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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kole Corwin on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY at Indiana University taught by Scott Thompson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/233463/psy-indiana-university in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Module 5 Social Influence Refers to the way in which people are affected by the real or imagined pressures by other people Conformity Tendency to change our perceptions our opinions and our behaviors as the result of those real or imagined group pressures or the result of social norms Most of us would like to think of ourselves as non conformists We would like to think of ourselves as a distinct entity In trying to be different we are like everyone else Conformity affects our life s everyday Sitcoms Ex Friends It s always sunny The Office9 These are funny because out of the ordinary things happen 9 There is also a laugh track impliedimagined pressures to make you believe other people also find the show funny Bars 9 Tip jars normally begin with money in it to make people believe others have tipped Classic studies in conformity SherIf s autokinetic study Study on beam of light There is a darkened room and a momentary display ofa clot Asked to do it 100 repetitions The 1St guess they will say the light is at 6 inch 2nd guess is 10 inches etc At the end of 100 trials their guesses are less variable 0 Autokinetic phenomenon A beam of light in a completely darkened room has a phenomenon of movement There is no perceptual reference point to judge movement The next day you join a group of people who have done this before A lot o ifinitial disagreement Over 100 trials there is a development ofa group norm 0 Moral When there is uncertainty people are influenced by each others judgments The more uncertainty the more influence 0 Informational Influence 9 Private conformity 0 When there is a group who has never performed the study they conform to a group norm a lot sooner 0 Rodney King Arrest 0 Jury consists of all whites and 1 Hispanic Virgina Loya She went in and was convinced the four white police officers were guilty The jury resulted in an aquittle She was convinced by the 11 other jurors o Asch s line judgment study Seating with a group of confederates They show you a standard line and a box of comparison lines 0 First two trials are no problem The real subject is the sixth person to answer Everyone goes around the table and gives the right answer 0 Last 12 trials The first 5 confederates give the wrong answer 0 37 of all participants go along with the rest of the group even though they know it s wrong 0 Normative Influence 9 Public Conformity Why Conform Types of social influence 0 Informational We are influenced by the assumption that other people who are in agreement must be correct Results in private conformity o Normative Being influenced by our fear of being rejected or appearing deviant Influenced by our desire to gain approval Results in public conformity Types of conformity 0 Private A change in our overt behavior and also a change in what we privately believe to be true Public Change in our overt behavior but privately we hang out to our previous believes No internal change Elevator Study People are standing towards the back or to the side 0 Normative Public conformity Turkey Fact The male turkey is called a tom the female turkey is called a hen Factors influencing conformity 0 Group size As group size increased conformity increased but only to a point 0 Law of diminishing returns At about 5 or 6 people 0 Campbell and Fdirey decided this is only true part ofthe time I Normative Influence has a linear relationship between group size and conformity I Informational Influence tops off at about 5 6 people 0 Salience of social norms implied pressures of other people If we can make those social norms more noticeable conformity will increase 0 Goldini Wants people to conform to the behavior of littering Handbills are under windshield wipers at a parking garage I You either come out and see people littering the handbills or people taking them over and throwing them in the trash I In addition to seeing the behavior of other people you also notice ifthere is already trash on the ground Trash already on the ground implies social norm is to litter Littering Not Littering Littered Most Likely to Conform Not Littered Socialsupport If you disagree with a group is it easier to stand alone or with someone else It is easier to stand in opposition when you have a dissenting ally o The line study the partner disagrees with the group allowing the participant to really state their own answer The partner does not necessarily have to agree with you Group cohesiveness The higher the group cohesiveness the more conformity There is a normative influence There is also an argument that it is an informational influence The people you are closely knit with must be correct 0 age Teenagers identity crisis 0 Factors influencing nonconformity 0 Theory of psychological reactance Some of the time we believe that we are entitled to certain behavioral freedoms We are entitled to behave the way we want to When someone tries to preventrestrict that we rebeL o Desire for personal control I Low DPC Most likely to conform I Hi DPC Least likely to conform I Study by Berger 0 Asked to look at a cartoon strip 1 100 how funny it is Low DPC Hi DPC Alone 437 463 Group 732 621 o Confederates rate between 70 100 0 Hi DPC does not make you IMMUNE to social conformity just makes us less likely to conform Compliance The result of explicit commands People actually asking you up front to do something Click turning on a switch a request whirr gears start turning engaging in behaviors without thinking Automated Behavioral Response The noise a baby turkey makes elicits the mother turkey s behavior Polecat Member ofthe weasel family A natural predator ofturkeys If a polecat represents a momma turkey and its baby chicks the momma turkey will try to defend her chicks m Killed a polecat put it in a room with a mother turkey and the turkey got all riled up and attacked the polecat Fox then put a cassette in the polecat with the quotcheap cheap recording When he brought the polecat in the room the turkey tried to nurse it Egg Grad students asking to cut in the middle or the end of the line 1 Excuse me I have 5 pages to copy may I cut in front of you to use the copy machine About 60 comply 2 Excuse me I have 5 pages to copy may I cut in front of you because I am running late About 94 comply 3 Excuse me I have 5 pages to copy may I cut in front of you because I have 5 pages to copy About 97 comply People stopped listening after the word because Because is the quotclickquot Sequential request strategies Involve more than one step 0 Footinthedoor Two step compliance technique The anticipated compliance to a very large request is preceded by a much smaller and reasonable requestl o Freedmon amp Frazier Study Approached homeowners in middleclassupper middleclass I They asked quotAs a public service act can we put a 4x6 billboard in your front yard that says please drive safelyquot 16 complied They asked quotAs a public service act can we put a 3 square in your front window that says please drive safelyquot 2 Weeks later Can I put a 4x6 billboard in your front yard 76 complied 0 One of the most reliable compliance techniques used 0 Will not work if they say no first Selfperception theory You are going to reflect on your previous behavior We observe our own behavior and from those observations we observe something about ourselves quotI agree because of the kind of person I am 9 Dispositional Factor 0 Kids under the age of six do not partake in self perception Lowballing Securing your agreement to something and once there is compliance increase the cost of the agreement 0 People try to justify the increase in cost 0 Commitment The Sales person by getting you to initial all of the papers human behavior suggests you won t back down on additional requests Doorintheface Anticipated compliance to a very smallreasonable request is preceded by a very large unreasonable request 0 Ex Would you be willing to play big brothersister to an unprivileged child by spending one day a weekend each weekend for a year 9 0 Comply 0 Ex Would you be willing to spend one afternoon taking them to the 200 9 17 Complied when asked first 50 Complied when doorinthe face 0 Perceptual contrast If I take something and place it next to something very large it is perceived as being smaller than it really is o Reciprocal concession When they back down and offer something smaller I should now entertain the small request Obedience to authority Someone s willingness to conform to demands of an authority even when it violates their sense of what is right Delaware is Closed Destructive obedience Willingness to conform to the demands of an authority that results in harm to another person Violates our sense of what is morally right Background 0 Stanley Milgram Hired into Yale He has never done an experiment in his life 0 Will a person hurt another person simply because he or she is ordered to do so 21 Obedient studies Each one demonstrates what contributes to obedience to authority Article in Paper Public Announcement wants people needed for a study of memory Willing to pay 400 for one hour Does not want college students It an experiment in learning and the effects of punishment on learning Two people show up picked to be the learner or the teacher 0 O O Learner Learns a list of paired words Teacher Gives first half of word pair gives 4 options for the second half of word pair 15 volts to 450 volts on a shock generator Film from experiment number 5 quotHeart Conditionquot I 17 out of 40 people exhibit some degree of laughter I 3 out or 40 break out into full blown hysterical laughter Experimenter Prompts I quotPlease Continue quotYou have no other choice you must go onquot etc Predicted Outcomes I 1039 everyone would quit by 75v I 2439 everyone would quit by 150v I 539 everyone would quit by 300v s Fred the typical or atypical subject Typica 2740 subjects pushed the 450v switch Results exper 1 No screaming or heart condition I 2440 continued to the end 65 Voltage No of Defectors 360 435 2 345 1 330 2 315 4 300 5 0 Results exper 2 quotVoice Feedbackquot Obedience remains 65 2540 No one quit under 300 Volts 0 Results exper 3 quotProximity TeacherLearning in same room I Obedience drops to 40 1640 0 Results exper 4 quotProximity Touchquot Teacher puts learner on metal plate 150v starts refusing cooperation I Obedience drops to 30 1240 1040 quit well below 300V 0 Study was of all men but one women most a wide cross range of the population 0 basic paradigm o baseline results the obedient sub39ect 0 age Mostly above college level age but one subject is specifically male undergraduate college students found no difference obedience remained 0 Gender Exper 8 Obedience remains at 65 2640 however 1040 women quit before 300V 0 Karen walked in and said quotDon t expect a lot out of me I am just an ordinary person she went to 450V 0 Gretchen at 260V adamantly refused to continue quotI am donequot 0 authoritarian personality More likely to finish study situational factors missed get notes from Megan for physical and institutional 0 physical proximity O institutional authority Exper 10 Obedience dropped but not significantly 0 Authority ofexperimenter Exper 7 quotnot physically present John Williams the experimenter says I will be in the next room and I will communicate via an intercom Obedience dropped to 20 940 0 Exper 13 quotOrdinary Person two real subjects appears one plays role of teacher one of experimenter Obedience dropped to about 20 420 0 personalresponsibility o Tilker 1970 Replicates Milgram s experiment There is a teacher a learner an observer The real subject plays the role of an observer Observer is placed in three conditions told teacher has complete responsibility for welfare of learner told that he and the teacher share responsibility of welfare or he is told that he has complete responsibility for the welfare of the learner The observer can stop the experiment whenever he needs to I The more responsibility the more likely the observer stops the responsibility 0 presence of allies Exper 18 quotPresence of allies o 4 additional quotsubjectsquot arrive 0 quotGroup Teachers 9 Only one real subject the person who plays the role of teacher the other four teachers are confederates I 2 Confederates should withdraw at 150v I The other 2 should withdraw at 210v I Obedience drops significantly 9 Asch s study of conformity Milgram s theoretical account No one got up and walked away despite the fact that they could leave without consequence for the money Milgram has two theories to why this occurs 0 Socialization of obedience Through the course of our development we are taught that obedience is a good thing 0 Value Obedience parents military school etc 0 Respect legitimacy of authority figure 0 Expect someone will be in charge 0 Entrapment and escalation Can apply quotfoot in the doorquot technique starting with smaller vaults working your way up 0 Arguments Made 0 Relationship between Subject and Experimenter is unique The argument is the relationship between average Fred and Stanley Milgram is a unique one Fred does not know the rules of behavior He is much more susceptible to obedience o Manipulated embarrassed and inflicted intentional discomfort on these people 0 Subjects emotional disturbances were not removed prior to leaving lab 0 Any benefit to humanity was not justified o No parallel to Nazi Germany Milgram Replies 0 Stress amp discomfort neither intended nor deliberate o Criticisms based on unexpected findings 0 Subjects were debriefed along with follow up questionnaires I If you had the chance to participate in a similar study would you do so 9 44 very glad 40 glad to do again I 3 Months Out every subject comes back to be clinically assessed 0 Useful starting point Yes I understand what happened in the lab took less than an hour and Nazi Germany was 10 years but it s a good starting point historical amp alv quot o Is the study of obedience still applicable to our lives Yes o Mach 1968 9 US was in Vietnam War Intelligent reports that a large number of enemy troops were in a town called My Lai in Vietnam Success in the war was measured by daily body counts I They were told any civilian in the town will be gone in the morning and anyone left was the enemy I 730 AM 9 Army helicopters arrived south of My Lai I 800 Started entering village and executing everybody o In the end 504 people were killed none of them were the enemy All three examples were military stories May 11 2004 Officer Scott called Donna Summers on the phone a manager of McDonalds Officer Scott told her over the phone that one of her employees stole a purse Donna says that the description fit one of her 19 year old employees to a T You can either bring her downtown or you can take her to the office and interrogate her there 0 Remove all of your clothing one piece at a time 0 Get up on a desk and jump up and down 0 After an hour and a half Donna told Officer Scott she had to leave Donna s husband came down to take her place 0 She had to kiss him to see if anything was on her lips dance naked in front of him 0 Officer told Walter to make her give him head She refused and he beat her bottom red until she complied 0 Officer Scott achieved the same thing from Florida to 50 fast food chains He wasn t even real
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