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P 101

by: Kole Corwin

P 101 PSY

Kole Corwin
GPA 3.52

Benjamin Sklar

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Benjamin Sklar
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kole Corwin on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY at Indiana University taught by Benjamin Sklar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/233462/psy-indiana-university in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
1 What is the definition ofPsychology Study of the mind 2 Who was William James American Psychologist 18421910 founder of Psych wrote quotPrinciples ofPsychology focused on associationism and spiritualism 3 Wilhelm Wundt German Psychologist 18321920 founder of Psych first formal lab at University of Leipzig quotFather of experimental psychology 4 Sigmund Freud Austrian 18561939 founder ofpsychoanalysis sex dreams religion women 5 John Watson American Psychologist 18781958 founder ofbehaviorism focused on animal behavior Conducted Little Albert experiment 6 G Stanley Hall American Psychologist 184419 24 focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory 1st president ofAmerican Psychological Association 7 What is a hypothesis proposed explanation for a phenomenon 8 What is internal validity Accuracy of results Ex not valid ifnot selected randomly 9 External validity Valid if results represent whole population Ex Not valid if sample is Hispanics under 25 compared to whole US population 10What is an operational definition Defining in terms ofthe specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity 11What is a case study intensive analysis of an individual unit eg a person group or event stressing developmental factors in relation to context 12What are the differences between a correlational study and an experimental study In CS a researcher looks for associations among naturally occurring variables in ES the researcher introduces a change and then monitors its effects 13What is a representative sample Subset ofa population that accurately re ects the entire population 14What is a dependent variable What doesn t change and is measured after changing the independent variable 15What is an independent variable Control variable what is changed and manipulated 16What is survey research Researcher selects a sample of respondents from a population and administers a standardized questionnaire to them 17What is naturalistic observation a subject is observed in its natural habitat without any manipulation by the observer 18What is informed consent the permission given to a researcher by the experimentee to experiment 19Why is random sampling important Ensure results can be defended as statistically representative of the population 20What is a motor neuron Located in CNS directly or indirectly control muscles 21What are mirror neurons See behavior on other feel in self see someone kicked in balls yours hurt 22What is a sensory neuron Vision touch etc Convert external stimuli to internal stimuli 23What are glial cells Form myelin sheath protect neurons in brain 24What is an axon Generate nerve impulses amp transmit them typically away from cell body 25Dendrite bring sensory information to the neuron 26What is a synapse permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell 27What are neurotransmitters Chemicals that transmit neuron to cell across a synapse 28What is the resting potential Negative charge that exists when neuron isn t active 29What is an action potential Rapid rise and fall ofneurons and muscle cells Ex Twitch 30What is the central nervous system CNS Brain and spinal cord receives sensory input Processes sensory inputs and coordinates motor outputs 31What is the peripheral nervous system PNS Outside brain and spinal cord connects CNS to sensory organs other organs and muscles 32What is the autonomic nervous system ANS Part of PNS acts as control system controls heart rate digestion salivation urination Involuntary actions 33What is the sympathetic nervous system Mobilize body s nervous system fight or ight response reaction to threat 34Parasympathetic Responsible for stimulation when body is at rest sexual arousal salivation tears urination digestion 35What does the cerebellum do Controls coordination balance and voluntary motor movements Modulates voluntary movements to require less conscious effort Ex Riding a bike 36Hypothalamus Receives taste and smell impulses controls heart rate blood pressure and body temperature 37Hippocampus Converts ST memory to LT spatial navigation 38Temporal lobe Assists in coordinating speech proceeses stimuli from eyes and ears contains brain structures responsible for LT memory 39 Occipital lobe Controls visual perception discriminates colors and processes movement 40Cerebral cortex Responsible for extensive functions of thinking and processing 41Amygdala Essential to feel certain emotions arousal fear 42 Reticular formation In Pons regulates attention awareness and sleep cycle 43Medulla Responsible for breathing and blood pressure and other involuntary functions 44 Pons Relays sensory information from the cerebellum to cerebrum deals with deep sleep and respiratory regulation 45Who was Phineas Gage Survived accident that destroyed much ofleft frontal lobe after accident personality and behavior significantly changed 46Who was Clive Wearing Couldn t form new memories nor recall past memories damaged hippocampus procedural memory unaffected cerebellum 47What is sensation Picking up information with the sensory receptors 48What is perception Interpreting what is sensed 49What do rods do 120 million Lightdark vision Peripherals 50Cones 6 to 7 million Color sensitivity Red Green and Blue cones 51 What is a feature detector Neurons in visual cortex that receive visual information and respond to certain features lines edges angles or movement 52Know the theories of color vision 0 TrichromaticCones sensitive to Blue Green and Red 0 Opponent ProcessColors matchup R vs G B vs Y and B vs W 53What is attention How we actively process specific information present in our environment 54What is the suprachiasmatic nucleus Controls circadian rhythms In hypothalamus 55Know the stages of sleep 0 Stage 1 Transition between wakefulness and sleep brain produces theta waves 510 minutes Stage 2 Brain produces sleep spindles heart rate and body temperature decrease 20 minutes Stage 3 Transition into deep sleep brain produces delta waves Stage 4 Delta sleep sleepwalking most likely to occur 30 minutes Stage 5 REM sleep most dreaming occurs here voluntary muscles become paralyzed but increase in brain activity 56Know the theories of sleep 0 Restorativebody and mind revitalize during sleep necessary for proper functioning NREM important for physiological functions REM for mental o AdaptiveSleep cycles depend on the environment 57What is paradoxical sleep Same as REM sleep dreaming occurs rapid eye movement heavy breathing 58Know the theories of dreaming o PsychoanalyticRepresent unconscious desires aggressive and sexual instincts that we repress from consciousness o ActivationSynthesisCircuits in brain become activated during REM brain interprets internal activity and tries to find meaning resulting in dreaming 59Know the classes of drugs 0 Opiatesrelieve pain and produce euphoria cocaine morphine heroin o Depressantsdepress or inhibit brain activity alcohol marijuana Xanax 0 Stimulantsstimulate and excite brain activity ecstasy Adderall speed 0 Psychedelicsdistort sensory perceptions LSD acid mushrooms 60What are the processes involved in memory 0 Encoding converts into item that can be stored in brain 0 Consolidation stabilizes memory after encoding 0 Storage retains information in the brain 0 RecallRetrieval reaccesses information from the past after previous steps 61What is shortterm memory The active stage ofmemory in which information is stored for up to about 20 seconds 62long term memory The stage of memory that represents the longterm storage of information 63Sensory memory The stage of memory that registers information from the environment and holds it for a very briefperiod of time 64What are episodic memories Long term memory that can be described in extensive detail ashbulb memory Ex JFK being shot 65What is rehearsal Repeating information so it stores in your memory Ex Hearing a phone number 66 Chunking Increasing amount ofinfo in STM by grouping related items together 67What is the visuospatial sketchpad Provides virtual environment for physical simulation calculation and optical memory recall Recalls image a face place etc 68 What is the phonological loop Ability to recollect the last few seconds ofwhat you ve seen or heard 69 What is the central executive function Responsible for encoding storing and retrieving 70What is retrograde amnesia Loss ofaccess to events that occurred or information learned prior to the onset of the disease 71What is anterograde amnesia Loss of ability to create new memories 72What is primacy effect Tendency to remember first items in a list better 73Recency effect Tendency to remember the last items in a list better 74What is cognition The mental activities involved in acquiring retaining and using knowledge 75What is syntax The rules that specify how things should be ordered 76What are morphemes Smallest unit of speech that convey meaning 77What are phonemes Smallest set of sounds that are the building blocks to all language 78What is telegraphic speech Speech that sounds like a telegram words arranged in an order than makes sense Ex quotmilkquotquotget milk 79What is classical conditioning Learning through establishing associations between different events and stimuli 80What is operant conditioning Behaviors are strengthened when followed by reinforcement and weakened by punishment 81Who was Pavlov Classical conditioning dog salivating with bell experiment 82Who was little albert Experiment involving classical conditioning 83What is an unconditioned stimulus Any stimulus that can evoke a response without any previous knowledge Ex Food 84Conditioned stimulus Former neutral stimulus after association with UCS Ex Bell 85Unconditioned response Response due to unconditioned stimulus Ex Salivating to food 86 Conditioned response Learned response to the CS Ex Salivating to the bell 87Neutral stimulus Stimulus tied with no response Ex Bell 88What is stimulus generalization Responses to stimulus that are similar to conditioned stimulus Ex Dog sits when you say quotsitquot quothitquot or quotbitquot 89What is stimulus discrimination Distinguishing the difference between a conditioned stimulus and other stimulus Ex Bells with different pitches 90What is spontaneous recovery Reappearance ofa response that has been extinguished occurring after a period ofnonexposure 91What is a positive reinforcer Stimulus which increases the frequency ofa behavior using positive rewards Ex Giving dog a treat for sitting 92Negative reinforcer Stimulus which increases the frequency ofa behavior by removing unpleasant stimulus Ex Dog avoids being spanked for sitting 93What is positive Punishment Stimulus which decreases frequency of behavior by adding stimulus Ex Speeding to work get a ticket wont speed 94What is negative punishment Stimulus which decreases frequency ofbehavior be taking away stimulus Ex Talk back to parents take away TV won t talk back 95Know the reinforcement schedules 0 Continuousreinforced every time it occurs best used during initial stages 0 FixedRatioreinforced every certain amount of responses high steady rate throughout VariableRatioreinforced after unpredictable number of responses gambling steady high rate 0 FixedIntervalreinforced after specified amount of timeslow at beginning fast at end 0 VariableIntervalreinforced after unpredictable amount of timeslow steady 96What is second order conditioning Stimulus that was neutral is paired with a CS to produce same CR as the CS would Grandmamoney her perfumemoney 97What are instincts Behavior that is genetically programmed into an entire species 98Drives Arises from a state ofneed and tension Ex Hungerneed foodtensioneat 99What is homeostasis Tendency to maintain a balanced internal state that is optimal for functioning Ex Having a fever body works to get back to normal 100 What is intrinsic motivation Trying to perform a behavior for its own sake Ex Work a job because it makes you happy not for the money 101 Extrinsic motivation Motivated to perform specific behaviors to achieve promised outside rewards Ex Graduate for money degree and job 102 What is selfactualization Reaching your fullpotential and have become all that you can be 103 What are emotions Response by a whole organism involving Physical Arousal Expressive Behaviors and Conscious Experience o 100 Shop Cynla 5kg 1 rm a sun 3 z 4 sup 5 0 4 596 U 45 55 0 4 656 1215 2025 H I la 8 in I miniquot m f 39i a W 393 39 33 3533 Ictlvlty IID39II Illa nu Mutual Blllnwnn lulu nl slam 51 M in Iontun hmthllg In up IM Occulonll donutc alum cum umiml nun drumming mlllll may Inlmy Bruin mumum mmmn mm dam Mmqu tom A 1 III In IIIct mo 1 Befme mndmamnq 2 Befmemndmamnq Fund 5mm Yumrvquk Nasa wamn Umde Unandmm mm t mm mm 3 mmmmm 4 nftevmndmamnq y y k s Wm imam mmnq Fund Sahvatmn mmnq favk Sahvatmn Mk unmndmnned auditioned auditioned mm Tha amus Hypoxhalamusl Amygdala HIDPOCampuS J Cerebeuum Eyehd Eyela shesyi 7 mm M AVIuscles Comea Opilc Pup News quot Eye Socke1 x z 5 12 Exam 4 Study Guide 1 READ THE CHAPTER 2 What is learning a A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience 3 Who was BF Skinner Ivan Pavlov John Watson Robert Rescorla Edward Thorndike a BF Skinner American psychologist who searched for the quotlawful processes that would explain quotorder in behaviorquot Was a behaviorist like Watson Studied operant conditioning b Ivan Pavlov 18491946 Russian physiologist one of the major contributors to the study of learning conducted the classical conditioning experiment with the salivating dogs c John Watson 18781958 psychologist who founded behaviorism emphasizing the observation of human behavior and rather than of subjective mental processes Little Albert experiments d Robert Rescorla r 39 39 039 who 39 39 that classically conditioned rats also assess the reliability of signalsstimuli Conducted the ratelectrocution experiment e Edward Thorndike first psychologist to systematically investigate animal learning and how voluntary behaviors are influenced by their consequences 4 Know Pavlov39s work that lead to Classical Conditioning 3 Before studying classical conditioning he was working with digestion He abandoned his work with that and devoted the next 30 years of his life to classical conditioning He began working with CC when he observed the dog salivating before he brought the food 5 What does quotelicitedquot in classical conditioning mean 3 Draw out or bring forth The stimulus doesn t produce a new behavior but rather causes an existing behavior to occur or be brought out 6 What is a NS CS UCS UCR CR Really know these and be able to label the different parts in descriptions of classical conditioning situations 3 NS Neutral Stimulus the controlled stimulus preceding the food ringing the bell before food It is neutral because the dog won t normally salivate to it b CS Conditioned Stimulus the formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response ringing of the bell after the dog has associated it with food c UCS Unconditioned Stimulus the natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning food in the dogs mouth d UCR Unconditioned Response the unlearned reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus dog s salivation e CR Conditioned Response the learned reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus dog s salivation to the sound of the bell 7 What is a learned response a The same thing as a conditioned response CR 8 What is spontaneous recovery 3 The appearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus dog resalivating to bell after period of restextinction 9 What is stimulus discrimination a The occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other similar stimulidog salivating to high pitched tone but not low pitch tone H O H H H Iquot H U H h H in H on H l H 9 What is stimulus generalization a The occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus but to other similar stimuli as well a higher pitched ringing still eliciting salivation What is extinction a The gradual weakening and apparent disappearance of conditioned behavior disappearance of dog salivating to the bell Occurs when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus bell repeatedly being run without food following it What is higher order conditioning Second order conditioning a A procedure in which a conditioned stimulus from one learning trial functions as the unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial the second conditioned stimulus comes to elicit the conditioned response even though it has never been directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus using another stimulus before ringing the bell and conditioning that to elicit salivation Know the quotLittle Albertquot experiment a Conducted by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner b Purpose to demonstrate that classical conditioning could be used to deliberately establish a conditioned response in a human subject c Procedure little Albert showed no fear when presented with a tame rat a dog and a monkey Fear was triggered in little Albert by a sudden loud noise UCS loud noise UCR fear Watson and Rayner attempted to condition Albert to fear the rat rat starts out as NS When the presentation of the rat is followed by the loud noise repeatedly little Albert then feared the rat rat is now CS d Results little Albert now feared not only the rat but other furry animals such as the dog as well as Watsons hair a fuzzy mask and a seal skin coat due to stimulus generalization What is latent learning a Tolman s term for learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement but is not behaviorally demonstrated until a reinforcer becomes available i Aka learning that becomes apparent only when there is incentive to demonstrate it What is biological preparedness a The idea that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli responses Who was John Garcia 3 One of the first researchers to experimentally demonstrate the existence of taste aversions and other exceptions to the general laws of classical conditioning Know the differences between Classical and Operant Conditioning 3 Classical conditioning explains the acquisition of many learned behaviors including emotional and physiological responses involving reflexive INVOLUNTARY behaviors that are automatically elicited by a specific stimulusoperant conditioning involves nonreflexive VOLUNTARY actions What is Thorndike39s Law of Effect Why is it important a A learning principle that responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation while responses followed by a dissatisfying effect are weakened and less likely to recur in a particular situation b It is an important first step in understanding how active voluntary behaviors can be modified by their consequences What was the purpose ofThorndike s Puzzle Box What did this research show a To see if animals using cats used reasoning to solve problems as humans do b His research showed that cats did not display any humanlike insight or reasoning in unlatching the puzzle box door but rather they learned as a process of trial and error Unsuccessful behaviors in the box were gradually eliminated 20 What does quotoperant meanquot a An actively emitted or voluntary behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences 21 What does reinforcement in operant conditioning mean a The occurrence of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelihood of that response being repeated 22 What is positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Positive punishment Negative punishment a Positive reinforcemen a situation in which a response is followed by the addition ofa reinforcing stimulus increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations b Negative reinforcement a situation in which a response results in the removal of avoidance of or escape from an aversive stimulus increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations c Positive punishment or punishment by application involves a response being followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus positive means that something is added or presented in the situation d Negative punishmen or punishment by removal the loss or withdrawal of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior negative meaning a stimulus is subtracted from the situation 23 What is the difference between a primary reinforce and a conditioned reinforce a Primar rein orcer a stimulus or event that is naturally or inherently reinforcing for a given species such as food water or other biological necessities b Conditioned rein orcer a stimulus or event that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforcer also called a secondary reinforcer 24 Know the schedules or reinforcement a Fixed Ratio reinforce behavior after a set number of responses every so many i Produces high rates of responding ii Ex buy 10 coffees get the 11 h free b Variable Ratio reinforce behavior after an unpredictable number of responses i Produces high rates of responding ii Ex slot machine gambling c Fixed Interval reinforce first response after a fixed time period every so often i Produces a choppy startstop pattern of responding ii Ex cramming for test checking for snail mail d Variable Interval reinforce the first response after varying time intervals unpredictably often i Produces slow steady responding ii Ex checking for email 25 What is shaping a The operant of 39 39 39 39 39 g 39 39 closer approximations of a goal behavior until the goal behavior is displayed i u llll d J a 27 What was BFSkinner s view on human behavior a That it is determined and controlled by the stimuli that are present in a given situation and that it is not determined by personal choice or conscious decision Instead it is determined by environmental stimuli and the person s reinforcement history in that environment 28 What is a Skinner Box How was it used a The experimental apparatus invented by B F Skinner to study the relationship between environmental events and active behaviors 39 liii39iiir39ii i J U H U N U U U 5 U3 U1 W on U l w 9 LO LO a What is the relationship between the different schedules of reinforcement and extinction a Fixed ratio not likely to cause extinction b Variableratio not likely c Fixedinterval extinction begins and spontaneous recovery happens cl Variableinterval more likely to cause extinction Who was Edward Tolman a He firmly believed that cognitive processes played an important role in the learning of complex behaviors b Much of his research involved rats going through mazes i Believed the rats developed a cognitive map of the maze What is learned helplessness a A phenomenon in which exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior What is biological preparedness a The idea that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli responses Know the Bobo doll research a Children watched a film showing an adult aggressively playing with the Bobo Doll If they saw the adult rewarded with candy or experience no consequences the children were much more likely to imitate the behavior than if they saw the adult punished for the aggressive behavior What is observational learning a Learning that occurs through observing the actions of others What are mirror neurons What do they do a Neurons in the frontal lobe that fire when performing certain actions or observing others perform those actions i They enable imitation and empathy ii Underlie humans social nature Who was Albert Bandura a Conductor of the Bobo Doll Experiment exploring observational learning in children What can happen if adolescent what a great number of television programs that have violence or high sexual content a Teens who watched a high level of sexual content shows were more likely to get pregnant or get a partner pregnant b They can be more likely to exude violent behavior M N N 9 t O o D I D I D I D I D I 0 LII J W N l What is cholecystokinin CCKHormone in What are instincts When were they first studiedBehaviors that are genetically programmed into a species 1870s by Wilhelm Wundt What is intensity in motivationConcentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal What is persistence inmotivationContinued effort toward a goal What is activation in motivationDecision to initiate a behavior What are humanistic theories of motivationHave free will and aren t simply fated to behave in speci c ways how and why humans experience things Ex Reach self actualization What are instinct theoriesMotivated to behave in certain ways because evolutionarily pro grammed to Ex Seasonal migration for animals What are drive theoriesMotivated to take certain actions in order to reduce tension caused by unmet needs Ex Motivated to drink water if you are thirsty Flaw Not always physiological needs What is homeostasisNeed balance in life when things are out of order it causes problems and you try to x it Ex Having a fever body tries to return to normal temp to be back in order What is self actualizationBecoming all that you can be reaching your full potential Few people do it What is glucosePrimary energy for brain performs work of thoughts and behaviorilow glucose decrease in selfcontrol memory and perhaps performance on difficult tasks What is insulinHormone that has extensive effects on metabolism and other body functions causes cells in liver fat and muscle to take glucose from blood and use as energy What is ghrelinHormone lining the stomach that stimulate appetite increase before meals and decrease after counterpart of leptin 39sy tem l quot for quot 39 quot the r r S digestion of fat and protein secreted in rst section duodenum of small intestine What is leptinProtein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and spending regulates appetite and metabolism Binds to hypothalamus when you are full no leptin geneconstant eating What is setpoint theoryEveryone s body has a genetically determined range of weight and temperature that body will maintain to stay at optimal health What is sensation seekingTendency to pursue sensory pleasure and excitement trait of people who go after novelty complexity and intensity Thrill seekers amp risk takers What is achievement motivationIndividuals need to meet realistic goals receive feedback and experience sense of accomplishment Ex Having deadlines at work evaluations bonuses What is arousal motivationPeople take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousal Ex When low do something exciting When high relax or do something calming What motivates us to eatGhrelin hits the hindbrain sensation of hunger hypothalamus rate of metabolism and mesolimbic reward center pleasure and satisfaction from food What is cognitionAll mental activities associated with thinking knowing and remembering Ideas thoughts and memories are cognitive processes What is an algorithmSet of instructions for solving a problem or completing a problem Step by Step HeuristicA rule of thumb learned way to make judgments and solve problems Ex Coming to a stop sign you need to stop or you ll get a ticketiwhen you see a stop sign you automatically stop What are conceptsMental grouping of similar events things and people that is used to remember what things are what they mean and group they belong in Ex Someone says car you picture a car and what it does and its purpose What is the single feature modelMaking a decision by focusing on only one feature Ex Picking a shirt solely based on color What is the additive model Systematically evaluate the important features of each alternative What is problem solving Mental process that involves discovering analyzing and solving problems Ultimate goal to overcome obstacles and nd solution What is the representativeness heuristicCognitive bias in which an individual categorizes a situation based on a pattern of previous experience or beliefs Ex Coin ips head 3 straight times biased to believe it will be tails 4m when in reality odds are the same What is the Elimination by aspects modelRate choices based on features eliminate those that do not meet the desired criteria despite other desirable characteristics What is the availability modelHow easily something that you ve seen or heard can be accessed in your memory Tend to think of things remembered as more important than things not remembered easily What is mental imageryExperiences that significantly resemble the experience of perceiving some object event or scene but it is not actually there Ex Daydreaming What are prototypesBest example or cognitive representation of something within a certain category What are exemplarsPerson or thing serving as an example or excellent model What is a mental setTendency to approach situations the same way because that way worked in the past Ex Always pushing a door even though some may be pull What is a formal conceptConcept that is clearly defined by a set of rules formal definition or classi cation system Also known as an arti cial concept What is a natural conceptConcept acquired through everyday perceptions and experiences not through de nition Also known as a fuzzy concept What is insight Sudden and often realization of the solution to a problem What is intuitionPersons capacity to obtain or have direct knowledge and or get insight without observation or reason Ex Coach plays backup over starter because they had a hunch What is thinkingManipulation of mental representations to draw inferences and conclusions What is functional xednessWhen something is thought of only in terms of its functionality Narrow and limited often inhibits problem solving process What is con rmation biasTendency for a person to search for information that confirms one s preconceptions What is languageFormal system of communication which involves words symbols whether written or spoken as well as some rules that govern them What are symbols in languageCultural representations of reality represent different experiences and perceptions What is syntaxRules that specify how words should be ordered in a sentence to make it meaningful What is a phoneme Smallest set of sounds that are the building blocks to all spoken language No meaning when isolated MorphemeSmallest unit of speech that convey meaning Ex Work dog NOT worked or dogs Know the ages children begin to coo babble speakCooing3 months babbling6 months speaking9 H1011 S What are emotionsResponse involving physical arousal expressive behaviors and conscious experience Know the theories of emotions JamesLange You see an external stimulus that leads to a physiological reaction 0 CannonBard We feel emotions and experience physiological reactions such as sweating trembling and muscle tension simultaneously Suggests that emotions result when thalamus sends a message to the brain SchacterSinger Known as the twofactor theory physiological arousal occurs first then individual must identify the reason behind the arousal in order to experience and label it as an emotion What are microexpressionsFacial expression that lasts a fraction of a second Type of nonverbal communication go unrecognized in everyday life


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