OGL300 Week 3 notes- Chapter 16(Culture and Leadership), Chapter 5 (Situational Approach) and Chapter 6 (Path- Goal Theory)
OGL300 Week 3 notes- Chapter 16(Culture and Leadership), Chapter 5 (Situational Approach) and Chapter 6 (Path- Goal Theory) OGL 300
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1 OGL300 Week 3 Chapter 16 (p.427-434) I. Culture and Leadership leaders need to be competent in crosscultural awareness and practice. Adler and Bartholomew(1992) Leaders need to understand: business,political, and cultural environments worldwide. Leaders need to learn perspectives, tastes, trends (p.427) need to develop communication competencies A. Cultures Defined meaning of culture has been debated “culture is defined as the learned beliefs,values, rules, norms, symbols, and traditions that are common to a group of people.” (p.428) multicultural and diversity B. Related Concepts ethnocentrism and prejudice C. Ethnocentrism “the tendency for individuals to place their own group at the center of others and the world.” (p.428429) perception that ones culture is better than any other major obstacle for effective leadership prevents people from fully understanding or respecting the viewpoints of others. (p.429) the more ethnocentric we are, the less tolerant we are of others D. Prejudice closely related to ethnocentrism “is a largely fixed attitude, belief, or emotion held by an individual about another individual or group that is based on further or unsubstantial data.” (p.429) based on previous decisions or experiences inflexible generalizations that are resistant to change or evidence to the contrary.(4.29) although it can be positive is is usually negative leaders will have a difficult time dealing with the prejudice of followers E. Dimensions of culture determining the basic dimensions or characteristics of different cultures is the first step Hall(1976) Trompenaars(1994) egalitarianheirarchicaldimension persontask orientation most referenced research is Hofstede (1980,2001) five major dimensions on which cultures differ:power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualismcollectivism, masculinityfemininity, and longterm short term orientation. (p.431) 2 GLOBE studies~ Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness research program (p.431) F. Uncertainty Avoidance the extent in which the group relies on social norms, rituals, and procedures G. Power Distance the degree to which members of the group agree power should be shared ”rightful place” H. Institutional Collectivism degree to which the group encourages institutional or societal collective action societal interests I. InGroup Collectivism degree in which the people show pride, loyalty, and cohesiveness devotion J. Gender Egalitarianism degree to which the gorp minimizes gender role differences and promotes gender equality(p.433) K. Assertiveness “degree to which they are determined,assertive,confrontational, and aggressive in their social relationships.” (p.433) L. Future Orientation planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification. (p.433) M. Performance Orientation extent to which the organization encourages and rewards group for performance and excellence N. Humane Orientation extent to which rewards are given based on members being: fair, altruistic, generous, caring and kind to others (p.434) O. Clusters of World Cultures 62 countries able to analyze similarities and differences between cultural groups 3 Chapter 5 I. Situational Approach A. Description widely recognized approach developed by Hersey and Blanchard based on Reddin’s (1967) 3D management style (p.93) focuses on leadership in situations both directive and supportive dimensions change their directives based on the needs of the follower leadership style and development level of followers are the two major dimensions B. Leadership Styles directive and supportive behaviors directive is usually oneway communication supportive helps group members feel involved by using twoway communication Four distinct categories of leadership styles: 1) directive style also known as the high directivelow supportive style 2) coaching approach also known as high directivehigh supportive style 3) supporting approach also known as high supportivelow directive style 4) delegating approach also known as low supportivelow directive style Situational Leadership II (p.95) C. Developmental Levels development level of follower D1 followers are lower in competencies D2 followers are described as having some competence but low commitment D3 followers who have moderate to high competence but may have variable commitment D4 followers are the highest development, having both high degree of competence and a high degree of commitment to getting the job done. (p.96) D. How Does the Situational Approach Work? followers move up and down along the developmental continuum leaders need to determine where there followers are on the continuum next, the leader needs to adapt his or her style to the to the prescribed leadership style E. Strengths history of usefulness in the market place practicality prescriptive value emphasizes leader flexibility treat each follower differently based on the goal and decide the best way to help the follower learn F. Criticisms 4 only a few research studies have been conducted. ambiguous conceptualization in the model of the followers’ development levels (p.100) there is no explanation by authors of the changes in the composition of the levels commitment varies how the model matches leader style with follower development levels Thompson and Vecchio found no clear empirical support for the model in any of its versions (p.101) fails to account for certain demographic characteristics can affect the leader or follower the questionnaires are constructed to force the respondents to describe leadership style in terms of four specific parameters (p.102) G. Application can be applied at many different levels in an organization applies during the initial stages of a project, when idea formation is important (p.103) II. Case Studies A. Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels David Abruzzo, newly elected president of Metro city striders Track Club feels comfortable with his leadership role of responsibilities Runners were concerned and had question were wondering if they were capable were concerned of the effects of training on their running feeling flat and moody about training B. Case 5.2Why Aren’t They Listening Jim Anderson, training specialist created 6 week training program managers doubted him because of previous seminar experience being not productive went out of his way to be friendly with the groups not all managers were present he realized confused as to the lack of attendance knew the style wasn’t working for the group C. Case 5.3 Getting the Message Across Ann Caldera, program director of a college campus radio station students are highly motivated and eager to work at the station problem: how to train new students to follow the rules and procedures students aren’t taking rules seriously she trusts the students to follow the rules but they fail to D. Leadership Instrument Situational Leadership Questionnaire (p.109111) Chapter 6 I. PathGoal Theory 5 how leaders motivate followers to accomplish designated goals (p.115) research appeared in 1970’s, Evans(1970), House (1971), House and Dessler(1974), and House and Mitchell(1974). (p.115) emphasizes the relationship between the leader’s style mad the characteristics of the followers and the organizational setting (p.115) choosing behaviors that support the situation leadership generates motivation House and Mitchell (1974) designed to explain how leaders can help followers along the path to their goals by selecting specific behaviors that are best suited for followers’ needs and to the situation in which followers are working. (p.116) theory of motivation (Vroom, 1964) complex A. Leader Behaviors directive, supportive, participative, and achievementoriented leadership (house & Mitchell, 1974, p.83) open to variables B. Directive Leadership similar to “initiating structure” Ohio State studies (Halpin & Winner, 1957) C. Supportive Leadership resembles the consideration behavior structure D. Participative Leadership consults with followers E. AchievementOriented Leadership challenges followers to perform work at the highest level possible. leaders might exhibit any four of the styles different situations may call for different styles impact of leadership is contingent on the characteristics of both followers and their task. (p.118) F. Follower Characteristics determine how a leader’s behavior is interpreted by followers in a given work context. (p,118) needs for affiliation desires for control internal locus of control external locus of control perceptions of their own abilities G.Task Characteristics follower’s task formal authority system primary work group task characteristics formal authority group norms TO BE EFFECTIVE II. How Does PathGoal Theory Work? 6 theoretically complex, but also pragmatic (p.120) A. PathGoal Theory: How it Works Chart (p.121) an effective leader needs to ten to the needs of their followers’ B. Strengths provides a useful theoretical framework for understanding how various leadership behaviors affect followers’ satisfaction and work performance(p.122) one of the first theories to specify four conceptually distinct varieties of leadership attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory into a theory of leadership(p.122) no other leadership approach deals directly with motivation in this way (p.123) provides a model that in certain ways is very practical(p.123) C. Criticisms interpreting the theory can be confusing received only partial support from the many empirical research studies conducted fails to explain the relationship between leadership behavior and follower motivation. (p.124) places responsibility on leaders and much less on followers D. Application leader should give support when tasks are dull can be used at all leadership levels III. Case Studies A. Case 6.1Three Shifts, Three Supervisors Brako, small manufacturing company runs three shifts to prep the parts, 40 employees supervisors work productively and do not complain Art, supervisor, hands on leader, gets very involved, knowledgable about quality, has direction and reminders workers have few negatives about Art rules and expectations set by art are clear workers don’t think Art understands their situation sometimes workers are bored Bob, second shift supervisor, enjoys work, peopleoriented, values employees absenteeism and turnover is high on his shift workers from second shift are responsible for a lot and take a lot of heat when things aren’t right workers feel pressured, and have complained to Bob and upper management Carol, thirst shift supervisor, routinely has meetings, wants to problem solve with workers, offers reassurance, stresses company goals, gives rewards people like to work with Carol she’s good at helping them do their job upper management is pleased with Carol but when her employees go to other shifts they have trouble. B. Case 6.2 Direction for Some, Support for Others Daniel Shivitz, manager of a small business 7 store caters to the university community is helpful with his employees’ schedules Daniel’s leadership is effective converses with employees gives them space, offers help when necessary is overall successful C. Case 6.3 Playing the Orchestra Martina Bates, newly hired orchestra teacher she hit the ground running she’s having a hard time with her leadership, she believes isn’t as effective. younger kids are wanting to play orchestra instructs with great detail middle school orchestra is smaller but some students have become uninterested reward system high school orchestra is is very small, but kids are not excited her leadership doesn’t have a large impact they like her but don’t seem interested in playing