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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/01/15
William James is the father of modern psychology final exam Homarus Americanus Main Lobster has sex once a year end ofJuly when the water temperature is 54 degrees Lobsters also shed their shells Female controls who is going to have sex and who is not Female initiates by peeing with pheromones She will mate with the biggest and the strongest She will not mate with her siblings or cousins Quantitative Theories of Love Whatever liking is whatever love is love is just an exaggeration of liking If liking is a beer love is a quart of tequila Unidimensional model they both exist 0 Interpersonal attraction O O A desire to be physically close to another person A tendency to evaluate that person in a positive way Reinforcementtheory Cott and Cott We will be attracted to a person if we receive reinforcement or a reward in the presence of that person Reinforcement leads to liking Associational affect model When we receive a rewardreinforcement that leads to positive affect we associate positive affect with the receipt of reinforcement That positive affect is what causes liking Social exchange theory Homan Borrows from economic theory We are attracted to people that are the most rewarding the least costly and have the best value Used car approach of mating O O O O Rewards Sex happiness trust understanding companionship Costs Fights conflict loss of independence Outcomes Rewards Costs Would like the outcome to be a high positive number Outcome does not deflate satisfaction Just because you have a large positive number does not mean you are happysatisfied Comparison levels The avg outcome of all previous relationships Outcome Comparison Level satisfaction Comparison levels for alternatives The anticipated average outcome of all future relationships Satisfaction current CL alternatives Commitment to current relationship Two flaws in social exchange theory I Can you accurately assess comparison levels Equity theory Two people in a dyad will be most satisfied when the proportion of rewards to costs is relatively the same for both people 0 Argues that people want to maximize their rewardsoutcomes We want the rewards to be greater than the costs 0 Distressed by inequality 0 Attempt to restore equality 3 ways I Restoring actual equity Try to balance out by receiving more rewardsreducing costsor reduce the other person s rewards I Restoring psychological equity I Leave o What constitutes rewardscosts o Intrinsic Characteristics of the other person Attractive funny intelligent hard working 0 Behavior expressed by other person towards you Comfort encouragement physical behaviors 0 Access to external resources Social circles prestige money etc 0 Quantitative theories talks a lot about liking Qualitative Theories of Love Whatever liking is and love is they are two separate entities o attachment theory Hazan and Shaver We extend the child attachment to our quotloversquot 0 Secure Lover Person who finds it very easy to get close to other people emotionally and physically Comfortable with the idea of depending on another person Do not worry about abandonment and tend to share their feelings and thoughts People who enjoy social interaction with another person in an intimate way 0 Avoidant Lover Not a person comfortable being with other people tend not to trust other people Very nervous when people get really close o Anxious Ambivalent Constantly worries that someone doesn t love them Tend to be extremely jealous and obsessive Have an intense desire for reciprocity ifthey give something they want something back Child Attachment Theories 0 Secure o Insecure I Avoidant Hates mommy for leaving I Anxious Ambivalent Don t really know how they are going to respond crazy children Colors oflove theory We have preferences for color and preferences for love Our styles of love change 0 primary colors I Eros God of Love shot you in the eyes the next person you saw was the person you loved Based upon the physical attributes of the other person I Ludus Latin from play or game Tend to be a person who likes to have simultaneous multiple partners I Storge Greek work describing relationships between siblings and friends A very non passionate non committal liking o quotsecondary colors I Mania Extremely exciting and arousing very intense Often characterized by jealousy and obsession I Pragma Root word for pragmatic Have a shopping list approach to who you want I Agape Based in Christian tradition loves other people un conditionally triangular theory of love Sternberg 0 components I Intimacy Has nothing to do with sexual or physical attraction The sense of connectedness or bondedness with the other person How much you share your thoughtsfeelingshopes I Passion Motivational source of arousal that leads to physical and sexual attraction I Commitment 0 Decision Yes I love this other person 0 Commitment to this person and to this relationship 0 types of love I Nonlove None of the components Liking Intimacy No long term commitment no passion Infatuated Love Passion Love sickness crush puppy love Intense physiological arousal Empty Love Commitment Long term commitment to one another but for a reason no passion or intimacy Athird party has arranged the marriage Stay together for the kids Romantic Love Intimacy and Passion Can develop in two ways 0 Can become infatuated with someone and make that survive long enough so intimacy can start to develop 0 Start from friendship I Companionate Love Commitment and Intimacy One of the partners is not able to engage Crippled etc I Fatuous Love Passion and Commitment Shotgun weddings Spring break relationships I Consummate Love Passion Commitment Intimacy Newlyweds Passionate 8 Companionate Love two entities that exist along a continuum of passion o passionate love An intense longing for union with another person emotional exciting and intense Eliciting positive if it is reciprocated and negative affect unrequited o twofactor theory of emotion Schachter and Singer Every set of emotions shares the same physiological response refuting William Jame s theory that they have different physiological responses Seeing a big man with a bloody knife Nervous enlarged pupils butterflies weak knees See the perfect person Nervous increased heart rate etc same physical responses Emotions are about the mind and the body Emotion arousal label What will happen if you can artificially increase my arousal o I am with the man of my dreams I label the arousal as loveif my arousal goes up even higher label it as more love excitation transfer theory 8 misattribution of arousal If we can amplify the arousal you experience the emotion you are experiencing will be amplified itself Says that un decayed arousal from a previous unrelated stimulus should produce an over intense response to a second stimulus Event A Causes Arousal Event B Causes Arousal Any leftover arousal from event A will transfer and add to the arousal of event B amplifying the emotion There can t be a lot of time between A and B and you are aware event A caused arousal You can t misattribute the arousal is all because of event B Dutton 8 Aaron 1974 Anxiety National park with a river that runs through it At one point along that river there is a deep gorge that drops down about 220 feet There is a suspension bridge that you can cross the gorge Made of rope and boards The hand rail is a little bit lower than the average arm length As you start to cross the bridge you begin to sway the farther you get out there the more it sways An attractive female confederate meets in the middle wants to give them a survey She gives him her home phone number if he has any questions The male crosses the bridge and is met by Dutton amp Aaron and he is asked to answer to TAT cards line drawings of social interactions between people that are ambiguous Farther down the stream is a concrete bridge same arrangement happens with female 0 Compared males from suspension bridge and concrete bridge 0 Suspension bridge Women more attractive and significantly more likely to call her More sexual content in TAT cards Dermer 8 Pyszcynski 1978 erotica Recruit male subjects already in a romantic relationship Have them respond to a Rubin s Love amp Liking scale They are given one of two things to read 1 National Geographic 2 Diary written from a college student about her sexual experiments 0 When they are done reading the passages they take the Rubin s Love and Liking scale again 0 The diary group has a higher love score after taking the test White Fishbein 8 Rutstein 1981 quotexercisequot You first meet a female confederate and have about a 5 minute conversation She is one oftwo she has been pre rated to be relatively un attractive the other has been rated to be attractive They get out a bicycle and peddle for 15 seconds does nothing or 3 minutes increases your nervous system When they are done riding they are asked a series of questions about the woman they met earlier Would you like to go on a date Would you like to get to know her more Would you like to kiss her o If he met the attractive woman he is much more attracted to her riding the bike for 3 min than 15 seconds o If he met the unattractive women the opposite effect happens 15 seconds aren t crazy about her the guys who peddle for 3 minutes dislike her even more 0 Works for both negative and positive feelings I Lesson learned from studies different sources of arousal negative positive and neutral result in the same thing 0 Companionate love Affection we feel for people with whom our lives are deeply intertwined Much less intense than passionate love 0 Respect o Admiration 0 Trust Passionate Companionate Emotionally Intense Very Low Sexuality Intense Frequent but less intense Stability VulnerableFragile Very stable Interpersonal Attraction 0 spatial influences o proximity Geographical closeness 0 functional proximity Geographical closeness that gives you the opportunity to interact with another person 0 Allows individuals to 1 Explore similarities 2 Sense one another s liking 3 Perceive selves as a social unit 0 Mere exposure In and of itselfto cause attraction unless you dislike the person to begin with 0 Environmental spoiling repeated exposure to a person you initially dislike will result in an even more disliking Personal space Invisible set of boundaries determines who we let get 0 how close 0 Intimate distance Only those people we are intimate with to 18 inch o On the bus when someone presses right up against you you get aroused 0 Men amp urinals numbered 1 23 0 Real person in 3 confederate comes to number 2 I Arousal is manifested in the time it takes to zipper and pee I Also measured how long it lasts 0 Compares to confederate going to 1 and not 2 0 When someone invades the private space there is physiological arousal o If you like themfind them attractive it adds to attraction o If you don t like themfind them attractive you will like them less 0 Personal distance 18 inch to 4 feet People we know really well not our lovers 0 Social Distance 4 feet to 8 feet People who you don t know and you aren t intimate with but you have some sort of interaction 0 Public Distance 20 25 feet People who by occupationstatus deserve some space between us and them Physical attractiveness mostly applies to initial stages in the relationship A better predictor of dating success than any other dating attribute Why 0 Aesthetic appeal We like to look at things that are physically appealing There is individuality in determining who is attractive Aesthetic appeal is not consistent over time or cultures 0 whatisbeautifulisgood stereotype Thousands of photographs to femalesmales of people who are attractiveunattractive and were asked to make judgments about them The assumption that physically attractive people also possess other socially desirable characteristics Sometimes called the positive halo effect Physically attractive people are more kind O outgoing make for more exciting dates are more interesting more sensitive People also make assumptions about their future they are probably going to enjoy a more satisfying career get married and acquire prestige more likely to experience success Attractive people do experience less anxiety Attractive people are less lonely Attractive people do tend to be more sexually experienced and do tend to be more popular Social skills Attractive people are more socially skilled They have had a greater number of opportunities to interact with other people Social profit The rule of assimilation if a moderately attractive person is seen with a very attractive person other people will see them as more attractive as they really are Opposite sex dyads only males benefit A moderately attractive female with an extremely attractive male will not appear more attractive o similarity O 0 physical attractiveness similarity People tend to seek people who are like us in terms of physical attractiveness called the quotMatching Hypothesis Rule of homogamy The most appealing people are people who are like us Attitude similarity One ofthe most important because there is less conflict Provides consensual validation if you are in a group with 10 people and the other 9 people in the group disagree with you you are more likely to change your views We like to be with someone who thinks like us and agrees with us it validates our believe system Demographic similarity Socioeconomic status education level religion age race o Dorm Room Study You are most likely to form a friendship with roommate then people on your floor But also people who are demographically close to you 0 Complementarity each person in the dyad brings something to the table that the other person didn t have quotThere must be fifty ways to leave your lover Conflict 8 Dissolution 0 Responses interactions between two dimensions 0 Active vs Passive o Constructive vs destructive 0 Exit active destructive Leaving fighting and breaking up quotLet s just be friends 0 Neglect passive destructive Cheating 0 Voice active constructive you realize there are problems and you are going to try and improve I Marriage counselor o Loyalty passive constructive quotIf I just wait things will get better 0 Predictors of responses predicted by social exchange theory 0 Prior satisfaction with this relationship up until this point how was the relationship going 0 Investments How much have I invested into this relationship I A lot of investment constructive response probably an active I Do not have a lot destructive response 0 CL comparison levels Average outcome of all previous relationships I High CL destructive I Low CL constructive o CLaltsComparison levels for alternatives What you think the average of future relationships will be I Lower alternative constructive I High alternative deconstructive o post dissolution