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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kole Corwin on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY at Indiana University taught by Scott Thompson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/233463/psy-indiana-university in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
9209 9409 9709 Social Perception Process by which we understand and try to explain other people Social Self William James Response to Who am I William James wrote the first psychology book father of American Psychology bodyself Material Self What kind of car you drive etc inner self Spiritual Self Opinions social self Interpersonal Self How we define ourselves in terms of relationships to other people or social roles that we occupy o SelfConcept totality of believes that an individual holds about him or herself also referred to as selfknowledge o SelfPresentation o Selfesteem Self Concept Selfschemas mental representation of a particular aspect of our self Contributes to the big picture of self concept Primarily refer to personality traits Also social identities I am intelligent I am a daughter to my parents Possible selves those self schemas we have no experience with that refer to the future Can represent our hopes and goals and fears Working selfconcept when one particular schema is dominant at a particular time 0 Right now my working selfconcept is being a student sel scbematrc VS sel ascbematrc o Selfschematic Those are important to you or those you have had a lot of experience with SelfAschematic Those that are not important to you or those you have had little experience with Selfcomplexity when we describe ourselves we have intricate self concepts 9209 9409 9709 0 development of selfconcept Bill amp John twin Movie selfperception theory When internal cues are week or ambiguous we gain self knowledge by observing our own behavior 0 What do you like to eat when you go out 0 Observe your own behavior when you go out to restaurants 0 A man s heart rate was measured and traced to an audible sound system so he can hear his own heart beat He was then asked to go through a stack of naked women At the end they asked which women he liked the best he answered by recalling which heart beat was the fastest The kicker is the sound was not their real heart beat other s perception Cooley referred to as looking glass self 0 Looking to hearsee the response of other people 0 What we think other people think about us physical reality How do we appear in front of the mirror 0 We identify ours self malefemale color of skin eyes height etc o Takes on meaning when we compare to other people 0 To me he is tall social comparison We evaluate our own abilities and de ne our own self concept by comparing ourselves to other people 0 Social Desirability Received a 75 on atest and the mean is 59 0 Initially we try to compare ourselves to everybody o Upward Social Comparison Comparing someone higher than our own ability my painting compared to Picasso Will make you feel awfuldepressed o Downward Social Comparison Comparing to someone who has a lower ability than we do Not a fair comparison Autobiographical memories William James Our self concept is dependent on our ability to remember what it feels like to be us 9209 9409 9709 Remembering significant events in our life Autobiographical memories change and are not accurate 0 SelfReference effect We have a tendency to remember information that is relevant to ourselves more so than information that is not relevant to ourselves 0 Example Study by Rogers 0 100 words are placed in front of a screen for you to read Each word is followed by l of 4 types of questions o SelfRelevance Question Are you Happy 0 Semantic Question Does the word Kind mean the same thing as Mean 0 Phonemic Question Does blue rhyme with glue 0 Physical Properties is the word big in uppercase letters 0 Participants were able to recall 30 of self relevance questions 13 Semantic 7 Phonemic 3 Physical o Overestimate the significance of our roles or contributions in past events 0 Revisionism Distorted memories Grandma and walking to class 9 miles in snow Self Esteem Overall self evaluation a generalized feeling of self worth self acceptance goodness and selfrespect o Selfdiscrepancy theory Any difference between how you want to be seen and how you think you ought to be seen Reality vs Ideality 0 You want to be a 38 student in reality you are only a 368 student Will lower self esteem o The larger the discrepancy the larger drop in self esteem o Are you aware of the discrepancy 9209 9409 9709 selfawareness Self focused attention leads people to notice self discrepancy There are certain situations that will temporarily make you more self focused being on stage first date etc o How much time do you think you spend thinking about yourself 0 About 10 of your time 0 Some people are more habitually self focused selfconsciousness Personality trait that causes people to habitually focus attention on themselves Private Someone who spends a lot of time focused on your own internal thoughts beliefs and feelings Public Not concerned with your own internal feelings thoughts and beliefs You are concerned what other people think about you Thinking we are above average raises self esteem We like to feel good about ourselves selfenhancement strategies selfserving cognitions Most common self enhancement strategy To view ourselves favorably To think we are good If you fail it s not my fault it is something external If I succeed it is because I studied really hard selfhandicapping Engaging in some behavior that will provide for some excuse for a future failure I Males Most common form is Drinking I Females Psychological excuses basking in re ected glory Self enhancement strategy where we increase our self esteem by associating ourselves with people who achieve success Football team wins we won football team loses they lost downward social comparison Comparing yourself to someone with lower ability falseconsensus effect Our tendency to overestimate the commonality of our failures or our undesirable behaviors I failed a test Everyone else in the class failed 9209 9409 9709 false uniqueness effect Underestimate the commonality of our successes Get an A on the test I am the only one who got an A on the exam 0 SelfPresentation Any behavior undertaken with the intent to create modify or maintain an impression of ourselves in the minds of others impression managing I Me Presentation of Self in E veryda yLiTe Goffman o offstage private self how we behave when we are by ourselves o Onstage public self how we behave when we are with others we want to convey a favorable impression makeup perfume clothes tanning etc o Motives I Facilitate social interaction I Gain material and social rewards I SelfConstriction adolescents seeing how people react to your own behaviors and either ditching those behaviors or incorporating those behaviors into your self concept 0 SelfMonitoring the degree to which people maintain and control their behavior to meet the demands of a social situation it is not a pure personality trait but it is a motivational orientation we are all motivated to move along the low to high continuum in different social situations for any given social situation HIGH sel monitors try to figure out the prototype for that situation and mold their behavior to match that they use information from other people to guide their own behavior actors politicians teachers LOWsel monitors see themselves as very principle people they value consistency between who they are and how they behave priests judges artists
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