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Date Created: 11/01/15
Chapter 17 System Development Life Cycle SDLC process for developing info systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance Planning establishing a high level plan of the intended project and determining project goals Analysis analyzing end user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of intended systems Design describing the desired features and operations of the system Development taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system Testing bringing all the projects pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors bugs and interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase lmplementation placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system Maintenance performing changes corrections additions and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goal Business Requirements detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful Waterfall Methodology sequential activitybased process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance Rapid Application Development RAD emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process Prototype smaller scale representation or working model of the user s requirements or a proposed design for an information system Extreme Programming XP Methodology breaks a project into tiny phases and developers can t continue on the next phase until the first phase is complete Agile Methodology form of XP aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components Info Technology Infrastructure Library ITIL framework of best practice approaches intended to facilitate the delivery of high IT services Scope Creep scope of a project increases Feature Creep developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements Project Management application of knowledge skills tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stockholders needs and expectations for a project Project Management Software specifically supports the long term and day to day management and execution of the steps in a project Critical Success Factor CSF factor that is critical to an organization s success Feasibility Study determines if the proposed solution is feasible and achievable from a financial technical and organizational stand point Requirements Definition Document contains the final set of business requirements prioritized in order of business importance Signoff systems users actual signature indicating they approve of all the business requirements Process Modeling graphically representing the process that capture manipulate store and distribute info between a system and its environment Data Flow Diagram DFD illustrated the movement of info between external entities and the processes and data stores within the system Computeraided software engineering CASE tools are software suites that automate systems analysis design and development Commercial offthe shelf COTS software is a software package or solution that is purchased to support one or more business functions and information systems Modeling activity of drawing a graphical representation of a design Graphical User Interface GUI interface to an info system GUI Screen Design ability to model the info system screens for an entire system using icons buttons menus and submenus Data Models represents a formal way to express data relationships to a database management system Entity Relationship Diagram ERD technique for documenting the relationships between entities in a database environment Test Conditions detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step User Documentation highlights how to use the system Online Training runs over the internet or off a CDROM Workshop Training set in a classroomtype environment and led by an instructor Help Desk group of people who respond to internal system user questions Adaptive Maintenance making changes to increase system functionality to meet new business requirements Corrective Maintenance making changes to repair system defects Perfective Maintenance making changes to enhance the system and improve such things as processing performance and usability Preventive Maintenance making changes to reduce the chance of future system failures Change Management System a collection of procedures to document a change request and define the steps necessary to consider the change based on the expected impact of the change Change Control Board CCB responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests Project temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service Project Deliverables any measurable tangible verifiable outcome result or item that is produced to complete a project or part of a project Project Milestones represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed Project Manager individual who is an expert in project planning and management defines and develops the project plan and tracks the plan to ensure all key project milestones are completed on time Project Scope defines the work that must be completed to deliver a product with the specified features and functions Project Product description of the characteristics the product or service has undertaken Project Objectives quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success Project Exclusions products services or processes that are not specifically a part of a project Project Plan formal approved document that manages and controls project execution PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique Chart graphical network model that depicts a project tasks and the relationships between those tasks Dependency logical relationship that exists between the project tasks or between a project task and a milestone Critical Path a path from the start to the finish that passes through all the taks that are critical to completing the project in the shortness amount of time Gantt Chart simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendar Change Management set of techniques that aid in evolution composition and policy management of the design and implementation of a system Change Control Board CCB responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests Project Risk uncertain event or condition that if it occurs has a positive or negative effect on a project objectives Risk Management process of proactive and ongoing identification analysis and response to risk factors Chapter 15 Core competency they key strength of a business a business function that it does better than any of its competitor Core Competency Strategy strategy in which an organization chooses to focus specifically on what it does better and forms partnerships and alliances with other specialist organizations to handle nonstrategic business process Info Partnership occurs when two or more organizations cooperate by integrating their IT systems thereby providing customers with the best of what each can offer Collaboration System is an IT based set of toIIs that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of info Unstructured Collaboration document exchange shared whiteboards discussion forums and email Structured Collaboration shared participation in business processes such as workfow in which knowledge is hardcoded as rules Knowledge Management capturing classifying evaluating retrieving and sharing info assests in a way that provides context for effective decisions and actions Knowledge Management System supports the capturing organization and dissemination of knowledge throughout an organization Explicit Knowledge consists of anything that can be documented archived and codified often with the help of IT Tacit Knowledge knowledge contained in people s heads Social Networking Analysis SNA process of mapping a group s contacts to identify who knows whom and who works with whom Content Management System provides tools to manage the creation storage editing and publication of info in a collaborative environment Wikis webbased tolls that make it easy for users to add remove and change online content Business Wikis collaborative web pages that allow users to edit documents share ideas or monitor the status of a project Workflow defines all the steps or business rules from beginning to end required for a business process Workflow Management Systems facilitate the automation and management of business processes and control the movement of work through the business process MessagingBased Workflow Systems send work assignments through an email system DatabaseBased Workflow Systems store documents in a central location and automatically ask the team member to access the document when it is their turn to edit the document Groupware software that supports team interaction and dynamics including calendaring scheduling and videoconferencing Videoconference set of interactive telecommunication technologies that allow two or more locations to interact via two way video and audio transmission simultaneously Web Conferencing blends audio video and document sharing technologies to create virtual meeting rooms where people gather at a password protection web site Instant Messaging type of communications service that enables someone to create a kind of private chat room with another individual in order to communicate in real time over the internet Chapter 16 Wireless Fidelity means linking computers using infrared or radio signals Bluetooth omnidirectional wirless technology that provides limited range voice and data transfer over the unlicensed 24 GHZ frequency band allowing connections with a wide variety of fixed and portable devices Radio Frequency Identification technologies use active or passive tags in the form of chips or smart labels that can store unique identifiers and relay this info to electronic readers RFID Tags contain microchips and an antenna and typically work by transmitting a serial number via radio waves to an electric reader which confirms the identity of a person or object bearing the tag Microwave Transmitters satellite systems are commonly used to transmit network signals over great distance Global Positioning System GPS device that determines current latitude longitude speed and direction of movement Geographic Information System GIS designed to work with info that can be shown on a map Chapter 18 lnsourcing using the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain the organizations info technology system Outsourcing arrangement by which one organization provides a service or service for another organization that chooses not to perform them in house Business Process Outsourcing BPO contracting of a speclfl business task such as payroll to a third party service provider Offshore Outsourcing using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems Chapter 19 IT Infrastructure the hardware software and telecommunications equipment that when combined provide the underlying foundation to support that organizations goals Mobile Commerce ability to purchase goods and services through a wireless internet enabled device Telematics blending computers and wireless telecommunications technologies with the goal of efficiently conveying info over vast networks to improve business operations Electronic Tagging technique for identifying and tracking assets and individual via technologies such as radio frequency identification and smart cards Radio Frequency Identification RFID use active or passive tags in the form of chips or smart labels that can store unique identifiers and relay this info to electronic readers Trend Analysis examined to identify its nature causes speed of development and potential impact Trend Monitoring viewed as particularly important in a specific community industry or sector are carefully monitored watched and reported to key decision makers Trend Projections numerical data are available trend can be plotted to display changes through time and into the future Computer Simulation complex systems such as a us economy can be modeled by means of mathematical equations and different scenarios can be run against the model to determine llwhat if analysis Historical Analysis historical events are studied to anticipate the outcome of current developments Digital lnk refers to technology that digitally represents handwriting in its natural form Radio Paper dynamic high resolution electronic display that combines a paperlike reading experience with the ability to access info anytime anywhere Digital Paper any paper that is optimized for any type of digital printing Teleliving refers to using info devices and the internet to conduct all aspects of life seamlessly Virtual Assistant VA small program stored on a PC or portable device that monitors emails faxes messages and phone calls Autonomic Computing self managing computing model named after and patterned on the human body s autonomic nervous system Onshore Outsourcing process of engaging another company within the same country for services quot39 39 f 39 cunuacting an outsuuicing arrangement with a company in a nearby country Offshore Outsourcing using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems Multisourcing combination of professional services mission critical support remote management and hosting services that are offered to customers in any combination needed