitate gathering analysis of consumer information o Aka data mining o Marsh Kroger s other markets 0 Marsh even has a kids club Targeted ads discounts o rewards loyal customers by accumulating data about their purchasing behaviors Garfinkel 0 when you hand your card to the clerk you re actually handing the person an identity cad that stamps the purchase with your name O observes transaction level information turns the art of marketing into a multi variable science experiment with the customers doubling as lab rats transaction level information gives buisnesses and gov t a way of searching your house and scruitinizing your lifestyle without ever obtaining a warrant and stepping through your front door Do you eat too much red meat hard liquor smokes high fat ice cream Beyond marketing 0 Stores may be required to turn over records to law enforcement 0 you claim you slipped but you buy a lot beer and wine from Kroger so you re screwed Stores use this info 0 To create a comprehensive consumer profile 0 A system that knows your exact tastes interactively 0 Now happening online 0 Personalized marketing Affinity cards facilitate this personalized marketing Coupons offers generated based on past purchases Managers can learn 0 Which coupons trigger sales 0 And which do not 0 Whether it takes a 50 cent or 1 coupon to move you Discounts are thus selective not for all 0 Others denied your discount Transparent society David Brin s tale of two cities 0 Asks who will ultimately control the cameras City 1 o Controlled by the authorities worst of times City 2 0 We all have the access to everythingbest of times If I can see you then you should be able to see me Brin sees 3 solutions 0 Status quo Keep things the way they are control with the authorities 0 Stop the information flow Remove the cameras 0 Reciprocaltransparency Give everyone control of the cameras Consequences of transparency Empowers the powerless and evens the playing field Raises the cost of prying into someone else s life 0 Judge not lest ye bejudged Mutually assured accou ntability allows the watched to watch the watcher o The controlled can in some sense control the controller Eventually Brin argues it can eliminate all crime Hacker ethic 111110 Information wants to be free So those who are best able to use it can do so Yield to the hands on imperative Open architecture open codes Promote decentralization Favor small groups over the masses subculture over mainstream culture To enhance innovation Surf the edges stay current Question what is this in contrast to Cyberspace is mostly Business is mostly Free and open For profit Eqalitarian no pre defined roles and Propriety positions Organized Decentralized Hierarchical Peer to peer Pragmatic Experimental Predictable Ad hoc situational Planned Anarchic Monev ethic vs the hacker ethic Fred rick W Taylor First efficiency expert Money ethic Profit motive pushes the workplace toward increased efficiency Hacker ethic Dissolves the boundary between work and leisure Do what you love love what you do If a process is not operating at peak efficiency find out why and improve it Taylor introduced scientific management in late 18005 Literally put a stopwatch on workers Protestant work ethic Taylor s approach to work Has it s roots in the protestant work ethic Explained by Max Weber in the famous essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism 1904 Core attitudes Work as a duty Labor as an end in itself a calling Work must be cone to the best of one s abilities Preceded by the routines of the monastery network vs netmlay Benedict s 5th century monastery idleness in the enemy of the sou monks were not supposed to question their given jobs likewise in industrial society worker s job in not to question authority Fosters outlook That there is no time for play in work Iquot network vs netpay 111610 Benedict s 5th century monastery Idleness is the enemy of the soul Monks were not supposed to question their given jobs Friday ization of Sunday This work outlook o Increasingly applies to life outside of work to personal and play time If work should be optimized to its fullest 0 Why not other activities Friday ization of Sunday 0 treating out off time as an exercise in efficiency 0 instead of playing tennis we work on our backhand o over scheduling down time running endless errands o optimizing leisure hours Deskillling people at home efficiency now persists as a goal everywhere 0 taylorism plays itself out in the home too As the home becomes automated people become more deskilled 0 Microwave meals replace homemade recipes ability to cook lost Chefs vs microwavers 0 Entertainment now electronic not homespun Media no longer cottage industries 0 Families watch TV families interacting rather than talking amongst themselves Are interactive videogames changing any of this Social effects of Taylorism Due to demands on time much of experience now second hand 0 the time starved mother is being forced more and more to choose between a parent and buying a commodi ed version of parenthood from someone else Parents become managers of parenthood Time with kids reduced to segments of quality time The result of acceleration and optimization efficiency Sunday ization of Friday Use machines to live a life that is less machine like The info economy provides some ways out of the optimal lifestyle however For ex Flex time 0 Some types of work can be done where and when you want Sunday ization of Friday 0 Finding the right calling 0 Dissolve the boundary between work and leisure 0 Do what you love love what you do The IT explanation two phases of computing Phase 1 Computers introduced to automate industry and preform routine calculations 0 Phone operators relieved of manual switching o Bookkeepers freed from endless copyingaddingsubtracting 0 Also sheet metal cutting missile aiming Resulted in productivity gains to industry Phase 1 post WWII 0 Where the computer as a calculating and storage device helped produce a more efficient economy Phase 1 computing primary involved 0 Manipulation of data 0 Control of other machines Guide a rocket missile We re now in Phase 2 of computing 0 What Thomas Landauer calls Augmentation in the trouble with computers Phase 2 Augmentation 0 Human activities that can t be done by machine Examples 0 Writing creating Persuading negotiating Deciding organizing Administration Translatinganalyzing language 0 And so on Increasing recognition of the limits of technology to do people work 0 Rethinking of practices Remember Bill Gate s comment 0 Computers aren t easy to use 1 reason for slow down 0 computers are sometimes used for the wrong jobs 0 we may demand TOO MUCH out of our machines Also in some cases adding technology has added jobs not reducing costs Productivity paradox Productivity in the workplace grew from the 18705 to the 19705 But slowed down once computers were introduced on a mass scale Early 19705 1990 0000 Media Access Topics today Media access Digital Divide Knowledge Gap Hypothesis Guest Speaker Kevin Dowley Computer Security Engineer for Technicolor 111810 NOTES 113010 Final next Thursday ALL Multiple choice Digital divide Phrase entered into public debate 0 Following the first NTIA report info haves and have nots Definition 0 the disparity between various groups in computer Internet use ongoing debates over 0 magnitude 0 potential solutions Democratic Administrations Clinton Obama see more need for government intervention that republican presidents Bush An income gap National trends 0 82 households with income of 75000 have more internet use 0 about 66 of households in the middle between 30000 and 70000 have access 0 access continues to improve at a fairly steady rate important to look at what we mean by access internet use by age group decreases with age Only 15 of those 65 and over have access As younger people age basic internet access will probably be less and less of an issue Born in the sauce we are digital native Cohort effect as each group goes out in time their use is still going to be high Public affairs media use Access vs use 0 Different things Internet use is increasing but hasn t risen to the level of traditional media 0 Especially tv and newspaper Nationally average user in the Us spends about 42 hours a week online Compare this to the average viewer watching 4 hours of TV each night Additional factors at play Other variables might make a difference too 0 Family situation 0 Geographic location Republicans more internet use than democrats On average income and family context are becoming more predictive that race Routes to ICT access tech v content We need to think about access in much broader human and tech terms Technological access 0 System access connection speed server capacity geography 0 Physical access corporate initiatives government policies affordability Content issues 0 Social access digital divide cultural context social norms 0 Cognitive access education literacy training motivation Internet as a complex medium Wired in a week Not AOL advertises its ease of use 0 so easy to use no wonder it s 1 But even AOL take a week to learn How many truly successful mass media take that long tv radio film Little wonder that Microsoft and Apple s main mission 0 is to make the web lifestyle nice and easy promise of mass communication great promise of mass communication to educate and uplift the masses in a way that s universally available 0 solve social political problems by delivering information o sesame street presidential debates Sesame street 0 Started in 1969 with hope that it would help disadvantage kids Televised presidential debates o Launched in 1960 with hope to inform chronic know nothings Unintended consequences Content developers ICT designers need to remain aware of these unintended consequences Unexpected possibility 0 New media technologies might increase disparities in knowledge and income 0 Between members of different social groups Applies especialy to 0 Public affairs information 0 Science news Copyright Law 12210 media policies structure and regulate media so they contribute to the public good laws self regulation media laws policies passed by Congress that become legally binding eg Copyright Act Telecom s Act of 1996 DCMA COPPA media ethics codes of behavior that guide conduct of media professionals guide communicators in situations where actions may negatively impact others ethical issues include concerns about accuracy fairness responsibility media and individual plagiarism Freedom of Speech Some forms of speech not protected Defamation Libel or slander Obscenity Inciting lustful feelings Inciting insurrection Yelling fire in a crowded movie theatre Copyright violations Distributing someone else s work Three kinds of policing issues aise with regards to protecting people in the electronic world 1 Free speech 2 Privacy 3 Intellectual property eg copyright digital networked technologies make these concerns urgent and pressing copyright infringement not obtaining permission to use distribute a work different from plagiarism Plagiarism is using ideas or words that are not your own as if they were copyright is a sort of guarantee to the artist it applies the moment you fix an idea in some tangible form a song photo essay book music industry RIAA first went after Napster and campuses IU USC MIT Cal others Causing Napster to shut down and campuses to report student file sharers Then the industry filed 281 lawsuits against individuals sept 03 Went after high volume downloaders Most cases settled out of court for 7500 or less 0 Designed mostly as a scare tactics IU doesn t want to be sued So it takes a conservative position on file sharing IU requires students to delete all illegal files not just those identified And sign a form saying they have plus 50 fine A student ethics violation Still most traffic in and out of IU s servers Is copyrighted movies and music Hey information wants to be free File sharing Over 60 million Americans have downloaded file sharing software 0 That makes it a mainstream product 0 Industry looking for ways to embrace the practice rather than end i Consumers want to download media rather than buy it prepackaged 0 Big shift first noted in 2003 o From june to nov 2003 77 million songs were downleaded Estimated 100 million downloaders worldwide 0 Why so many 0 Consequences not severe o Payoff worth the risk Most major label artists don t own their music 0 Their record label does 0 Most of the profit goes to the label not the artist 0 Is it the artist who is getting hurt by file sharing 0 Does the industry really care about the artist s bottom line Legit download sites on the rise 0 Apple s iTunes the new Napster Musicmatch Also the idea of quottetheredquot downloads 0 Files with playback restrictions Some jam bands like Phish and independent artists encourage file sharing 0 To build a following o Attempt to generate income through concerts cds and tshirt sales etc In general recording artists are under protected by copyright law 0 Only the copyright holders ie music company receives any payment when a song is played on the radio 9142010 307 00 PM
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