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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kole Corwin on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY at Indiana University taught by Scott Thompson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/233463/psy-indiana-university in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
PERSONAL INFLUENCES Personal Influences Why do we help Interpersonal Influences Who do we help Situational influences When do we help Evolutionary Perspective Being helped by other people increases our own genetic survival What happens when WE help someone else Does that enhance our genetic survival 0 Sometimes helping someone involves putting ourselves in danger putting ourselves at risk genetic survival goes down kin selection 0 Explains why we help people that we are related to it does not explain why we help strangers reciprocal helping o help you you help me back biological golden rule 0 Lions dolphins etc all care for abandoned infancies that are not genetically related to them because there is an expectation that that behavior will be reciprocated eventually o Tend to explain helping at group levels not at individual levels doesn t explain why there s individual variability in helping hehavior Individual Differences o Is there such thing as a person with an altruistic personality who helps people for no reason 0 Altruistic personality 0 More emotional o More empathic 0 Higher self esteem 0 Higher self efficacy o No support for altruistic personality Motives 0 Helping out an AIDS clinic Omoto amp Snyder 1995 0 Understanding I You gain knowledge about AIDS people working with AIDS etc I By helping you re learning something 0 Personal development I At the AIDS clinic you get to meet different kinds of people you learn how to interact with these people etc o Ego defense I May help you to deal with your own anxieties and fears about AIDS 0 Esteem enhancement I By helping other people it makes you feel better about yourself 0 Value expression I You volunteer to help at the AIDS clinic because it s your humanitarian obligation It s just the right thing to do altruistic o Egoistic Theory that helping behavior is egoistically motivated o If you have this you are motivated by self gratification and a desire to enhance your own welfare 0 Seeking rewards could be friendships notoriety congratulations doesn t have to be material 0 If you didn t help you d feel guilty 0 Altruistic o If you are this you are motivated by an unselfish desire to enhance other people s welfare 0 Models 0 Empathy altruism hypothesis In order to be altruistic helping you need empathic concern and implicitly the ability to engage in perspective taking I Batson says True altruism arises out of empathy I He defines empathy as feelings that are congruent with the feelings and perceived welfare of the other person the person in need of help I Two components to this hypothesis to empathy Emotional component personal distress amp empathic concern 1 a Personal distress Egoistic Self oriented response you see this person in need of help you experience personal distress you feel alarmed and troubled Empathetic concern Altruistic Other oriented response it s how it makes you feel about this other person you feel compassion and sympathy Cognitive component perspective taking Perspective taking Your ability to perceive the world through this other person s eyes This cognitive component is what allows you to emotionally experience empathic concern You must have perspective taking you need to know what it feels like to be that person Empirical Support Do help or do not help Independent variables Difficulty of Escape amp Empathic Concern i High empathic concern and low empathic concern 1 If you are low empathic concern 9 you will escape and not help Elaine makes mistakes and gets shocked After about 5 minutes she breaks down and starts crying Experimenter stops and Elaine tells a story how she was thrown from a horse as a child and pinned against an electric fence The experimenter turns to you and asks if you will take Elaine s place 0 High empathic concern are significantly more likely to help Elaine o In the beginning of the experiment you are told you can get up and leave at any time without punishment Low Empathy High Empathy Difficult Escape 64 82 Easy Escape 18 91 2 Negative state relief model Cialdini What are people s motives for helping a Argues that all help is egoistically motivated i Our motive to help is to reduce our negative affect b Separate sadness from empathic concern c Empirical Support Replicates study with Elaine i Measures Empathic Concern Hi Lo Sadness Hi Lo Helping Hi Lo d After the subject hears Elaine and before the subject has the opportunity to help he measures negative affect The quotPanasquot measures both positive and negative affect e Mood Enhancement control Before subjects have a chance to reply he will negate their negative affect He turns around and gives me a quot20 bill my negative affect goes down Empathic Concern Hi Lo Sadness Lo Lo Helping Lo Lo Both models Baxtin and Childiny agree that if you see someone in need of help you will experience negative affect personal distress People with higher empathic concern will experience more negative affect They both agree that helping someone will ultimately result in a decrease in the negative affect They disagree about is what s your motive Are you motivated to help because of your empathic concern or simply to reduce your own negative affect There is empirical support for both Social norms There are rules that tell us when we should help They are general rules of conduct about what is and what is not acceptable behavior 0 Moral Values 0 Norm of social responsibility We should help people who are dependent on us We should help people who are not capable of helping themselves People who benefit Children Elderly Physicallymentally ill Students 0 Norm ofjustice I should help people who deserve my help We should help people who are good people that have had bad stuff happen to them They are in need of help because of an unfortunate circumstance People who benefit War benefits victims of natural disaster 0 Fairness 0 Norm of reciprocity We should help people who help us or we have an expectation that they will help us in the future A group of people who are exempt those that are in the norm of social responsibility 0 Norm of equity The people who are relatively over benefitted in life should help the people who are relatively under benefitted in life The rich should help the poor INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCES Whom o attributions about person in need of help 0 Do you help someone lying in the ground in front of Kilroy s o If you make a personal or dispositional attribution you are less likely to help the person 0 If you make a situational attribution you are saying it s not their fault and they deserve our help 0 relationship between giver amp receiver Gender Men are more likely to help if I Person in need of help is a woman I Other people are there to observe I There is an element of danger SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES When 0 Effects of time constraints Batson amp Dorley Recruited Seminary students Asked to prepare a 5 minute talk parable of the good Samaritan or your favorite activities and hobbies of seminary students You have to get there on time you have some extra time we are running a few minutes behind On their way over they pass a building with an elderly man who is slumped over and isn t conscious Will the seminary students stop Attempts at priming don t seem to matter quotAhead of schedule 63 quotOn time 45 helped quotFew minutes behind only 10 helped 0 physical place Stimulus Overload People who live in places like New York build a protective psychological armor and tune everything out WHEN WE DON T HELP Latane 8 Darley o Bystander effect The more people that are watching someone in need of help the less likely that any one of them will step forward and help 0 Decision making process Cognitive steps people go through Notice the event You have to recognize that something is out of the ordinary Interpret as an emergency Requires your immediate action and intervention Assume Responsibility Decide to help Make a conscious decision to help Do I think I can rescue this person Act Execute from cognitive processing to behavior quotshort circuits in decision process Social Influence We look to other people to see how they re act If no one else seems to be alarmed we conclude that it s not an actual emergency Pluralistic ignorance Diffusion of Responsibility Cannot occur if you are the only person Audienceinhibition Concern for how other people will judge and evaluate us Because of that concern we might be a little bit inhibited about following through with the behavior Video of college student taking survey in an experiment Smoke comes out of door next to him What does he do when smoke comes out of door 75 reported smoke when tested alone 38 reported smoke when tested with 3 other students