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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kole Corwin on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY at Indiana University taught by Scott Thompson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/233463/psy-indiana-university in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Stereotypes Beliefs that we hold about people simply because of their group membership Group membership infers people in that group posses some trait characteristic Discrimination Behavior directed towards someone because of their group membership Prejudice Feelings negative expressed towards someone because of their group membership All of us hold stereotypes what differentiates us is some of us are discriminatoryprejudice and some are not Development of Stereotypes Social learning Most came from our parents that began at a very early age Suggests stereotypes are very well engrained Media is notorious for contributing to development of stereotypes Peers amp self experience Cognitive Processes 0 Social categorization Classify sort people based upon some common attribute I Prototypes Most representative schema for a particular social category Helps make future judgments about who fits in the category and who doesn t I IngroupOutgroup Distinctions Ingroup is the group in which you identify the outgroup is the group you do not identify with I Outgroup homogeneity bias All members of the outgroup are the same 0 Color of eyes video I Children turned into vicious children Perpetuation of Stereotypes Illusory correlations A correlation you think would be true but actually isn t Our tendency to overestimate the relationship between two variables when in fact there is little or no relationship between the variables 0 Group Membership and a Trait 0 Example All Blondes are Dumb o Confrrmatory evidence Seeks con rmation and ignores the information that does not represent the stereotype 0 Sorted tests by hair color all blondes on the test did the worst 0 Mock Jury Trial Bodenhausen his lab looks exactly like a court room 0 24 yr old male accused of aggravated assault I Either Carlos Ramirez or Robert Johnson I Trying to activate a stereotype Hispanic 0 Selective Processing Hypothesis Once the stereotype is activated people selectively tend to information that is congruent with the stereotype 0 Types of Evidence I Neutral Defendants father has been in the hospital the last four days I Exonerating None of the witnesses could positively identify the defendant I Incriminating Defendant and victim were seen arguing before the assault 0 Is he guilty And what sentence Carlos Robert Beginning More likely to be guilty End Inhibiting Stereotypical Perceptions 0 Availability of personal information Find out stuff about them as individuals The more information you know about them the less likely for stereotypes 0 Cognitive abilities Automatic vs Controlled processing 0 Stereotypes and personal beliefs 0 Prejudiced Person Much overlap between stereotype and personal belief I Run into an African American the stereotype is automatic the person belief is controlled However since there is much overlap between the two there is not much difference o NonPrejudiced Not much overlap between stereotype and personal belief I Takes effort to control your thoughts and use your personal beliefs We can have a stereotype and not be prejudiced 0 Study of AntiSemitism 0 American Jewish Committee 0 AntiSemitism Scale 0 Ethnocentrism Scale 0 People who are prejudice tend to be prejudice towards several groups not just one o RightWing Political Attitudes F Scale I Came from homes extremely punitive punishing I Extremely critical always finding fault I Authoritarian o 3 Different parenting styles Authoritative have rules love unconditionally care about what you want to be Authoritarian Punitive love you conditionally they will set your path Permissive let you do whatever you want Prejudice Negative feelings towards someone for their group membership 0 Contributing personality factors Authoritarian personality 1 Conventional value systems 2 Rigid thinking 3 Intolerant of people who are different 0 Contributing situational factors Robbers Cave Experiment 1 22 Boys were white 2 Above average IQs III 3 Came from upper socioeconomic status homes 4 All Christian 5 Performed upper 25 of class Ingroup formation a Rattlers b Eagles Intergroup Friction 7 game competition win and take all a Eagles wins first game tug of war and go down to go swimming skinny dipping Rattlers steal their ag and clothes b Eagles go to Rattlers camp and destroy their things and burn their ag Reduction of intergroup con ict a Phase 1 Social contacts b Phase 2 Super ordinate goals Outcomes a Rattlers choices for Eagle friends 64 gt 364 b Eagles choice for Rattler friends 75 gt 233 Realistic con ict theory competition for limited resources is suf cient to breed hostility and prejudice Relative deprivation Person s belief they lack a desired resource in comparison to members of their outgroup Egoistic deprivation I as an individual believe that I lack a desired resource in comparison to the out group Fraternal deprivation My entire in group lacks a desired resource in comparison to an out group leads to prejudice Social identity theory Each of us tries to enhance our self esteem o SelfConcept 0 Group Membership Take pride in being in a successful group 0 Derogation Thinking we are more successful We belittle the outgroup We feel superior Prejudice amp religion Inverse relationship Religious people are more prejudice 0 Motivation I Extrinsic Those that are extrinsically motivated to be religious have affiliated themselves in religion for an alternate reason want a better job a better neighborhood school system They have no interest in what the religion really teaches them Tend to be a whole lot more prejudice Intrinsic Truly believe the teachings of their religion Incorporate those teachings into their self concept a part of who they are 0 Targeted outgroup If you are an intrinsically motivated Christian you have prejudice towards groups like homosexuality o F scale biased upon IQ o RWA Right wing authoritarian scale Trait Superstitious 84 Lazy 75 Ignorant 3 8 Musical 26 Stupid 22 Do these traits belong to a certain set of people black people Blatantly negative stereotype Would you be willing to admit a black person to My club as a friend 51 My street as a neighbor 41 My family by marriage 0 Collectively expresses discrimination The closer the proximity the greater the discnmzha t1390h OldFashion Racism Characterized by anger contempt and hatred o 1930 Black man graduated college and applied to law school University of Maryland does not accept black people 1936 Graduated from law school and hired as chief legal counsel for NWAACP Part of his job is to travel around the country and intervene in judicial cases where it looked like racism was going to be a factor 0 1939 Southern Mississippi Black man accused of violent crime of white women He had been lynched 0 Later started towards sandwich stand should he approach from front or rear He went to the front a large white man came to approach him What are you doing boy The sun has never set on a live nigger in this town before 60 years later same trait test was given 1993 Superstitious 1 Lazy 5 Ignorant 5 Musical 12 Stupid 0 Racism is not an issue any longer Willing to admin blacks to Club Street Family 96 95 74 Modern racism Egalitarian values Believes everyone regardless of color should be treated equally Sympathy for anyone who has been recipient of discrimination Prejudice Stereotypes Fueled by media White Males 46 White Females 53 Black Males 99 Black Females 94 0 Modern day racist will look at the unemployment numbers above and say that black people are not working hard enough 0 Modern day racist will exhibit avoidance Social Desirability Society is not racist Sexism 0 Gender stereotypes Ascribing traits to someone because they are male or female 0 Boys will excel in mathscience 0 Girls in language 0 Genderrole orientation Belief that certain traits apply only to malesfemales Masculinity Femininity o Agentic vs communal occupations Agentic Occupations We think men are more suited for Getting things done Building things xing broken things managing people Have more power Communal Occupations Women are better suited for Relationships with other people Average woman makes 511 a week Average man makes 672 a week Sexism Prejudicial feelings and discriminatory behavior based on the presumed Ambivalent sexism Much like modern day racism both have a positive and a negative aspect Hostile sexism Negative resentful feelings towards women and women s attempts to achieve quality Players have a certain sense of intimacy To a man a woman can be a wife a caregiver etc Benevolent sexism Characterized by positive affective feelings towards women Person Iturn to mother of my children etc Based upon the belief women need and deserve affection o Sexism amp the media Women and the ad video o Stereotypes of groups will affect behavior those groups They start ful lling the stereotype o Perceived African Americans Intelligent Ability Inferiority of woman 0 Gender Stereotypes Words are made masculine and feminine 0 Men La Computadora Stereotype Threat Acting in a way that is consistent with the negative stereotype of one s in group 0 Difficult challenging or frustrating tasks 0 Regardless of whether the group members believes the stereotypes o Disidentification If I begin to disengage if I no longer participate I will eventually no longer identify myself that way 0 Member of a stereotypical group and the stereotype is known not to do well Women do not do as well stereotype is activated it is a difficult task adds 0 to anxiety Performance goes down As it continues to go down you start to identify less and less 0 Disengagement If you are active in a stereotypical group you may become disengaged from a particular role